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[With Eight Plates, and Thirty Figures in the Text.] 

Assisted by ARTHUR M. LEA, F.E.S. 

[Each Author is responsible for the soundness of the opinions given, and 
for the accuracy of the statements made in his paper.] 


Adelaide : 



DECEMBER 24, 1931. 

Peinted by Gillingham & Co. Limited, 106 and 103, Currie Street, 
Adelaide, Sooth Australia. 

Parcels for transmission to the Royal Society of South Australia from the United States 
of America can be forwarded through the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 






[With Eight Plates, and Thirty Figures in the Text.] 

Assisted by ARTHUR M. LEA, F.E.S. 

[Each Author is responsible for the soundness of the opinions given, and 
for the accuracy of the statements made in his paper.] 





DECEMBER 24, 1931. 

Printed by Gillingham & Co. Limited, 106 a.vd 108, Currie Street, 
Adelaide, South Australia. 

Parcels for transmission to the Royal Society of South Australia from the United States 
of America can be forwarded through the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 



Patron : 


V.C., K.C.M.G, C.B., D.S.O. 

OFFICERS FOR 1931-32. 

President : 




Hon. Editor: 


Hon. Treasurer 

Hon. Secretary: 


Members of Council: 



C. T. MADIGAN, M.A., B.Sc. 




Hon. Auditors: 





Chewings, Dr. C. : Delineation of the Pre- Cambrian Plateau in Central and North 
Australia, with Notes on the Impingent Sedimentary Formations. With Map 

Adelaide University Field Anthropology, Central Australia — 

Fry, Dr. H. K, : No. 8. — A Table showing the Class Relations of the Aranda 
Fry. Dr. H. K. : No. 9. — On the Class System, Kinship Terminology, and Marriage 
Regulations of the Australian Native Tribes 

Best, E. W. : The Anatomy of an Australian Leech, Hclobdella bancrofti 

TiNDALE, N. B.: Geological Notes on the Iliaura Country North-east of the MacDonnell 
Range, Central Australia 

Lea, A. M. : Notes on some Miscellaneous Coleoptera, with Descriptions of New Species 
Part viii. 

Prescott, Prof. J. A.: Atmospheric Saturation Deficit in Australia . 

Finlayson, H. H. : On Mammals from the Dawson Valley, Queensland. Part I 
Plates i.-iii. 

Murray, B. J. : A Study of the Vegetation of the Lake Torrens Plateau, South Aus 
tralia. Communicated by J. G. Wood, M.Sc. Plate iv. 

Howchin, Prof. W. : The Dead Rivers of South Australia. Part I, The Western 
Group. Plate v. 

Black, J. M. : Additions to the Flora of South Australia. No. 29. Plate vi, 

Rogers, Dr. R. S. : Pollination of Caladcuia deformis, R. Br. 

Woods, N. H. : Pclecypoda from the Abattoirs Bore, including twelve New Species 
Plates vii. and viii. . . 

Cleland, Prof. J. B. : Australian Fungi. Notes and Descriptions. No. 8 . . 

Finlayson, H. H. : Notes on some South and Central Australian Mammals. Part 2 

Alderman, A. R. : Petrographic Notes on some Basic Rocks from the Mount Barker and 
Woodside Districts 

Abstract of Proceedings 

Annual Report 

Obituary Notice 

Sir Joseph Verco Medal 

Balance Sheets 

Endowment and Scientific Research Fund 

Donations to Library 

List of Fellows 

Past and Present Officers of the Society 

Suggestions for the Guidance of Authors 

Rules, as Amended, 1931 















The Royal Society of South Australia (Incorporated) 




By Charles Chewings, Ph.D., F.G.S. 

[Read April 9, 1931.] 

With Map. 


On a former occasion the writer made reference to the Pre-Cambrian rocks 
of Central Australia, and the sediments thereon. (1) He now proposes to supple- 
ment those observations with a plan of the area, showing the actual contact of the 
Pre-Cambrians with any of the well-established sedimentaries, where known, and 
the "approximate" margins where the boundaries are still undefined. Many years 
must elapse before the true boundaries, in places, can be laid down. By reference 
to the map, it will be apparent that the area under consideration, and which con- 
tains some 85,000 square miles, forms the main central "boss," "shield" or 
plateau, or high-level region of the continent. All the major watercourses take 
their rise upon it. On the western and northern sides of the plateau the "fall" is 
sometimes not readily apparent from the short creeks, because any flood-waters 
are immediately swallowed up in the ubiquitous sea of sand, but the few baro- 
metrical readings available, which are on the map, will give some idea of the 
inclines and declines, and the heights above sea level. The height of the hills above 
the general level of the country is not given, but it may be mentioned that only 
a few mountains in Central Australia exceed two thousand feet above the surround- 
ing plains. The elevation of the plateau is not great either, the highest portion, 
viz., between Central Mount Wedge and Bald Hill, averages only about two 
thousand feet above sea level. 

As pointed out in the paper above referred to, the heart, or central core of 
the original McDonnell Range ran east-west along, or very near to, the 23° S.L. 
From where the Hay River turns south (on the east) to Mount Udor (on the 
west) is still the main north-south water-parting — a stretch of over four hundred 
miles. One off-shoot from the main chain of mountains ran north-west in the 
direction of Tanami, and another ran north-westerly to beyond Tennant Creek. 
Between the extremities of these two lines lies the "Lander Depression/' of which 
interesting feature a full description will be found in the Geographical Journal, 
October number, 1930, pp. 316-338. Vide also, op. cit., p. 80. 

C 1 ) Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. Hi., 1928, pp. 68-76. 


Some of the rock-formations that impinge upon, even if they do not actually 
contact with, the Pre-Cambrians of the plateau are both interesting and important 
in the geological record — the unravelling of which record is the principal object 
of this thesis. On the south margin, as is now well known to some, there runs an 
east-west series of sedimentary formations, all compressed together and uptilted 
in such a way that even skilled observers have regarded the whole as belonging 
to one system. By degrees the several formations are being made out, the 
latest contribution to the subject being a paper by Messrs. Mawson and Madigan, 
entitled the Pre-Ordovician Rocks of the McDonnell Ranges. < 2) This paper deals 
with the "inside" system — the one that contacts with the Pre-Cambrians. The 
authors contend that between the Ordovician beds and the Pre-Cambrian rocks 
there runs a great series of quartzites, slates, and limestones, that are "older" than, 
and unconformable to, the Ordovician Series. The writer welcomes this support 
to his own reading/ a) The lowest beds of their Pre-Ordovician Series are 
quartzites, and it is these that, dipping steep to the south, contact with the Pre- 
Cambrians over a stretch of two hundred miles, almost continuously. The con- 
tacting quartzite is overlain by limestones containing Cryptozoon and other fossils, 
of probably Cambrian age. This formation is succeeded at the Finke (River) 
Gorge, and elsewhere, by fossiliferous quartzite and limestone beds of Ordovician 
age. These, in turn, are overlain by the remarkable Post-Ordovician conglomeratic 
sandstone series, which contain "derived" Ordovician fossils — the three forma- 
tions, placed as they are, are a very interesting study, and the person who can 
determine the age of the conglomerate beds will assist the geological record greatly. 

As Messrs. Mawson and Madigan's paper was presented in London, it may 
be of interest here to observe that they therein suggest aboriginal names for the 
more important groups. The writer considers the suggestion a useful and happy 
one, but would slightly alter the spelling of some of the names suggested by them 
to the following, and also add No. 4 to the list: — 
1. Arunta Complex = the Pre-Cambrians. 

2a. Pertaknurra Series = the inner (lower) quartzites, slates, and limestones (7,500 feet 
thick) = Pre-Ordovician or Cambrian (?). 

2b. Pertaoorta Series = quartzites, slates, limestones (2,850 feet thick) ss Pre-Ordovician 
or Cambrian ( ? ) . 

3. Pcrtakooka = Larapintine in part of Tate and Watt =Ordovician. 

4. Pertnjara =, the Post-Ordovician Conglomeratic-Sandstone Formation. 

Note. — 1. — the name of the local tribe; 2a. = the big range; 2b. — limestone; 3. = small 
range ; 4. r% many stones (range) . 

At the head of the Finke and westward to where the ranges fall off, the 
northern, and higher, portion — which is known on the spot as the McDonnell 
Ranges — embraces, in a general way, Nos. 1 and 2a; and the "South" McDonnell, 
Nos. 2b, 3 and 4. Where the South McDonnell ends, viz., a short distance west 
of Mount Tate, the Cambrians have either been completely eroded, or faulted out 
of sight, but south of Mount Tate the Ordovician sandstones of Gardiner's Range, 
with thin bands of fossiliferous limestone interlarded, still run on westward, in 
the form of an anticlinal fold. The strike of the anticline is a few degrees north 
of west, in which direction it becomes covered with sand, but soon rises again 
and forms the Cleland Hills and other sandstone ridges farther on in the same 
direction. Lithologically these Ordovician sandstones bear little or no resemblance 
to the Cambrians, and are far less disturbed than the older series. These latter 
being absent along that portion of the line lying north of Mount Winter and 

( 2 ) Abstr. Proc. Geo. Soc. of London, No. 1,209, 1930, p. 56. 

( 3 ) Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. Hi., 1928, pp. 63-68 and 76-78. 

Thomas Reservoir, and south of the Ehrenberg Ranges, doubtless the contact is 
with Ordovician rocks, and apparently identical conditions continue around to the 
west of Mounts Lyell Brown, and Cockburn. 

One may here remark that the McDonnell Ranges, as a bold feature, ends in 
the prominent peak of Mount Liebig, but the Pre-Cambrians extend far to the 
west of that mount, to beyond the Ehrenberg Ranges ; and they apparently extend 
westward an equal distance in the western end of the Treuer Range. As far north 
as the 22°, or perhaps even to the 21° S.L., the writer thinks Ordovician rocks 
may form the contact with the Cambrians, but wind-blown sand appears to cover 
everything along that stretch. From Treuer Range the elevation decreases, going 
north. Somewhere hereabout two other rock formations seem likely to put in an 
appearance, for they are in evidence farther north, and also farther west. One 
will be referred to hereafter as "Winnecke Creek Tableland Formation'* (which 
is of Permo-Carboniferous age). The other is Devonian. The former, accord- 
ing to W. H. B, Talbot/ 4) who mapped the area, extends from Gardiner's Range, 
and Tanami, to Hall's Creek, and from there south-westerly along the Carming 
Track to 23° S.L. Over the whole of that area this formation appears to have 
suffered much from erosion, but very little from earth movements, since it was 
laid down. With the exception of island-like areas more elevated than that ori 
which it occurs, the formation apparently covered the whole area between Treuer 
Range and Derby. -This fact, coupled with another, viz., that so far as is at 
present known it was the last formation to be deposited on the ndrth and Inorth- 
western slopes of the plateau, renders it of great interest. The strata are composed 
of conglomerate, grit, shale, and sandstone, often highly ferruginous, and coloured 
chocolate brown on exposed faces. No limestone beds were observed in the strata 
along the Canning Track. A considerable extension of this formation, in an east- 
ward direction from Tanami, beyond Talbot's boundaries will be referred to later 
on. In the Tanami (Gardiner's Range) district, both Permo-Carboniferous and 
Devonian appear to contact with the Pre-Cambrian. 

Along the Canning Track, where the Permo-Carboniferous formation ends, 
vig tJ near the No. 26 well (which lies a little north of 23° S.L*), rocks of Devonian 
age occur, and the area between No. 26 well and 25°-30° S.L. Talbot has mapped 
as Devonian — with the eastern boundary of that formation still undefined. The 
strata are there composed of sandstones, quartzites, shales, grits and conglomerates. 
Exposures, all over the area seen by Talbot, showed that the formation (unlike 
the Permo-Carboniferous beds) had undergone considerable disturbance, as well 
as vast erosion. The dips varied greatly, up to 65°. The strike varied greatly also. 
Faults also were numerous in the formation which, in that district, reposes on 
granite and metamorphic rocks. 

Judging from Talbot's determinations, it seems probable that Devonian rocks 
at one time occupied the area between No. 26 well and Hall's Creek, and eastward 
to Tanami, and probably far beyond that. The Albert Edward Rainge (near Flora 
Valley Station), in the Kimberley District, is composed of rocks of Devonian age. 
In that range, according to Talbot, the Devonians repose on metamorphic rocks and, 
in turn, are overlain by the Permo-Carboniferous formation. Gardiner's Range 
is situated north-west of, and is near to, Tanami. Talbot recognised it as of 
Devonian age, and mapped it as such, with Permo-Carboniferous rocks overlying 
to the west and north. He refrained from expressing an opinion on, or even colour- 
ing, any part over the border, i.e., in the Northern Territory, but Mr. H. Y. L. 
Brown's description and map (5) show the Permo-Carboniferous formation to 

< 4 > W.A. Geolog. Survey. Bulletin, No. 39. 

C 5 ) H. Y. L. Brown, Tanami Gold Country. Parity, Paper, Adelaide, 1909, p. 7, et seq. 

extend north-easterly to near the Mucka Outstation, on the Victoria River. Mr. 
Brown, however, did not separate the Devonian from the Carboniferous, and 
referred to the two as "sandstone, grit, quartzite, and conglomerate of the table- 
hills and tablelands," and as "Primary rocks." Mr. Allan Davidson, the discoverer 
of Tanami, also mapped the two formations as one, and set the age down as 
"Secondary." < 6) He shows the formation, which he maps as Secondary, and 
Talbot as Carboniferous, to extend eastward to the Buchanan Hills but, strange to 
say! he did not colour the Winnecke Creek exposures at all, although he walked 
over many scores of miles of the formation (Permo-Carboniferous). It is to Talbot 
we owe the discovery that both Devonian and Permo-Carboniferous rocks contact 
with the Pre-Cambrians in the Tanami sector ; the latter only, of course, where 
the former had been completely eroded away prior to the deposition of the latter. 

Some Remarkable Devonian (?) Remnants. 

And here it seems opportune to mention that, originally the Devonian forma- 
tion assumed a greater elevation around the great Central Plateau than ever the 
Permo-Carboniferous did and, consequently, ascended the slopes much farther. 
Great erosion had taken place over the plateau prior to the laying down of the 
Devonian formation, and, of course, all other sedimentaries had been removed 
from areas where it reposes on the Pre-Cambrians. From Davidson's descriptions 
one cannot doubt that the Pre-Cambrians were covered prior to the Devonian 
epoch by still older sedimentaries all the way between Tanami and Barrow Creek, 
along the line he returned by to the telegraph line. Although the principal 
orographical disturbances may have gone by — and probably they had — it is, never- 
theless, certain that the Devonian formation was in existence during the latter 
stages of the mountain-building period, for everywhere the remnants show 
unmistakable evidence of, if only slight, uplifting and disturbance. Talbot 
observed one case where quartz reefs were present in the bedding planes. This 
was on a partially-eroded anticlinal arch — but, taken as a whole, the Devonian 
rocks appear to show little, or none, of the ordinary metamorphic characteristics 
of the oldest sedimentaries ; at any rate around the Central Plateau. The formation 
is seen to be greatly eroded, except in protected areas, or where the component 
rock happened to be of exceptionally durable character, or where protected by a 
durable covering. Over large tracts of country the formation, notwithstanding its 
original massive character, is now represented only by remnants. 

The following allocations must be taken as "suggestive" only in an effort to 
"place" the age of certain well-known remnants occurring in Central Australia. 
First: The writer suggests that the Post-Ordovician Conglomeratic-sandstone 
formation, of the Finke River/") may be of Devonian age. Second: Judging 
from John McDouall Stuart's description, Mounts Denison, Leichardt, and Barkly, 
of the Lander Creek, < 8) may be Devonian. Third: Mounts Palmer, Crawford, 
Peculiar, and Udor, < 9) at the western end of the McDonnell Ranges, may be of 
Devonian age. Foiwth: Ayer's Rock, Mt. Olga, and Mt. Currie, in the Lake 
Amadeus Valley. As these three very remarkable remnants have been regarded 
by some geologists as belonging to some far older rock-formation than the 
Devonian, it may be advisable to examine the evidence we have to ascertain 
whether such opinions were justified. To this end, and to make my reasons more 
easily understood, it seems requisite to postulate that : Two long lines of granitic 
rocks formed the main orographical features of Central Australia in Early 
Palaeozoic times. Remnants show that the two lines — they were then high moun- 
tain ranges — maintained a rough parallelism to one another. The two lines of 

(°) Allan Davidson, Explorations in Central Australia. Parity. Paper, Adelaide, No. 27, 

C 7 >, ( 8 ), and < 9 ) Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. lii., 1928, pp.: ( 7 ) 76-77, ( s ) 80-81, ( fi ) 78-79. 

ranges were separated by a low-lying tract of country, 150 miles across. Both lines 
ran east-west in the eastern half of their courses, and west-north-west in their 
western halves. We will call the northern line "The McDonnell Line/' and the 
southern one "The Musgrave-Petermann Line." The earliest sedimentation we 
have to do with, in this connection, is the one that now is represented by the 
quartzite cappings of many of the northernmost granite and gneiss hills of the 
Musgrave-Petermann line. These latter lie south of, but apparently do not 
approach, the line of conglomerates nearer than 20, or more, miles. As the 
quartzites dip north, and as the conglomerates stand well out in the Lake Amadeus 
Valley, the ground on which the conglomerate beds repose, and the intervening 
space between them and the quartzite cappings, almost for a certainty, is occupied 
by the up-turned edges of strata that originally formed the flanking beds of the 
range — in the way the South-McDonnell sedimentaries do today; the dips of the 
said strata increasing in the underlying beds as they approach the site of the old, 
but long since denuded, range. (It will be shown later on that the quartzite beds 
do actually underlie the conglomerate, but exposures are rare in that sandy 
region. ) 

Similar quartzite beds overlie, and contact with, the Pre-Cambrians in the 
McDonnell line. The formation to which they — the quartzite beds — as represented 
by the cappings — in the Musgrave line belong is covered by younger sedimen- 
taries, or sand all the way to the McDonnell — 150 miles. Ordovician strata are very 
much in evidence over the stretch between the two lines, as the following will 
show. First we have the Gardiner's Range anticline that lies near to, and south of, 
the McDonnell. This anticline is fossiliferous. The next (omitting the short 
anticline near Temple Downs old station) is George Gill's Range anticline. This 
also contains Ordovician fossils. Then follow on sundry outcrops of, litho- 
logically, identical rocks that occur sporadically in the sandy country between 
George Gill's Range and Lake Amadeus. These show that the folds follow on, 
but decrease in intensity the farther away they get from the ranges. Between 
Lake Amadeus and the conglomerate beds no outcrops have been noted above the 
sand, but on the conglomerate line, viz., to the east of Mt. Olga, there is an outcrop 
of quartzite that dips north at 55°, and strikes south 75° west. The strata-dip 
here is to the north, and fairly steep, which indicates that the quartzite strata 
belong to one of the formations that flanked the Musgrave-Petermann line of 
ranges. Mr. Frank George, in referring to the quartzite outcrops and cappings 
seen by him in the Mt. Olga area, states: (10 > "It again occurs east from the 
Mt. Olga group of hills, where it has a thickness of about 300 feet, strikes south 
75° west, and dips north at an angle of 55°, and appears to be overlain bv the 
Mount Olga boulder conglomerate beds, but the line of contact between the two 
formations being covered with sand their relative positions cannot be definitely 
ascertained. The conglomerate contains boulders of similar quartzite. Mount 
Connor, an isolated flat-topped hill to the eastward, is capped by similar quartzite 
having a thickness of over 300 feet. Mount Olga Range consists of about thirty 
immense dome-like masses of boulder and pebble conglomerate. The contained 
boulders are w T aterworn and smooth, and with the exception of a little quartzite 
consist wholly of granite and eruptive rocks, the boulders varying in size from 
2' x V x 6" down to pebbles the size of peas. A rough semblance to stratification 
is observable in this conglomerate bed; the layers of boulders lie in parallel planes, 
having a dip westward of from 10° to 15°." 

In the Journal of the Horn Scientific Exploration to Central Australia (11) 
there is a good photograph of some of the hills in the Mt. Olga Range, which 

< 10 ) Wells and George, Prospecting Operations. Parity. Paper, Adelaide, No 54 1904 
pp. 6-7. 

< n ) Horn Expedition. Parity. Paper, Adelaide, No. 19, 1896, p, 28 


shows the bedding planes very clearly and, as stated by Mr. George, are nearly 
horizontal. It follows therefrom that the conglomerate beds repose unconform- 
able upon a sedimentary formation of greater age, J. A. Watt, a geologist in the 
Horn Expedition (op. cit.) remarks: "Mt. Olga appears to be composed of a 
coarse conglomerate from top to bottom, which consists, for the most part, of 
pebbles of granite and other eruptive rocks (vide also No. 1 reference, p. 8, for a 
list of some of the rocks)." W. R. Murray * t! ® measured the height of Mt. Olga, 
viz., 1,420 feet above the plain, and states that "some of the pebbles would weigh 
several hundredweight," and that "the summit appears to be quite inaccessible." 
Of Mt. Currie he states: "The formation is the same conglomerate as Mt. Olga." 
The Mt. Currie Range is not so high as the Mt. Olga ; it lies a few miles to the 
north-west of the latter, and is a remnant of the same conglomerate formation. 

Before quitting this conglomerate formation — the outcrops of which occur 
at intervals, in lineal arrangement, for 50 or 60 miles— some reference to Ayer's 
Rock must be made. It lies 15 miles east of Mt. Olga. Watt states (op. cit.) 
that : "Ayer's Rock is very indurated, and to some extent, altered ctirkose sandstone, 
decidedly gritty in parts." "The original sedimentary character of it is unmistak- 
able." Smooth, rounded pebbles of quartz and felspar are visible in hand specimens. 
It has been to some extent altered by metamorphic agencies. It stands about 1,100 
feet above the plain. The sides ascend, in places, quite vertically for 500 to 600 
feet. A peculiar netted appearance is to be seen in some of the faces, clue to the 
irregular weathering of the rock. A ridging is observable, which probably indicates 
the direction of foliation planes trending in a N.W. and S.E. direction." George 
states (op. cit.) : "Ayer's Rock consists of metamorphic pebble and grit con- 
glomerate. The pebbles are sub-angular, and vary in size from that of an almond 
to coarse sand.. "They consist of felspar and quartz, but chiefly felspar." 

A reproduction of a recent photograph of a portion of Ayer's Rock that 
appeared in The Register newspaper, Adelaide, of November 11, 1930, shows the 
strata in Ayer's Rock to lie near the horizontal. 

It is evident that these remnants — Ayer's Rock, Mount Olga and Mount 
Currie — represent quite a massive and important formation. The conglomerate 
evidently is the detrital matter from an elevated and vast area of plutonic rocks 
that, at the time the conglomerate beds were formed, stood thousands of feet 
higher than the top of Mount Olga. The mountainous area had, even at that 
early period, reached a stage in its denudation when the Pre-Cambrians supplied 
the greater proportion of the conglomerate, in the form of boulders of granite 
and other deep-seated rocks. It was a very old range when the conglomerate beds 
were laid down, and the end of the great earth movements was approaching. This 
is evident from the nearly horizontal disposition of the Mount Olga conglomerate 
strata; and the absence of extensive jointing, uptilting and fractures in Ayer's 
Rock points in the same direction. Much jointing and fracturing is a feature of 
all Pre-Ordovician rocks in Central Australia. The writer regards Watt's sugges- 
tion, vis., that the "ridging" which probably indicates the direction of foliation 
planes in Ayer's Rock as untenable. The disposition of the underlying sedimen- 
taries, and also the bedding planes in the Mount Olga Range and Ayer's Rock, 
nullify the possibility of horizontal pressure of such magnitude, so late in the 
day — in the tectonics record of that portion of Central Australia. It is possible 
these conglomerate beds belong to the Ordovician formation, but lithologically 
they bear no resemblance to it ; they do not antecede it in age. It bears closer 
resemblance to the Post-Ordovician formation, as seen in the South McDonnell 
Range, although in several respects the two arc not analogous. The incipient 
metamorphism, and the semi-sphaerical exfoliation habit of weathering of Ayer's 

( 12 ) R. T. Maurice, Explorations, rarity. Paper, Adelaide, 1904, pp. 30-31. 

Rock, have little bearing on the point at issue. The writer thinks the South 
McDonnell and the Mount Olga lines of conglomerate may have been formed 
under somewhat similar conditions as regards situation, climatic conditions, and 
time, which may have been Devonian time. 

But to return to the delineation of the Pre-Cambrian area: From Tanami 
the line runs south of east for many miles; and along this stretch recent sand- 
plains and sandhills completely hide from view the contacting rocks. Similar 
conditions prevail where the line turns and runs north again, to a point situated 
about twenty miles north of Tennant's Creek, where it again strikes the Winnecke 
Creek Tableland formation. This formation, which we last saw at Tanami, here 
forms the southern side of the low line of ranges, over which the telegraph line 
runs from the spot indicated to beyond Powell's Creek — 120 miles. North of 
that the range is known as "the Ashburton." The point referred to is the low hill 
the telegraph line crosses two or three miles south of the Caraman waterhole, or 
swamp. In the Caraman, or Phillip's Creek valley an older series of rocks is seen. 


Going north from the Phillip's Creek, the Winnecke Creek formation is well 
developed, and is there, as elsewhere, composed of alternating beds of shale and 
sandstone, both being ferruginous, and of chocolate-brown colour. The sand- 
stone strata are often flaggy. The beds undulate, with maximum dips of 10° 
or 15°. It should, perhaps, be stated here that the Winnecke Creek formation 
formerly formed a continuous sheet from ;near Tennant's Creek to Newcastle 
Waters, but that it now occurs only as large remnants — some of which stretch for 
several miles — but always is seen to occur as the uppermost rock formation of a 
partially-eroded tableland that extends west of the telegraph line. 

Principally through fluvial erosion into its eastern escarpment, an older and 
more highly disturbed sedimentary formation than the above is exposed in many 
of the valleys and lowlands lying between Newcastle Waters and Tennant's Creek. 
These exposures are probably the southerly extension of the rocks of the 
Ashburton Range. On the watershed, a few miles south of Attack Creek, quartz 
veins traverse these older sendimentaries. At other exposures quartz rubble 
bestrews the surface. In places the rocks are upheaved to near the vertical. The 
strike is commonly north-north-west, but varies greatly in places from that direc- 
tion. For the most part the strata of this formation, as seen along the telegraph 
line, are of quartzite and sandstone. As a suggestion only: the formation may be 
a continuation of the rocks underlying the Barkly Tablelands, in which, farther 
to the south-east, H. Y. L. Brown discovered Cambrian fossils, in limestone, from 
a well near the Alexandra Station, on the Barkly Tableland. 

Typical examples of the Winnecke Creek Tableland formation occur in 
many places on the overland telegraph line. One is, the stretch over the tableland 
between Rertner Springs and Banka Banka Station; and another, from 10 miles 
south of Attack Creek to Phillip's Creek. The "older series," before noted, m ( ay 
be seen at Banka Banka Station, Powell Creek, and at many other places. As a 
rule these latter are highly tilted, and show marked evidence of considerable dis- 
turbance. In places they enclose quartz veins. There is little lithological similarity 
between the two formations. There is, of course, a strong unconformity between 

From the telegraph line, at the point before mentioned and situated twenty 
miles north of Tennant's Creek, the Pre-Cambrian line of contact apparently is 
with the Winnecke Creek Tableland formation as it runs east, but only for a few 
miles. It then turns south around a granite area for 20 miles, and then follows a 
south-easterly course along the north-eastern side of the granites, schists, and 
metamorphic slates that are exposed on the eastern side of the Murchison Ranges, 

to 20° S.L. Along this stretch the Cambrian (?) rocks of the Barkly Tableland 
would appear to be the contacting series — as they are in the Murchison Ranges. 
There is uncertainty here, however, for over most of the distance the alluvial and 
sandy flats hide the actual contact. Still on south-easterly, the line passes near 
where Davidson discovered Cambrian fossils, in rocks that form the south-east 
extension of the Murchison and Davenport Ranges, at about 21°, 30', S.L. How 
far south-east of that point one may assume the contact to be with the Cambrians 
is difficult to say. Very little is known of the south-eastern portion of the Pre- 
Cambrian area, and less is known about the age of the contacting rocks. When 
nearing Glen Annie the Cambrians take up the running, and continue the contact 
right to starting point. Away east of Glen Annie it is possible the Ordovicians are 
in contact, for that formation is reported to be well represented there. 

Note. — Since this paper was written an interesting discovery of probably Ordovician 
fossils was made by Mr. N. B. Tindale, the Ethnologist of the Adelaide Museum. The fossils 
are in the forms of casts, in a quartzite matrix. One represents a species of Orthoceras, and 
another a species of Raphistoma. These closely resemble the Ordovician fossils of the Finke 
River region. The locality is a range of hills between the sources of the Plenty and the Sand- 
over, that lies about 100 miles north-north-east of Arltunga. The range stands on the eastern 
slope of the Pre-Cambrian Plateau. Mr. Tindale's section indicates that the fossiliferous beds 
dip at a low angle to the north-east, and the formation, of which they form a part, reposes 
unconformably upon a still older and more highly disturbed sedimentary series which contacts 
with the Pre-Cambrian schists. The discovery is important, because it shows that the Ordo- 
vician formation originally had extensive development on the eastern slopes of the plateau. 
Our previous certain knowledge of it in Central Australia was largely confined to the southern 
slope. The order of succession of the three formations apparently correspond in both localities. 
North-east of Tindale's discovery, Davidson found Cambrian Trilobites in the lower sedi- 
mentary series. 


The writer's first acquaintance with this widespread formation was when 
opening up a line of waters between Barrow Creek and Victoria River, in 1909. 
When nearing 19° S.L. the sandhill country abruptly changed to a dark chocolate- 
brown colour, with firm ground bestrewn with ironstone pebbles. First a rise and 
then a descent into a "valley of erosion" were encountered. The descent was 
abrupt into this trough-shaped depression, which ran in a north-south direction. 
It proved to be an ancient watercourse, with a level, grass-covered bottom. Ferru- 
ginous sandstone, horizontally disposed, and occurring in layers, could, with some 
difficulty, be traced along the sides of the valley, and fragments of shale bestrewed 
the surface in places, indicating the presence of shale beds as well as sandstone. 
This formation was afterwards found to extend to Winnccke Creek, and from 
there on to Victoria River, in gentle undulations all the way. The wide depression 
in which Winnecke Creek runs is a similar "trough" to the one first mentioned, but 
much larger. Both are fluvially-eroded channels of considerable antiquity. The 
Camfield River is one of the large eastern tributaries of Victoria River. From 
Winnecke Creek to the Camfield this formation is one continuous sheet, with the 
exception of a small island-like exposure, of three or four square miles in extent, 
the rocks of which are slates and limestones, highly tilted in places and much 
disturbed. Quartz pebbles bestrew the surface of this small area, which lies 
fifty miles south-east of the Wave Hill Station. 

Considerable areas of basalt are exposed in the Camfield River country. Some 
of the basalt hills there stand well above the level of the tableland formation, from 
which the latter has been eroded well back — erosion seeming to have taken hold 
of the ruptured state of the tableland formation around the volcanic necks. 

The tableland formation extends from near the Mucka Outstation, on Vic- 
toria River, to south of Buchanan Hills without a break. The most easterly of 
any isolated hills of this formation, seen by the writer in the Winnecke Creek 


district, is the solitary pinnacle— Lothario Hill— situated some 25 miles east of 
Buchanan Hills. The hills owe their preservation to an indurated capping, and 
represent the more easily erodable upper beds, of sandstone, of this formation I he 
lower beds of shale and conglomeratic sandstone being more resistant, extend over 
vast areas. Its occurrence on the overland telegraph line has already been noted. 
Notwithstanding that the writer has not travelled over all the country lying 
between Winnecke Creek and the overland telegraph line upon the formation^ he 
is quite satisfied, from its mode of occurrence in both localities, and the hthological 
similarity everywhere seen, that formerly (if not at present) the Winnecke Creek 
Tableland formation covered the area between those districts. 

Good sections of this formation may be seen at Ross Gap, and on the steeper 
sides of the Winnecke Creek valley, a few miles below that spot. At the Gap 
there is much ironstone. On either side of the creek, at the Gap are small low 
hills of ironstone, that run back from the creek a mile or two. Buchanan Hills are 
the most easterly of a number of flat-topped hills that occur in the Tanami region, 
at the head of Winnecke Creek, and around the Gardiner's Range, and, as set out 
earlier in this thesis, Talbot carries these hills and the formation well on towards 
Wiluna, in Western Australia. He regards its age as Carboniferous, i.e., Permo- 
Carboniferous, and maps it as such. The writer now extends its .area from 
Tanami to the overland telegraph line, over the country lying between 1/ ,^U , bX, 
and 19°, 30', S.L., or, in other words, between Tennant's Creek and Newcastle 

In places in the valley of the Victoria River and its tributaries a still older, 
and considerably disturbed, sedimentary rock formation occurs. It is composed of 
limestones, shales, sandstones, quartzite, etc., that may, judging from Talbot s 
descriptions of rocks of that age that occur over the Western Australian border, 
be of Devonian age. The most southerly exposures of the basalt in the Victoria 
River area, seen by the writer, extended from Mucka Outstation east to a few 
miles beyond the big south-east bend of Victoria River. In no case, notwithstand- 
ing that the tableland formation covers such extensive areas of country, did it 
appear to have had any very great vertical dimensions. The soil derived there- 
from is very poor in comparison with that from the basalt in the Victoria River 



Judging from Talbot's map and descriptions as set out in the bulletin men- 
tioned above, and also from what may be gathered from the explorer's journals 
—which, unfortunately, is very meagre— it may reasonably be inferred that the 
Devonian formation, as typified in the Gardiner's Range at Tanami, has its 
counterparts in at least some of the remnants extant on the slopes leading oft the 
plateau. A few of these remnants, as would appear to answer to the require- 
ments have already been mentioned. Should those selected, or any of them, meet 
the case, the important fact would be established that the Devonian formation was 
well represented on both the lower and higher slopes of the plateau. Such a dis- 
covery would elucidate many points now inexplicable, or, at any rate, litigious. On 
the northern slopes of the plateau such remnants are perhaps more likely to be 
found in the broad, ancient valleys of the Hanson and Lander Creeks under the 
lee of former high ranges. Mounts Barkly, Denison, and Leichardt appear to be 
located in favourable situations. The writer has experienced doubts as to which 
formation Central Mount Stuart and other hills in that neighbourhood belong, but, 
unfortunately, has never had the opportunity of verification, notwithstanding that 
he has passed through that part many times. On the southern slopes of the 
plateau lies the Post-Ordovician sandstone-conglomerate formation, before re- 
ferred to, which is situated in a "protected area," and might very well be of 
Devonian age. 


On the southern slopes erosion had already removed a large, if not the greater 
portion of the massive Post-Ordovician formation prior to the deposition of the 
next succeeding sedimentation of which we are cognisant. Over large areas and 
in different localities, these "Post-Post-Ordovician" beds, or Finke River Series 
repose on Ordovician, or rocks of still greater age. The writer has satisfied himself 
that the conglomerate beds in the Finke River Series, near Crown Point, and which 
for the most part are composed of quartzite pebbles and boulders, were largelv 
■ ,i 1Ve c Ju°TA e Pos t-°rd°vician conglomerate beds that are so well developed 
in the South McDonnell Ranges. David and Howchin regard the Fin'ke River 
beries as of Permo-Carbomferous age. It is certainly younger than the Post- 
Ordovician, for it is known to repose, unconformably, upon it. Lithologically the 
two are most unlike. The Post-Ordovician beds undulate, while the Finke River 
Series he very near the horizontal. The former, in the Finke River region attain 
a greater elevation than the latter. Originally a thousand feet or more ' 

As regards disposition (viz., lying near the horizontal) and lithological simi- 
larity (vus., sandstone overlying shale beds), the formation is similar over very 
wide areas We have the Finke River Series on the southern slopes, and the Tanami 
to overland telegraph line Permo-Carboniferous beds on the northern slopes with 
a great extension of the same formation towards Wiluna, and to Derby on the 
west coast. («> II Y. L. Brown also noted the same formation in different places 
on the north coast, all of which go to show how widespread the formation is in 

There _ appears to be no reason to doubt that the whole belongs to or 
originated m, one contemporaneous sedimentation, and from the evidence we have 
the following epitome may be deduced : — 

(a) The plateau, as an elevated tract of land, was in existence, and its present 
form and features, m a general way, had been determined before Permo- 
Carboniferous sedimentation. 

(b) Only remnants of the Post-Ordovician series remained on the plateau 
slopes during the Permo-Carboniferous sedimentation, but they show 
that the latter never reached the vertical elevation of the former bv at 
least a thousand feet. 

(c) The plateau has been a "fairly stable region" from early Permo- 
Carboniferous times to the present, and similar stable conditions appear 
to have obtained over much of the western two-thirds of the continent 
during the same time. 

(d) The Permo-Carboniferous strata that covered the higher southern slopes 
of the plateau, together with practically the whole of the area covered 
by that formation lying to the north and west of the plateau area as well 
show no indications of ever having been covered by any later marine 
sedimentation. Sub-aerial conditions appear to have persisted over the 
area througn all subsequent time. The lower beds indicate sub-aqueous 
still-water conditions during their formation, but the frequent occurrence 
of long, thm lenses of pebbles and small boulders in the middle and upper 
beds that occur on both the north and south sides of the plateau indicate 
shallow water conditions, while sub-aerial and even Arctic glacial condi- 
tio!^ obtained during the formation of the upper beds on the Finke 
1 he interleaved long lenses of haematite and limonite point to lacustrine 
conditions Heavy ironstone bands are a conspicuous feature in the 
Winnecke Creek area. 

pp. 117-132 

l7-132 atUraI Eegi ° nS ^ WA -' by E ' de C Clarke ' Jour ' Ro >-- Soc - ° f W.A., vol. xH. 


(e) The upper Permo-Carboniferous beds are extremely pourous, and it is 
they that form the intake, and the water channel, beds of the Lake Lyre 
artesian basin around its north-western rim. These porous beds are very 
favourably situated, as regards elevation, to catch the rainwaters that 
drain off the eastern and southern slopes of the plateau. I he ram that 
falls on sandy areas that cover the intake beds probably augments the 
supply also Sinking immediately into the sand it doubtless percolates to 
the intake beds. The bore at the Finke railway crossing probably indi- 
cates the horizon at which the sub-artesian supplies are standing in the 
intake beds on the Finke. In north and north-west Australia, over very 
large areas, this formation, as just stated, appears not to have been 
covered by any younger sedimentation, but off the east and south-east 
sides of the plateau the beds plunge into the Lake Eyre basin, and are 
there known to be covered in places by over 5,000 feet thick of super- 
incumbent Mesozoic and Tertiary strata. 
In ascending order, the sedimentary formations known to the writer to have 
either partially or wholly covered the plateau are as follows: — 

(1) The Pre-Cambrian Complex — the foundation rocks of Central and North 
Australia— are of, apparently, both igneous and sedimentary origin. 

(2) Cambrian^- Certain localities yield Cryptozobn, and others Agnostus, 
Microdiscus and Olenellus, trilobite fossils. 

(3) Ordovkian:— Various spp. of trilobites and other characteristic fossils 
of that age occur in many places, and over wide areas. 

(4) Post-Ordovician— Devonian ( ? J— A massive formation, reduced greatly 
by denudation, that is characterised by quite phenomenal accumulations 
of conglomerate. Only "derived" Ordovician fossils discovered to date. 

(5) Permo-Carboniferous.— -The age of this formation has been arrived at 
by tracing the extension of beds of determined age, on the north, and by 
analogy of those occurring on the south side of the plateau.^ 

Note— The Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary formations of the Lake Eyre region appear 
not to have ascended the slopes sufficiently far to leave remnants on, or impinging on the 




byH. K. Fry, B. Sc, M.B.B.S (Adel), etc 


One of the most interesting features of the Australian Aboriginal is the social organisation of the 
tribes into classes which regulate marriages. These arrangements are clear cut and precise to the 
natives, even the small children can state at once the class to which all their acquaintances belong, 
and what relation tribally they bear one to another. But when an enquiring mind is brought to bear 
on the matter, the problem soon develops into such a complicated maze that interest is apt to cool 
off in this direction and become diverted into less bewildering fields of study. 




By H. K. Fry, B.Sc, M.B.B.S. (Adel.), B.Sc., D.P.H., Dipl. Anth. (Oxon.). 

[Read May 14, 1931.] 

One of the most interesting features of the Australian Aboriginal is the social 
organisation of the tribes into classes which regulate marriages. These arrange- 
ments are clear cut and precise to the natives, even the small children can state at 
once the class to which all their acquaintances belong, and what relation tribally 
they bear one to another. But when an enquiring mind is brought to bear on the 
matter, the problem soon develops into such a complicated maze that interest is 
apt to cool off in this direction and become diverted into less bewildering fields 
of study. 

The Aranda are the type example of an eight-class nation. The Table I. 
presented here gives a compact picture of the mutual relations of these eight 
classes. It undoubtedly appears complicated at first glance, but it so happens 
that it works out on such unexpectedly simple geometrical lines, that I venture to 
think that, in helping to visualise the intricacies of the complex problem, it 
elucidates a difficult subject. 

The scheme of the table was worked out during the visit of the Adelaide 
University Anthropological Expedition to Hermansberg in August, 1929, carried 
out with the aid of a grant from the Australian National Research Council. 

The spelling of the class names is that of Strehlow. Males of the various 
classes are indicated by the class names printed in small type, females are shown 
by the names printed in large type, e.g., Pananka for the male, PANANKA fof 
the female. The names fall into alternate horizontal rows of four males and four 
females. Lines of four varieties are used, each showing a constant relation to a 
pair of male names. The thick and thin continuous lines are in relation to males of 
"A" moiety, thick and thin dotted lines to males of "B" moiety. The vertical por- 
tions of the lines represent direct male and direct female descent. The horizontal 
portions of the lines linking the vertical portions of corresponding character, indi- 
cate a marriage union, thereby linking husband and wife above as parents, and 
brother and sister below as children. For example, Panaka marries PURULA, 
and their children are Bangata and BANGATA; BANGATA is married to 
Mbitjana, and their children are NGALA and Ngala. 

The right and left margins of the table are to be considered as contiguous, 
as would be the case actually if the diagram were mounted on a vertical cylinder. 
Consequently, a line ending free on one margin is to be read as continuous with 
the free end of the corresponding line at the opposing margin. 

The bottom line is a replica of the top line. The names, of course, represent 
different individuals in a genealogical table, but are identical from a class relation 
point of view. Therefore, the table could also be mounted on a horizontal 
cylinder, and its general form is that of the surface of a solid ring. 

For working purposes the plane presentation is more simple and the diagram 
can be extended, if necessary, by repetition in all directions. 


An inspection of the table shows the males in four vertical lines, each with 
two alternating names of the same moiety. The females fall into four vertical 
lines of alternating moiety, the first and third lines containing the same four 
names, and the second and fourth the other four. In these paired lines, female 
names alternate in pairs. 

The third row shows the same actual marriage linkages as the top row ; the 
fourth the same as the second. 

The lightly drawn linear system, as a whole, is a replica of the linear system 
in heavy lines. The dotted line system is a mirror image of the continuous line 
system displaced one generation. 

The "A" and ( 'B" moiety names can be transposed without altering the form 
of the diagram. 

The table, therefore, shows the inherent regularity of form which is demanded 
of it by the nature of the problem which it is intended to illustrate. 

The table can also be drawn up in a generalised form, so that the appro- 
priate class names of any eight-class tribe can be applied to it. This is indicated 
by the lettering above the class names, where al', al", a2\ a2" represent males of 
the four subclasses of "A" moiety, bl' bl", b2', b2" males of "B" moiety, arranged 
as in the diagram according to their marriage relationships. Al', A2", A2', A2", 
Bl', Bl", B2' B2" similarly represent females of their respective moieties. 

It will now be seen that the group (al', Al', bl', Bl', a2', A2', b2\ B2')- 
is correlated with the thick line system, and the group (al", Al", bl , Bl , 
a2", A2", b2", B2") with the thin line system. There are many tribes such as 
the Southern Aranda and the Warrai which have a four-class nomenclature with 
an eight-class organisation. Each class name, therefore, covers ^ two sub- 
divisions which are stated to bear the mutual relation of "ipmunna" (1) to one 
another. These are represented by the al' and al" groups (thick and thm line, 
respectively) mentioned above. 

If the Aranda table be compared with Table II., in which the class names of 
a typical four-class tribe, the Kariera, are tabulated by a similar representation 
of marriage and descent, it will be seen that the eight-class table represents a 
quadruplication of a four-class diagram, by a duplication of class names 
(ipmunnas) and a change from a two-generation to a four-generation cycle. 
The complexity of the linkage lines of the eight-class table is due to the inter- 
change of the female ipmunnas Al' and Al", Bl' and Bl", A2' and A2", and 
B2' and B2", in the third and fourth generations as compared with the first 
and second generations. 

If the class names of a two-division tribe such as the Warrunjerri be charted 
on the same plan as above, it will be found that the pattern of the four-class 
diagram is reproduced. 

So far tribes of paternal descent only have been considered. In the case of 
tribes of two moieties or four classes, such as the Urabunna and Kamilaroi, 
respectively, in which maternal descent is the custom, the four-class diagram 
will be found to hold good if the al, Al, etc., terms be transposed so that 
the male vertical lines then show the alternation of moiety in succeeding 

No instance is known of a fully-fledged eight-class system with maternal 
descent, but the table would work out equally well for maternal descent. There 
is the interesting example of the Dieri, with two moieties only but with an 
eight-class organisation. Howitt's genealogical table of the Dieri W will be found 
to follow the pattern of the Aranda table if the al, Al terms be transposed. 


With regard to the form of the four-class table, the following more simple 
linkage would appear to give a satisfactory picture of the marriage and descent 
relationships : — ■ 










But it will be noticed that the only marriages provided for in this arrange- 
ment are those of a man's marriage with his father's sister's daughter, and a 
woman's marriage with her mother's brother's son. The converse marriages with 
mother's brother's daughter and father's sister's son are not represented. To 
provide for these the long links of the four-class diagram are necessary, and it will 
be found that this diagram in a new way represents a three dimensional form. 
Imagine a square vertical column seen from the front of one face, and let each 
vertical edge represent one of the vertical lines of the diagram. The Banaka 
BURLING marriage links will run across the front face, the BANAKA Burung 
across the back face. The marriage links Palyeri KARIMERA, and PALYERI 
Karimera, will run from before backwards on the lateral faces of the column. 
Marriage links of alternate generations are, therefore, diagrammatically on planes 
at right angles to one another. This can be shown in another way. If each line of 
the diagram be written as if seen from above, the form of the three rows will 
be as follows : — 



B2 b2 



al Bl 
First Row 

a2 A2 
Second Row 

al Bl 

Third Row 

where sides aA, bP> represent brother and sister relationship, and sides aB, bA 
that of husband and wife. 

The geometrical form of the eight-class table can now be reviewed and 
interpreted in the light of the information provided by this simpler table. 

The point of view is from above in the following representation of the suc- 
cessive rows (generations) of the more complex table. 










Bl' al" 






First Row 

Second Row 


bl' Al' 







Bl" al" 






Third Row 

Fourth Row 


If these diagrams arc compared with the four class, it will be found that 
exactly the same process is taking place, only the marriage links of the second and 
third rows join corresponding units of two squares. In the first row marriage 
lines connect units of front and back rows of individual squares. In the second 
row the lines, instead of running back along the sides of individual squares, join 
the "opposite number" of the other square, a2' links with B2" instead of B2', 
b2' with A2" instead of A2', and so on. In the third row the transverse connec- 
tions run between squares round the ring of the diagram, and in the fourth row 
the linkage is front to back in individual squares, as in the second figure of the 
four-class diagram. 

The ring structure of the diagram is readily reconstructed for the four-class 
table ; for the Aranda table a form comprising the outer and inner surfaces of a 
hollow ring would appear to be necessary. 

Turning now to the practical value of the table. Firstly, there are two 
interesting features in regard to nomenclature. In tribes with an eight-class 
organisation and a four-class nomenclature, the named classes are almost invari- 
ably those represented by the al', bl', a2', b2' positions in the table. The Mara (3) 
and Anula tribes are exceptions. Here the four named classes, when charted, 
occupy the top line of the diagram in the positions al', bl', al", bl". Otherwise 
the tabulation works out quite normally. Spencer states that the Mara represent 
an instance of direct as opposed to an ordinary indirect paternal form of descent. 
If I read the table rightly, the Mara represent an unusual form of nomenclature 
not of descent. f 

Some eight-class tribes, such as the Warramunga (4) (male descent) state that 
their classes are grouped in pairs, and the paired classes bear a mutual relation of 
mother's mother to one another. If the class names are tabulated according to the 
Aranda diagram, it will be found that these paired names fall into relative posi- 
tions, such as that of PURULA and NGALA. 

A most important service is rendered by the table in the study of relationships. 

The vertical lines of direct male and female ascent have been mentioned 
before, the male showing four groups of subclasses of constant moiety and two- 
generation cycle, the female two groups of alternating moiety in a four-generation 

For diagonal lines of symmetry the ring nature of the diagram demands a 
repetition of the plane table in all directions. 

Firstly, take any female name of "A" moiety. One generation below and 
one female place to the right will be found brother's daughter. Lay a ruler on 
the diagonal line set by these two names, and the diagonal will be found to traverse 
a series of female names representing the relationships: father's father's sister, 
father's sister, self, brother's daughter, brother's son's daughter. This series 
represents a complete circuit of the ring, and therefore is capable of extension 
ad infinitum. 

From the woman's brother's point of view the same series of relations is 
expressed by the same line, except that the names are altered to father's father's 
sister, father's sister, sister, daughter, and son's daughter. The relationship of 
wife is one generation directly above that of daughter, and one female place right 
of sister in the same generation. 

An exactly similar series will be found for "B" moiety males and females, 
only in this case the diagonal extends from above downwards to the left. 

( . fSince this paper was written, I find that Brown has made this same deduction 
'Oceania," vol. i., 1930, p. 40. 




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The relationship series mother's mother's brother, mother's brother, brother, 
son, and daughter's son, from a female standpoint, will be found to lie on a 
diagonal swinging down and right for subclasses AT, At", £2' B2", down and 
left for subclasses A2', A2", Bl', Bl"; Husband relationship keeps step one 
generation above that of son, and one male place right or left of brother. This 
line indicates the series mother's mother's brother, mother's brother, self, sister's 
son, sister's daughter's son, from the male point of view. 

On these diagonal Tines of relationship, it will be found that the female names 
recur in pairs of constant moiety, the males in two groups of alternating 
moiety. This is the converse of the vertical lines of relationship. 

In Table III., where these lines are indicated, it will be seen that there are 
four lines of male and four of female connections, the same number as are repre- 
sented as vertical lines in Table I. If any female oblique line series is compared 
with any male oblique line series, it will be found that the class names of the 
respective male and female of the same generation bear to one another a relation- 
ship of husband and wife, brother and sister, "ipmunna" to husband or wife, 
"ipmunna" to brother or sister, in a cycle of successive generations. This again 
is the exact counterpart of the relation of male and female expressed by the 
vertical lines. In other words, the pattern of the oblique system of lines is that of 
Table L, charted for maternal instead of paternal descent, which, as we have stated 
before, involves no change of pattern of the linkage system. Consequently, the 
table can be looked upon as a lattice system, hinged on class names of one hori- 
zontal row. If the lattice is built with the paternal descent pattern in rectangular 
form, swinging the vertical lines to a diamond pattern will give the maternal 
descent form in vertical series; conversely, if built for a maternal descent pattern 
in the rectangular form, swinging it to a diamond lattice will give the paternal 
descent arrangement in vertical series. The reciprocating nature of the oblique 
and vertical relationship series of Table I. with the alternation of paternal and 
maternal descent is clear. 

An expert practical craftsman devoid of theoretical knowledge, can adapt his 
materials to a new use with the correct technique. In the same way the Urabunna, 
a two-moiety tribe with maternal descent, and the Aranda, a tribe with an eight- 
class organisation and paternal descent, are able to make satisfactory arrange- 
ments for inter-marriages (5 >. This is an interesting example of successful prac- 
tical application without, necessarily, any appreciation of the theoretical principles 

The lattice for the four-class system is similar to the eight-class table, except 
that in the four-class type there are no "ipmunnas," so the relationships of the 
class names in the same row in both vertical and oblique systems are those of 
sister and wife alternately, and four vertical and four oblique lines with a two- 
generation cycle comprise the relationship series. 


(1) Spencer and Gi'llen, "Native Tribes of Central Australia," p. 71. 

(2) Spencer and Gillen, "Northern Tribes of Central Australia," p. 118 
Spencer, "Native Tribes of the Northern Territory," p. 60. 

(3) Howitt, "Native Tribes of South-East Australia," p. 159. 

(4) Spencer and Gillen, "Northern Tribes," p. 104. 

(5) Spencer and Gillen, "Native Tribes of Central Australia," p. 69. 





byH. K. Fry, B. Sc, M.B.B.S (Adel), etc 


In a recent paper I have described tables of Australian class systems/ [ ) These were a development 
from one of several attempts to represent compactly the class organisation of the Aranda. Class 
names were charted in vertical lines of male and female descent, and horizontal lines were drawn to 
indicate marriage unions. The class names of a four-class system were arranged, then, on a similar 
plan, and the implications of the eight-class table began to appear. The class names of a two- 
division tribe were found next to fall in the same pattern as the four-class table. An attempt to find a 
more simple pattern for the two-class tribal system gave the clue to the "double cross-cousin 
marriage" nature of the form of the table which had been found previously. This led to the full 
interpretation of the form of the eight-class table. Diagonal lines of "wife" relationships were 
apparent in the Aranda table as soon as it was drawn up. Other lines of relationship series were 
found by charting simple relationships on the table in the manner of plotting graphs on squared 
paper. The tables were drawn up, therefore, without any reference whatever to native relationship 
terminology, but show patterns of relationships. 




By H. K. Fry. B.Sc, M.B.B.S., D.P.H., DiplAnth. 

[Read July 9, 1931.] 

In a recent paper I have described tables of Australian class systems.* 1 * 
These were a development from one of several attempts to represent compactly 
the class organisation of the Aranda. Class names were charted in vertical lines 
of male and female descent, and horizontal lines were drawn to indicate marriage 
unions. The class names of a four-class system were arranged, then, on a similar 
plan, and the implications of the eight-class table began to appear. The class names 
of a two-division tribe were found next to fall in the same pattern as the four-class 
table. An attempt to find a more simple pattern for the two-class tribal system gave 
the clue to the "double cross-cousin marriage" nature of the form of the table 
which had been found previously. This led to the full interpretation of the form 
of the eight-class table. Diagonal lines of "wife" relationships were apparent in 
the Aranda table as soon as it was drawn up. Other lines of relationship series 
were found by charting simple relationships on the table in the manner of plotting 
graphs on squared paper. The tables were drawn up, therefore, without any 
reference whatever to native relationship terminology, but show patterns of 

Radcliffe Brown has made an intensive study of Australian social organisa- 
tion, especially from the point of view of native kinship terminology. He has 
drawn up tables of Kariera type and Aranda type kinship terminology. (2) In 
these, kinship terms are correlated with an arrangement of classes which are 
represented by a notation which is different to the general notation used in my 
tables. Brown adopts capital letters for males, small type for females. I happened 
on the opposite convention. Brown's notation corresponds with mine as follows : — 
In the Kariera tables, A = al, B — bl, D = a2, C = b2; in the Aranda tables, 
Al = al', A2 = al", Bl = bl', B2 = bl", D2 = a2', Dl = a2", CI = b2', C2 = b2". 

The similarities between the two sets of tables are interesting. The Kariera 
tables are very much alike. In the Aranda tables the same males appear in the 
vertical lines, which are in different order. If the order of the lines in the kinship 
table is altered from P R S Q to P R Q,S, so making 'the left half of the table 
symmetrical with the right half, it will be found that the correspondence of the 
males in the two Aranda tables is as close as that shown in the two Kariera tables. 
The four vertical series of "wives" in the kinship table are represented in four 
diagonal lines in the class table, and conversely the four vertical lines of direct 
female descent in the class table appear in four diagonal lines in the kinship table, 
in the P R Q S rearrangement. 

The relationships are expressed in the kinship table as translations of the 
actual native terms, which Brown supplies elsewhere. C3) * 4) Several alternative 
translations are possible for many of the native terms, as will be seen by tracing 


out the linkages of either the kinship or the class table. Either table is equally 

This demonstration is of importance because it shows that virtually identical 
results can be obtained by working out the implications of either native kinship 
terminology or class division. 

Brown has taught < 5 > that the regulation of native social life in general, and 
of marriage in particular, is the result of native kinship terminology alone. These 
views have been widely accepted. But this acceptance has been more passive than 
active, owing to the extreme difficulty of comprehending the complexity of the 
terms, involving multiple variants, with which the theory in question has been 
supported. With the aid of the class tables it is possible to visualise the sig- 
nificance of involved relationship terms. 

A close study of the data, which have been used to support the theory that 
social organisation and marriage are dependent only upon the laws of relationship 
terminology, will show that an explanation is provided equally well by the use of 
class considerations alone. 

The same will be found to be true in regard to the "characteristic features" 
of Type I. and Type II. marriage law. Further, the marriage permitted by the 
Variety (a) of Type II. marriage law will be found to be, not a variety of, but a 
direct contradiction of, the marriage law Type II. 

In typical Australian tribes, all the tribal members are representatives of some 
one class, and are all relatives. 

Class tables are genealogical tables of male and female representatives of all 
the tribal classes, and show relationships genealogically. 

The virtual identity, with these, of the tables of kinship terminology is due 
simply to the fact that the tribal representatives in the latter are arranged in 
accordance with the genealogical interpretation of their respective relationship 
terms, and are built up in this way into a genealogical table. 

It will be seen, therefore, that Radcliffe Brown in his tables, and in his writ- 
ings generally on Australian social organisation, is dealing, not with mere native 
kinship terminology, but with the genealogical significance of native kinship 
terminology, which is identical with the genealogical significance of the native 
class system. 

The theory that Australian native social organisation and marriage are deter- 
mined by kinship terminology, and not by class system, therefore depends upon 
a subtle distinction which is actually non-existent. 

The question as to what has been the determining factor underlying the 
development of the more complex class systems is a matter for speculation. There 
is the explanation from the premises of kinship terminology that an antipathy to 
marriages of near consanguinity has demanded marriages between individuals of 
local groups representing comparatively distant degrees of consanguinity, and 
that a systematisation of such arrangements has resulted in a dichotomy of class 
nomenclature This can not be disproved in the absence of historical evidence. 
On the other hand, with the key of the existing class systems, it is a simple matter 
to draw up organisations for sixteen and thirty two-class systems, the latter with 
two main alternatives and several minor alternatives. It would be a very difficult 
matter to work out such arrangements from the basis of relationship terminology. 
An argument based on class arrangements could explain the more complex organi- 
sations by dichotomy or agglutination of pre-existing units. Whether class con- 
siderations of themselves have been a primary factor in such development or not 
is again only speculation, but they have the virtue of enabling things as they are to 
be expressed graphically and simply. 


Similarly the conditions of native marriage may be summarised simply as 
follows : — • 

1. The tribal class system determines that a man may marry any woman 
of his own generation and of a certain class or subclass, named or un- 
named, and each such woman is called "wife." 

2. "Local rules" in different tribes may: 

(i.) Prohibit marriage with certain "wives." 
(ii.) Permit marriage with women of the same class as "wives" but 

belonging to a second ascending or descending generation. 
(Hi.) Permit "prohibited" marriages with women of a different class 

to that of "wives" under exceptional circumstances. 

The attempt to formulate these conditions into "fundamental laws of relation- 
ship terminology" has resulted in an increased complexity of reasoning, and 
fallacy in deduction. There is also a constant tendency for arguments based on 
native kinship terminology to drift into arguments involving relationships of con- 
sanguinity only. 

The class nomenclature system provides relatively simple and safe lines of 
argument in the investigation of the Australian social organisation, and a useful 
check on deductions drawn from the more complex terms of kinship. 


An illustration of the above is provided by Brown's description of the 
Yaralde kinship and marriage system, in "Oceania," vol. i. part iv., 1931, p. 452, 
in terms which imply a latent organisation into at least thirty-two subclasses in a 
tribe without any class nomenclature. This, of course, is not impossible, but 
certainly raises the question whether an error has not crept in somewhere. 


(1) H. K. Fry, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. Iv., 1931, p. 12. 

(2) A. R. Brown, Oceania, vol. i., 1930, pp. 49 and 50. 

(3) Ibid, p. 323. 

(4) A. R. Brown, Journ. of the Royal Anth. Inst, of G. B. and L, vol. xliii., 
1913, pp. 153 and 154. 

(5) Ibid, p. 190, et seq. 



byEffieW. Best (nee Deland), M.Sc 


The material studied consisted of three specimens collected by Dr. T. L. Bancroft, and presented to 
Professor T. Harvey Johnston, by whose kindness I was enabled to examine it. Two individuals 
were in the form of whole mounts, and the third has been prepared as a series of transverse sections. 
The leeches were obtained from a turtle, Emydura krefftii, in the Burnett River, Queensland, but no 
information is available as to their colour and markings in life. The crops of all three specimens 
were distended with blood. 



By Effie W. Rest (nee Deland), M.Sc. 

[Read May 14, 1931.] j 

The material studied consisted of three specimens collected by Dr. T. L. 
Bancroft, and presented to Professor T. Harvey Johnston, by whose kindness I 
was enabled to examine it. Two individuals were in the form of whole mounts, 
and the third has been prepared as a series of transverse sections. The leeches 
were obtained from a turtle, Emydwa krefftii, in the Burnett River, Queensland, 
but no information is available as to their colour and markings in life. The crops 
of all three specimens were distended with blood. 

This species of Helobdella is small, measuring only 6*8 mm. in length and 
2-6 mm. in greatest width, and is greatly flattened dorso-ventrally. The leaf-like 
general form is shown in fig. 1. The mouth is sub-terminal, lying on the second 
annulus, and the anterior sucker is inconspicuous. The posterior sucker is 
circular, with a diameter of 1 mm. and is distinctly marked off from the body. 
The anus opens in the centre of its disc. A pair of eyes is conspicuous at the 
anterior end of the body, but no segmental sense organs could be recognised. The 
genital apertures are situated immediately in advance of ganglion 12, and are 
separated by a single annulus. 

Annulation was not obvious in the preparations as mounted, so that internal 
structures are referred for their position to the nerve ganglion rather than to the 
superficial marks of segmentation unless the contrary is definitely stated. 

The general form of the body wall shows a certain amount of variation in 
different regions. This is due to the variable proportions of muscular, glandular, 
and other elements present, rather than to any alteration in the structures com- 
posing it. A typical section is shown in fig. 7. The cells of the epidermis are 
very irregular in shape, approaching a columnar form only at the extremities pf 
the body and in the neighbourhood of the genital apertures. A very large number 
of epidermal cells are highly granular and modified as unicellular glands. Some 
of these may be sunk two or three times the depth of the epidermis below the 
surface, in which case their secretion is poured out through a narrow duct-like 
prolongation. The epidermis rests on a layer of fibrous connective tissue, th£ 
cells of which have particularly deeply-staining, compact, spindle-shaped nuclei. 
There is no sign of the definite arrangement of longitudinal, circular, and dorso- 
ventral muscle layers which characterises the more highly organised leeches. Most 
of the muscle fibres, except those which run in the incomplete septa dividing the 
somites, are longitudinal. They form irregular masses beneath the epidermis 
and are almost lacking at the margins of the body (fig, 5). Lying amongst the 
muscle fibres and scattered in the connective tissue are a number of very irregular, 
large, pigment cells containing a highly refractive, granular substance. Minute 
capillary vessels of the coelomic system form an intricate network among the 
superficial layers of the body wall, and the larger collecting sinuses with which 
these ultimately communicate, lie in the deeper layers. 

The main coelomic spaces are four in number, dorsal, ventral, and lateral. 
The largest is the ventral sinus (fig. 4, 5, 8), in which. lie the nerve cord, ventral 
blood vessel, and the various ducts of the reproductive systems, as well as portions 
of the alimentary canal, and into which the ciliate funnels of the nephridia open. 
For the greater part of the body length this space assumes almost the dimensions 



and relationships of an ordinary coelomic cavity, At both extremities of the body 
the ventral sinus narrows considerably and is lost among the network of fine 
cavities connecting it with the dorsal and lateral sinuses. The dorsal sinus is 
much smaller and would be indistinguishable from the larger of the subcutaneous 
sinuses if it w r ere not for the presence of the thick-walled dorsal vessel within it. 
It is connected at both ends with the ventral and lateral sinuses by the network 
of capillaries already mentioned. The lateral sinuses run very close to the margin 
of the worm, and the body wall above them is composed of the epidermis and a 
loose parenchyma, but no muscle fibres. These sinuses are dilated somewhat in 
each segment and give off metamerically-arranged branches (the transverse 
coelomic spaces) to the ventral sinus. They also receive numerous branches from 
the subcutaneous system of spaces whose arrangement has already been described 
in the account of the body wall. Except in the large size of the ventral sinus 
this arrangement of sinuses closely follows that described by Bourne in Glossi- 
phonia (ulepsine). All these coelomic spaces are lined by an epithelium of large, 
squamous cells whose nuclei project into the lumen of the sinus. The coelomic 
corpuscles are small, usually rounded and often binucleate (fig. 7). 

Closely connected with the sinus system are the so-called blood vessels. There 
are two main trunks, dorsal and ventral, lying in the corresponding sinuses and 
connected at both ends by a series of capillaries indistinguishable from those of the 
sinus system. The dorsal vessel is strongly muscular and lies immediately above 
the alimentary canal (fig. 5, 6, 8). The ventral vessel is larger, thin-walled, and 
lies just above, and usually close to, the nerve cord. 

The alimentary canal has the same general arrangement as is present in other 
members of the genus. There are a retractile proboscis, an oesophagus, a crop 
w T ith seven pairs of diverticula, and an intestine. The proboscis sheath is lined 
by a layer of squamous cells continuous with those of the epidermis and, like them, 
often granular, showing their glandular function (fig. 6). Outside this is a layer 
of loose muscular tissue whose fibres are more or less circular, and in which the 
thick-walled dorsal blood vessel is present. This, in turn, is surrounded by the 
ventral coelomic sinus. The lumen of the proboscis is trifid in transverse section, 
and is lined by an irregular columnar epithelium. The muscles of the proboscis 
consist of a very thin sheet of circular fibres and a number of radial fibres with 
which are interspersed groups of granular secreting cells. In a whole preparation 
these radial fibres and the gland cells are seen to be quite regularly arranged, giving 
the peculiar appearance shown in fig. 15. The epithelium surrounding these 
structures is squamous, like that of the sheath. A very fine cuticle was observed 
in places, lining the lumen of the proboscis and of the sheath, and covering the 
former. Towards the base of the organ the structure of its wall becomes rather 
looser, and the gland cells stain more deeply with eosin. At the base of the 
proboscis a thin-walled portion of the alimentary canal receives the ducts of the 
oesophageal glands, and may be termed the anterior region of the oesophagus. 
This forms loose coils when the proboscis is retracted, but is probably drawn 
taut by its extension. The posterior region of the oesophagus is lined by a 
columnar epithelium, similar to that of the anterior part and surrounded by large 
glandular cells with peculiar and very obvious nuclei (fig. 8). The stomach or 
crop follows upon the oesophagus in somite 12 and with its diverticula occupies 
the greater part of the body from somite 11 to the base of the posterior sucker. 
The form of these structures may be seen in fig. 1. The stomach passes into the 
intestine at somite 19; The latter is lined by a glandular, columnar epithelium and 
bears four segementally arranged caeca whose epithelium is of a similar type. At 
somite 24, the intestine opens by a sphincter into the anterior swollen portion of 
the thin-walled hind gut. The narrow rectum opens by the anus in the centre of 
the posterior sucker. 



The oesophageal glands are a pair of conspicuous, compact, triangular organs 
lying in somites 8 and 9. The cells composing them are large, with densely granular 
protoplasm which stains deeply with eosin. The nuclei are rather small and are 
situated against the outer boundary of the organ. The cells are pyriform and 
their tapered ends unite to form the duct of the gland, so that the constituent cells 
retain their individual connection with the oesophagus in spite of the compact 
nature of the gland. 

There are six pairs of testes, situated between the crop diverticula in 
somites 13/14 to 18/19. From each testis a thin-walled vas eflerens unites with 
the vas deferens of its own side. This duct passes forward within the ventral 
sinus and median to the ovary where this is present. Each vas eflerens runs side 
by side with the vas deferens for some distance, eventually joining it at about the 
level of the preceding testis. In somites 10 and 11, the vas deferens of each side is 
thrown into coils within the space median to the anterior caeca of the stomach. 
This coiled ejaculatory duct passes anteriorly into a large club-shaped vesicula 
seminalis on each side of somite 10. These organs extend posteriorly to the 
boundary of the annulus containing the male aperture, and are 1 mm. in length 
and '04 mm. in their greatest diameter. The wall of the vesicula is composed of 
an outer layer of circular muscle continuous with that of the ejaculatory duct 
an'd an inner zone of very large cells, clear towards their outer extremities and 
very granular towards the lumen of the organ. At the narrow anterior end these 
cells merge into the clear, tall columnar epithelium of the ejaculatory region of the 
vas. The nuclei of the secreting cells are small and close to the muscular coat. 
The lumen of the vesicula is irregular, the tapered distal portion of each secreting 
cell projecting into it in the form of a minute papilla (fig. 8). This arrangement 
is doubtless connected with the formation of spermatophores within the organ. 
The two vesiculae seminales unite near the midline, below the ventral nerve cord, 
to form a short muscular common duct opening at the male aperture. Below this 
duct is a small blindly-ending depression lined with columnar epidermal cells 
similar to those covering the immediate neighbourhood of the genital apertures., 
and opening at the male pore. In the sectioned specimen male activity was 
apparently nearly past. The testicular sacs contained only a few scattered sperm 
morulae and a number of large cells with a reticular or highly vacuolate proto- 
plasm. On the other hand, the portions of the male ducts contained within the 
ventral sinus, both vas deferens and vasa efferentia, were swollen with masses of 
sperms embedded in some sort of prostate secretion. The histological form of 
these various cells is shown in fig. 9a, b, c. 

The ovisacs apparently vary considerably in size according to the sexual con- 
dition of the individual. In one specimen examined as a whole mount they 
extended very little behind the ganglion of somite 12, whereas in the material 
sectioned they reached somite 16 posteriorly and showed, in addition, an anterior 
caecum which extended into somite 10. The structure of the wall of the ovisac 
varies little in its entire length. Both within and without there is a squamous 
epithelium which may be thrown into small folds. The main thickness of the 
tube consists of a layer of very small muscle fibres in a connective tissue matrix. 
In the neighbourhood of the genital pores these and the fibres of the common 
male duct approach those of the body wall in size and become indistinguishable 
from them. 

Nephridia are absent from the part of the body anterior to the genital aper- 
tures and from the posterior sucker. The nephridial funnel is connected with the 
ventral sinus and the nephridiopores open ventrally in the median third of the 
body. The coils of the nephridia extend to the margin of the body just inwardly 
from the lateral sinus. The ciliatc funnel (fig. 10) is long and narrow and lined 
with very long cilia. Its extremity is bifid, each lobe being further partly sub- 




I s.n. 






«&'*:. ' Tiiuv--'^****™'*'- 




divided into two, and each of these four divisions bears a nucleus. Another 
nucleus is present at the base of the structure. The funnel projects a little into 
the dilatation following upon it, and here two smaller nuclei are present. This 
dilatation takes the form of a large sac whose walls are formed of a single layer 
of cells surrounding a fibrous capsule. Its lumen is filled with coelomic corpuscles. 
The tubules of the nephridium extend outward to the margin of the body and then 
return to open by the nephridiopore just ventral to the ciliate funnel and a little 
behind it. Typical cells of this nephridial tissue, with their intracellular ducts, 
are shown in figs. 11, 12. The ciliate funnels lie just in advance of the ganglion in 
the somite which contains them. In all these respects the nephridia resemble those 
of other members of the same family fairly closely. 

The central nervous system has the general character described in detail by 
Ilemmingway for Placobdella pedicidata. The highly organised eyes lie well 
beneath the surface on the third annulus. Each consists of a cup-shaped mass of 
pigment of the same type as that contained in the ordinary pigment cells of the 
body wall, which are in this region very numerous (figs. 17, 18). The cup is filled 
with clear cells of the usual type, but no axial fibres were observed. The front of 
the cup is filled by a mass of cells reaching the surface of the body at one point 
and extending slightly beyond the limits of the pigment layer. The nuclei of these 
cells are seen in section to be situated round the periphery of the mass which is 
enclosed in a distinct capsule. The protoplasm of these rod-like cells is finely 
granular. They are homologous with the "tactile cells" described by Whitman, 
but appear to be more specialised as an optical medium than any studied by him, 
judging from Miss Merrill's summary of his work. In the present species these 
cells form a distinct, clear cornea-like structure, filling the space between the cells 
of the optic cup and the surface. The nuclei of these "tactile cells" differ from 
those of similar cells of the marginal sense organs in the more open nature of 
their chromatin network. 

Segmental sense organs or sensillae of the usual type were not observed, but 
the anterior margin of the body is bordered by marginal sense organs. These take 
the form of groups of rod-like sensory or tactile cells whose protoplasm is densely 
packed with fine granules and whose nuclei are spindle-shaped. Capillary vessels 
occur among the sensory cells. 

Attached to one of the specimens were many solitary, peritrichous ciliates, 
collected along the edges .of any depression on the surface. Their form is shown 
in figs. 13, 14. 

The new species of leech has all the characters of the genus Helobdella 
R. Rlanchard, 1896 (Glossiphoniidae), and the name H. bancrofti is proposed for 
it in recognition of assistance rendered by Dr. T. L. Bancroft. Its most obvious 
specific characters are the absence of a dorsal scute, the very compact nature of 
the oesophageal glands, and the small size of the intestinal caeca. 

This appears to be the first record of a member of this genus from Australia, 
though Goddard (1908-9) described several species of the related genus Glossi- 

The type slide is being deposited in the South Australian Museum. 




Fig. 1: Entire animal. Fig. 10: Section of nephridial funnel (semi- 

„ 2: Details of region of genital aperture. diagrammatic). 

3: L.S. Oesophageal gland. 

4: Portion of T.S., showing sex ducts 

within the ventral sinus. 
5 : T.S. in region of intestine. 
6: T.S. proboscis and. sheath. 
7 : T.S. body wall. 
8: Portion of T.S. passing through male 

9a: T.S. testis; 9b: sperm mass from vas 

deferens; 9c: detail of contents of 


All the transverse sections are somewhat oblique 

11: Lateral loop of nephridium. 
12: Cell from median loop of nephri- 
13 : Epizoic ciliates. 
14: Group of similar ciliates. 
15 : Anterior end of leech. 
16 : Marginal sense organ. 
17: Oblique section through eye. 
18 : Eyes viewed from above. 


a.g.m., anterior ganglionic mass; a.oe., anterior region of oesophagus; b., vertebrate 
blood in crop; b.c.c, binucleatc coelomic corpuscle; b.v., blood vessel; ca., capsule sur- 
rounding corneal cells; caec, caecum of crop; cap., capillary; ex., clear cells; c.c.t., corneal 
cells, "tactile"; c.f., ciliate funnel; cm., circular muscle; coe., coelomic space; coe.c, 
coelomic corpuscle; c.t, connective tissue; c.t.c, connective tissue corpuscle; d., duct; 
d.m.a., depression below male aperture; d.s., dorsal coelomic sinus; d.v., dorsal vessel; 
e., eye; ej.d., ejaculatory duct; ep., epithelium; epd., epidermis; g.c, gland cell; i., 
intestine; i.e., intestinal caecum; i.c.d., intra-cellular duct; l.m., longitudinal muscle; 
l.s., lateral coelomic sinus; m., mouth; m.f., muscle fibre; mi.n., micronucleus ; m.l., mus- 
cular layer; m.n. ; meganucleus; m.s.o., marginal sense organ; n., nucleus; n.c, nerve cord; 
n.d., nephridial dilatation; o.d., oviduct; oe.d., duct of oesophageal gland; oe.g., oesophageal 
gland; o.n., optic nerve; ov., ovisac; ova., mass of developing ova in ovisac; p., proboscis; 
pb.s., proboscis sheath; p.c, pigment cell; pig., pigment cup; p.oe., posterior region of 
oesophagus; p.s., prostate secretion; p.t.c, prolongation of corneal cells ("tactile") towards 
surface (cut obliquely); r.m., radial muscle; s.m., sperm morula; s.n., sperm nucleus; 
t.c, tactile cell; t.v.c, transverse coelomic space; v.c, vacuolate cell; v.d., vas deferens; 
v.e., vas efferens; vcs., vesicula seminalis; v.s., ventral coelomic sinus; v. v., ventral vessel. 


1884 — Bourne, A. G. : "Contributions to the Anatomy of the Hirudinea." 
Q.J. M.S. 24, 1884,419-506. 

1908-9 — Goddard, E. J. : "Contribution to Our Knowledge of Australian 
Hirudinea." Part I., P.L.S. N.S.W., 33 (2), 320-342; Part II., 
Id. 33 (4), 854-866; Part III., Id. 34 (3), 467-486. 

1927— Harding, W A., and Moore, J. P.: "Hirudinea, The Fauna of British 

1898 — Lambert, A. M.: "The Structure of an Australian Land Leech." P.R.S. 
Victoria, 10, 1898, 211-235. 

1894 — Merrill, — : "Preliminary Note on the Eye of the Leech." Zool. Anz., 

17, 1894. 
1912 — Nachtrieb, H. F., Hemmingway, E. E., and Moore, J. P.: "The 

Leeches of Minnesota." 


by Norman B. Tindale, South Australia Museum 


During the combined Adelaide University and Museum Anthropological Expedition to MacDonald 
Downs, August- September, 1930, some notes were made on the geology of the country forming the 
headwaters of the Mubunji (Bundey) Creek and its tributaries, the Abmoara (Fraser), Alpara, and 
Irukaru Creeks. 



By Norman B. Tindale, South Australian Museum. 
[Read June 11. 1931.] 

During the combined Adelaide University and Museum Anthropological 
Expedition to MacDonald Downs, August-September, 1930, some notes were 
made on the geology of the country forming the headwaters of the Mubunji 
(Bundey) Creek and its tributaries, the Abmoara (Fraser), Alpara, and Irukaru 

The outward journey from Alice Springs was made by means of motor trucks, 
and followed a new track on the northern side of the MacDounell Range, via 
Bird and Turner Wells, South Point, Ilarndanga (Kerr's Station), Tjeruka 
(Peaked Hill), and down the Abmoara Creek to Lilatara (135° 9' east long, x 
22° 25' south lat.) ? at the junction of Abmoara and Alpara Creeks, where the 
head station of MacDonald Downs (owned by Mr. C. O. Chalmers) is situated. 
The outward journey did not afford many opportunities for detailed observations, 
but on the return trip, which was made by a different route via Ilarndanga, the 
Upper Mubunji, Table Hill, Hart's Range, Arltunga, and thence by the main 
track through Undoolya to the Alice, several short detours were made to points 
of interest in the area herein discussed. 

During our three weeks' sojourn, the localities examined included the vicinity 
of Lilatara ; Undala or Bundey Gap, six miles north ; Arapia, eight miles north : 
India Range, three miles south; Ataparapara (Mount Ultim), twelve miles east 
by south; Mopunja Range, eight miles south-west of Mount Ultim; also Table 
Hill and its vicinity. 

The Alpara Creek rises near Mount Swan and follows first a north-easterly 
and then a northern course to Lilatara (lila, creek; tara, two), where it joins the 
Abmoara. On the present official maps it is wrongly shown as a tributary of the 
Apewunga (Plenty) River, which has its source near the Hart Range, and flows 
eastward and then somewhat more southward past the Jervois Range. 

Irukaru Creek has its sources in the gently undulating plateau country south- 
west of Mount Ultim and, after skirting the western flanks of the latter, enters 
the Mubunji (Bundey) at Undala. 

The Alarinjela (Marshall River) has one of its sources on the southern side 
of Mount Ultim, and flows south-eastward past Atnoala Springs, to join the 
Apewunja River. The low plateau between the Alarinjela and Irukaru is, there- 
fore, on the north-south divide of the MacDonnell Range, which has hitherto been 
placed much too far to the north-west. Mistake Creek rises on the eastern flank 
of Mount Ultim and flows east, and then north, to the Sandover. Apparently 
no previous description of the geology of the area has been published. The country 
further east was examined by Brown (1), who approached it by a southern route 
via Arltunga and the lower reaches of the Plenty River. 

The MacDonnell Range Pre-Cambrian complex underlies the area at no great 
depth. Gneisses, schists, with both acid and basic igneous rocks, are present. 

At Mopunja Range (fig. 2) these rocks form an extensive peneplain emerg- 
ing from a mantle of sediments. At this place three small outcrops of basic 
igneous rocks have been extensively worked by aborigines for the manufacture 
of stone axes. 


Fig. 1. 
Sketch Map of the Tliaura Country, North-east of MacDonnell Range, Central Australia. 


Several vertical dykes of coarse granite-porphyry run east and west across 
the country on the Pre-Cambrian plateau south of Peaked Hill. This plateau 
extends eastward from Ilarndanga (Kerr's Station), for about twelve miles, to 
within a mile of Atjerukarukuda Rock, a characteristic outcrop of weathered 
granite rising a hundred feet from the alluvial plain. Further south the Old 

TCnpmiJ* Vaxif 

Fig. 2. 
Sketch Section at Mopunja Range (c. 2 miles). 

Rocks are concealed by limestone and chalcedony beds which form low table- 
topped hills. Still further south they reappear in the area dissected by the head- 
waters of the Apewunja River. 

Lying directly on the Pre-Cambrian gneisses and schists at Mopunja Range 
is an extensive sedimentary series, consisting in the main of shales and quartzites 
(fig. 2). These beds dip at an angle of about 25° to the east-north-east, presenting 

Abwwwii. orfmitE CK. 

Fig. 3. 
Sketch Section, Abmoara Creek to Amberakana Range (f mile). 

on their western aspect a steep quartzite scarp and a slope estimated to be seven 
hundred feet in height. 

Further to the south the strike of these beds sweeps to the east in an even 
curve, while to the north-west the strike turns gradually to the west, so that at 
Lilatara similar beds dip a little east of north. 

At India Range, which runs almost due east and west, sections of beds which 
appear to be somewhat higher up in the Mopunja Range series are met with 
(fig. 4). The beds dip at about 20° to the north-north-cast. They consist of 

.fanWikaiu Bwtjt 

Fig. 4. 
Sketch Section, India Range to Bundey Gap (10 miles). 

alternating quartzites (sometimes very fine grained, but usually coarse and fels- 
pathic) and altered shales containing abundant large flakes of detrital mica. West 
of the gap (three-quarters of a mile wide) through which the Alpara Creek passes, 


the Mopunja Beds are overlain by horizontally-bedded limestones capped with 
chalcedony. The unconformity is well revealed in a series of small side valleys. 

Three miles north of this gap, across an alluvial plain strewn with chalce- 
dony gibbers derived from the breaking down of the limestone plateau, a further 
section of the Mopunja Beds is revealed at Lilatara (figs. 3, 4). The well on the 
bank of the Abmoara Creek (in which good water was struck in a coarse fels- 
pathic grit at 90 feet) revealed some of the features underlying this plain: — 


r Red soil to 10 

Horizontal I Cemented grit with white chalcedony pebbles. . ,, 18 
Beds. ( Limestone . . . . . . . . . . ,, 20 






ell outcrop at the base of 





Beds r Purple and yellow shales . . . . . . to 

Dipping \ Coarse red siliceous sandstone 

c. 20° to I Shale 

North. \ Felspathic grit 

Purple shales similar to those present in the w 
Uldaritja Hill, several hundred yards to the north-west, and are. conformable with 
alternating thin quartzites and shales, with some fine conglomerates. These beds 
may be enumerated here, in descending order (with approximate thicknesses), as 
being typical of the Mopunja series as a whole : — * 

Coarse felspathic quartzite 
Coarse quartz grit 

White shale 

Coarse felspathic quartzite 
Purple shales .... 

Coarse felspathic quartzite . . . . . . .... 

Fine quartzite 

Coarse felspathic quartzite 

Shales with a thin quartzite and some argillaceous sandstone 

Coarse felspathic quartzite 

Coarse iron-stained grit or fine conglomerates with unabraded 

fragments of crystalline constituents . . . . . . 20 

Purple shales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ? 

The shales everywhere show signs of disturbance, and the felspathic quartzites 
are permeated by polished slickenslide faces. The aborigines naively account for 
the latter by saying that some mythical ancestors milled grass seeds upon the rocks. 

Looking northward from Mopunja, and from Lilatara, across an alluvial plain 
about five miles wide, there can be seen a series of almost horizontally-bedded 
sediments (of different character from those already described) which extend for 
some twenty miles across the northern horizon. These beds consist of bright red 
sandstones and fine quartzites, together with a few argillaceous sandstone horizons. 
They dip at a low angle (about 3-5°) to the north-north-east, and by their 
character indicate that they are of littoral origin. Current-bedded and ripple- 
marked sandstones are well developed, together with numerous fossil beds. In 
character and content they stand in marked contrast to the beds of the Mopunja 
series, and, therefore, it is suggested that an unconformity may be discovered 
between them. 

Between Undala and Mount Ultim these sandstones form a plateau sloping 
gently to the north; it stands four to eight hundred feet above the plain. The 
south-western margin of this plateau forms a steep scarp and slope, only slightly 
cut into by a series of small valleys at regular intervals along its margin. Upon 


the top of the plateau there is a series of smaller flat-topped residuals (culminat- 
ing in Mount Ultim itself) which have resisted weathering. North of Undala 
this plateau dips gradually towards the vast Sandover Plain. 

Fig. 5. 
Sketch Section, from Alarinjela Creek to Mount Ultim (2 miles). 

The first observations on these beds were made at Arapia and at Undala, 
where fossils, in the form of "worm-tracks" and ? Orthoceras casts were dis- 
covered, but, as the same horizons were afterwards identified and examined in 
detail at Mount Ultim, the latter occurrence will be described in preference. 


Fig. 6. 
Sketch Section, from Undala to Arapia (c. 2 miles). 

The Mount Ultim occurrence consists of a thickness of about 800 feet of 
sediments (fig. 5) which, in descending order, consist of: — 

Current-bedded Sandstone 

Massive red sandstone 

White quartzite with an Orthoceras horizon at its base 

Red sandstone with Raphistoma 

Current-bedded gritty quartzite 

Argillaceous sandstone with "worm-tracks" and ripple 

Fine Quartzite 

Red sandstone with "worm-tracks" and ripple-marks . 

White argillaceous sandstone with fossils 

Argillaceous sandstone 
Highly crystalline quartzite 
Grey argillaceous sandstone with fossils 


approx. 100 









The current-bedded quartzite forming the summit of Mount Ultim is 
weathered into numerous shallow caverns and leaning rock-shelters, which have 
been made use of by aborigines. The mode of weathering is so characteristic a 


feature of this bed wherever it outcrops that the natives have a rational explana- 
tion for the occurrence, which takes the form of a legend explaining how a 
mythical being commenced shelter-making operations many miles to the west and 
proceeding south-eastward, excavated shelters in turn at Arapia, Mount Ultim, 
Mistake Creek, etc. 

At Undala (fig. 6) a bed which was identified with "fine quartzite" of the 
Mount Ultim series forms a smooth flat surface, upon which the natives have cut 
a few simple figures. Above and below it there are, as at Mount Ultim, red 

Fig. 7. 
Block diagram of the vicinity of Lilatara. 

sandstone beds with abundant "worm-tracks/' Many of the boulders also show 
fine ripple marks. Beds lower in the series do not outcrop. 

North of Arapia the current-bedded sandstone, corresponding to the beds 
forming the summit of Mount Ultim, are capped by silicified sandstone. Further 
to the north the beds appear to dip at a low angle towards the alluvial sediments 
of the Sandover. Limestone beds, capped by chalcedony, are stated to occur 
further to the north, but were not examined. 

A representative series of fossils from these beds has been lodged in the 
Palaeontological Collection of the S.A. Museum, and it is hoped that their identi- 
fication will be soon carried out. 


Several references have been made to the occurrences of limestone beds 
capped by chalcedony. At India Hill they lie unconformably on the Mopunja 
series (fig. 4), while according to Mr. C. O. Chalmers similar beds to these occur 
north of Arapia. At the first-named place the beds in descending order were 

observed to be : — 


Chalcedony- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 

Limestone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . 6-20 

Kaolin 10 

Red ferrugineous grit . . . . . . . . . . . . ? 

In the whole of the south-eastern part of the area under discussion and 
around Table Hill and South Point this formation has given rise to a partly 
dissected plateau, traces of which can be seen in the form of table-topped hills up 
to one hundred feet in height. The breaking up of this extensive formation has 
also given rise to the larger or smaller chalcedony gibbers which everywhere strew 
the alluvial plains and, as coarse grit or gravel, helps to choke the wide sandy 
beds of the creeks. 


Representatives of what appear to be three, possibly four, geological series 
(fig. 7) have been noticed: — 

A. Pre-Cambrian gneiss, schist, with granitic and basic intrusions. 

H. Mopunja Range series of coarse felspathic quartzites and purple shales 
resting upon a peneplaned Prc-Cambrian pavement. 

These beds have a general dip of about 20°-25° to the north-east; the strike vary- 
ing from north to east and then back to north as one travels from east to west. 

C- Almost horizontal red sandstones, fine-grained quartzites, and some 
argillaceous beds, littoral in character and containing numerous 
fossils, which suggest a tentative "Ordovician" age for the beds. 

D. Younger limestone series of thin horizontal beds capped by chalcedony, 
found resting unconformably on sediments of the Mopunja Range 

In the accompanying block diagram (fig. 7) the relationships of the four series 
are set out in a. simplified manner. 


We are indebted to Dr. C. Chewings, who suggested that these notes should 
be placed on record, and to the members of the Expedition, especially to 
Dr. H. K. Fry, who was particularly interested in the geology, and to 
Prof. T. Harvey Johnston, who located the "Qrthoceras" horizon at Mount Ultim. 
Mr. C. O. Chalmers provided native guides and horses, and thus enabled us to 
visit several otherwise inaccessible spots. Finally, we are indebted to an Iliaura 
native, Akoambaka by name, who on our first arrival in the district explained the 
principal details of the physiography of his country by means of a relief map, 
voluntarily constructed in the sand of the creek bed. 


1. Brown, Ii. Y. L. : "Reports on Arltunga Goldfield . . . and Explora- 
tions North-east of Hart's Range, in South Australia." Parlia- 
mentary Papers, No. 1,353, Adelaide, 1897, pp. 5-8, and map No. 2. 


by Arthur M. Lea, F.E.S. 


The transverse arrangement of the prothoracic granules, often so exaggerated that the prothorax 
appears traversed by fine carinae, is a very distinctive feature of many species of the genus, and 
easily recognisable, although abrasion is sometimes necessary to see it. In the 1926 key, a special 
section, "G," was given for fourteen of them. Other species not previously referred to "G," but with 
transverse arrangement, are: M. canalicornis, n. sp., contortus, n. sp„ excavatus Lea, ferrugineus 
Lea, incisipes, n. sp., medianus, n. sp., melancholicus, n. sp., octagonalis Oke, and valgus Pasc. 





By Arthur M. Lea, F.E.S. 
(Contribution from the South Australian Museum.) 

[Read July 9, 1931.] 



Since the key given in the Records of the South Australian Museum, on 
March 31, 1926, species of this genus have been dealt with as follows: — 

1927. Lea, Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., pp. 356-357. 

1929. L.c, pp. 528-533. 

1931. Oke, Proc. Roy. Soc, Vic, pp. 181-190. 

The species there dealt with, and the new ones described in the following 
pages, may be associated with the key in the following positions : — 


C, ddd. 

C, h. . . 
C, n. 
D,jw. .- 

DD. e. 

DD, cee. 
DD, nnn. 
F,dd. .. 
F A. . . 

pentagonodercs Lea G, qq mediamts, n. sp. 

leai Oke, and parenthet:-G, t canalicornis, n. sp 

cus, n. sp. 
stcrnocerus Lea 
do lens Lea 
insignls, n. sp. 
rufipes Lea 
cgenus Oke 
fimbriatus Lea 
explanicollis Oke 
tub crip ennis Lea 

G, w corrugicollis Lea 

G, v . . melancholicus, n. sp. 

H goudiei, n. sp. 

I (or NN, v) . . femoralis Lea 

J, m minusculus Oke 

J, pp granicollis, n. sp. 

K (or YY) . . villosipcs Lea 

NN (or NNN) oculivorus, n. sp. 


modicus, n. sp. 
acanthocnemis Lea, and 

bryophihts Oke 
cinercas, n. sp. 

armicoxis Lea 

F, m (or NN, ww) octagonalis Oke 

G, q contortus, n. sp. and W. 

incisipes, n. sp. 

This leaves two species (excluding synonyms and others transferred to 
Timareta) for which no positions have yet been suggested, as their types are 

M, imponderosus Lea. A minute species (1*5 mm.), from Queensland. 

M. lattts Lea. A wide, tuberculate, densely clothed species, from Tasmania. 

The transverse arrangement of the prothoracic granules, often so exaggerated 
that the prothorax appears traversed by fine carinae, is a very distinctive feature 
of many species of the genus, and easily recognisable, although abrasion is some- 
times necessary to see it. In the 1926 key, a special section, "G," was given for 
fourteen of them. Other species not previously referred to "G," but with trans- 
verse arrangement, are: M, canalicornis, n. sp., contortus, it. sp., excavatus 
Lea, ferrugineus Lea, incisipes, n. sp., mediamis, n. sp., melancholicus, n. sp.„ 
octagonalis Oke, and valgus Pasc. 

On fairly numerous species the middle coxae are armed, although to see the 
armature clearly it is sometimes necessary to twist the leg, or to view it from 
several angles, and a small amount of grease or dirt may easily obscure it. 


On several species there is a shining ridge, hut not a dentiform process. The 
species so armed, owing to the exigencies of tabulation, were not all associated 
together in the key. The following are also so armed: — M. contortus, n. sp., 
ferruginous Lea, d'entipes Lea, medcoxalis Lea, medianus, Lea, octagonalis Oke, 
aculivorus, n. sp., oxyomits Lea, (more a ridge than a tooth), and valgus Pasc. 

1 do not think the femora iti any of the species could fairly be regarded as 
dentate, the apical incurvature in several species, from certain points of view, 
appears sudden, but the part before it is rather the abrupt termination of a swell- 
ing than a distinct tooth, and clothing may also cause deceptive resemblance to 
dentition. Although in figure 3 (especially on C and H) Mr. Oke has shown quite 
strong teeth, he nowhere mentions femoral dentition in his descriptions. 

The tibiae are very distinctive on the males of many species, but it is usually 
necessary to examine them from several points of view, or even to detach them 
from the body (in the case of species with the inner side distinctive), to see their 
structure clearly; clothing and dried mud are also apt to disguise their features; 
so in the sketches given no clothing was shown. 

In sending specimens of M. goadiei, Mr. Goudie called my attention to the 
fact that each of its claw-joints was apparently terminated by a single claw; this 
at first appears to be the case, but on close examination it may be seen that there 
are really two claws, very closely applied together ; and they are very similar to 
those of the other species (H of the key) with the scape very thick (except in 
M. nodicollis, on which the claws are normal), viz. — M. ammophilus, crasskornis, 
hcrbivorus and pondericomis. This character was previously overlooked, except 
that for ammophilus it was noted: "Claws subsoldered together at base/' On 
M, howensis, with a heavy scape, although less heavy than on the species of H, 
the claws are also approximate. On M, acutangulus , on which the scape is stouter 
than on most species, other than those of H, the claws are normal. 

Mandalotus parentheticus, n. sp. 

$ . Dark brown, antennae and tarsi paler, some parts obscurely darker. 
Densely clothed with dull brown and grey scales, becoming almost uniformly pale 
grey on under parts ; in addition with stout and usually curved setae, on the elytra 
confined to a regular row on each interstice. 

Rostrum with median carina normally concealed. Antennae moderately long. 
Prothorax moderately transverse, sides strongly rounded, derm concealed. Elytra 
subcordate, shoulders rounded, base wider than prothorax, interstices even except 
for feeble alternate elevation; punctures large, but appearing much smaller 
through clothing. Intercoxal process of mesosternum small, but obtusely conical. 
Metasternum very short. Basal segments of abdomen flattened in middle. Legs 
moderately long, front coxae touching. Length, 3 "5-3*8 mm. 

9 . Differs in being slightly more robust, intercoxal process of mesosternum 
unarmed, abdomen more convex, and legs slightly shorter. 

Australia (Dr. W. Horn). 

By the upper surface practically indistinguishable from M. blackmorei, but 
the mesosternum armed in the male, and both sexes distinct from those of that 
species by the front coxae in contact. The intercoxal process of the presternum 
is but little produced, and is obtusely pointed, but in the key the species could only 
be placed in C, ddd, and associated with M. vacillans, in which the process is also 
rather feeble; but on that species the front coxae are distinctly, although not 
widely, separated. The clothing is also different, although not much reliance is 
to be placed on this. Both specimens have the derm brownish or castaneous. as 
may be seen where slight abrasions have occurred ; the only parts that are apparently 
black are on the head. The scales on the prothorax are mostly pale, with five 
distinct dark lines from base to apex, the median straight, the others evenly 


curved (less distinct on the female than on the male) ; on the elytra the paler scales 
are in the minority, and are irregularly distributed. The derm of the pronotum 
is entirely concealed, but feeble granules are indicated. Ihere are no striking 
features on the legs, the right front tibia of the male has a minute denticle near 
the base, but it is not present on the left one. 

Mandalotus insignis, n. sp. 

Figs. 1, 14, 17, 18. 

$ . Black, parts of antennae and tarsi obscurely reddish. 

with scales and setae. , , 

Rostrum with median carina indicated throughout. Antennae moderately 
Ion? Prothorax slightly transverse, sides slightly increasing in width from base 
to apical third, and then rapidly narrowed to apex; with large normally con- 
cealed granules. Elytra rough, base narrower than widest part of prothorax and 
unevenly arcuate ; with rows of large punctures, distinct on sides, but almost or 

Denselv clothed 


Explanation of Figures. 
1 front tibia of Mandalotus insignis Lea ; 2, of M. contortus Lea type; 3-5, of M con- 
forms' irom Barrington Tops; 6, of M. melancholias Lea; 7, of M. tncwpa Lea; 8, of 
M mcdianus Lea; 9, of M. acanthocncmis Lea; 10-11, of M. pentagonahs Lea; 12-13. of 
U. SXa; 14 middle tibia of M insignis Lea IS, of M gtober -Black* ,; 16, of M canal, 
tomis Lea; 17-18, hind tibiae of M. msvgms Lea; 19-20 of M. medianus Lea A ot 
M decisions Lea ■ 22-23, of M. glabcr Blackb. ; 24, antenna of M, canahconml.ea; 25, inter- 
nal pro^ of M. nigcr Lea; 26, variety of same. All without ck*h:ng. 

quite concealed elsewhere ; alternate interstices irregularly elevated, the third and 
fifth tuberculate. Basal segment of abdomen with a strong subcorneal tubercle on 
each side of middle, slightly nearer base than apex. Front coxae widely separated, 
but not quite as widely as middle ones ; front and middle tibiae notched near apex, 
hind ones strongly bisinuate on lower surface, the apex incurved and bidentate. 
Length, 6-5-8-0 mm. ■ 

9 Differs in being wider in proportion, elytral tubercles less conspicuous, 
basal segment of abdomen more convex and non-tuberculate, and tibiae not notched. 

New South Wales : Bombala. Types, in Australian Museum. 


Remarkably distinct, by the bituberculate abdomen and tibiae of the male. 
In the key could be associated with M. glaber and decipiens, two polished black 
species, with very different tibiae. The clothing is so dense that the derm is 
everywhere concealed, and the type is rather dirty. To the naked eye it appears of 
a muddy-brown, but on close examination numerous small golden scales may be 
seen; the setae are numerous, and all the tibiae are fringed with long hairs. The 
third interstice on each elytron has a fairly large, round tubercle, crowning the 
apical slope, the fifth has a swelling at the basal third, and then curves outwards 
and has three tubercles, one before the one on the third, and two beyond it, there 
is also a small posthumeral tubercle, invisible from directly above, The pronotum 
of the female appears to have four feebly elevated tubercles : two in the middle, 
and two at the base ; on the male the two basal ones are very feebly indicated,' 
but not the two median ones. 

Mandalotus contortus, n. sp. 

Figs. 2-5. 

| . Black, some parts paler, parts of antennae and tarsi obscurely reddish 
Densely squamose and setose. 

Rostrum with median carina obscured but traceable. Antennae moderately lon^ 
Prothorax slightly wider than long, angles rounded off, but sides subparallel in 
middle ; granules conspicuously transversely arranged or subcarinate Elytra at 
base narrower than widest part of prothorax, but quite as wide across the post- 
humeral swellings ; with rows of large punctures, partly or entirely concealed by 
clothing; suture on apical slope, and parts of odd interstices elevated Meta- 
sternum and two basal segments of abdomen widely and shallowly concave Front 
coxae widely separated, middle ones each with a conspicuous tooth; front tibiae 
dilated and suddenly deflected at apex, with an obtuse notch near outer apex the 
apex itself acute, middle tibiae strongly arched near apex and acutely pointed 
hmd tibiae rather strongly curved. Length, 7-9 mm. " * 

f. Differs in being more robust, elytra less strongly narrowed behind the 
posthumeral swellings, two basal segments of abdomen gently convex middle 
coxae unarmed, front tibiae less suddenly deflected at apex, the other tibiae 
shorter, and all with shorter clothing. ' 

New South Wales: Ebor (C. R Deuquet), Barrington Tops (H. T Carter) 

A remarkable species. The prothoracic granules transversely' arranged 
dentate middle coxae, and front tibiae notched near apex, associate it with 
M. dentipes, from which it differs in being much larger, and elvtra rougher The 
tront tibiae are much wider near apex, the external notch/ although distinct 
is rather shallow (it 1S less defined on the type than on the Barrington Tops' 
specimen) and the tip is actually pointed (it is necessary, however, to examine 
the tibiae from several directions to see these particulars). The general outlines 
are much as those of M. niger, but the legs are very different. Seen from behind 
the base ot the elytra appears strongly trisinuate, but from directly above it- 
appears almost evenly arched, with the shoulders clasping the base of the pro- 
thorax ; ; the third interstice is distinctly elevated near the base, and again beyond 
the middle, the elevation abruptly terminated at the summit of the apical slope 
so asto appear subtuberculate. From one direction the tooth on each middle 
coxa is seen to be flat, and wider than long, from another it appears as an acute 
spine, lhe hmd tibiae are shining internally, with transverse granules or short 
ridges, denoting an approach to the numerous transverse ridges of M niaer The 
clothing of the type is of a rather light brown, becoming, paler on the 'under 
surface; on the upper surtace there are many pale setae, m the majority on the 
pronotum, m the minority on the elytra, on the legs they are about evenly divided 
lhe specimen from Barrington Tops has the clothing obscured by dried mud' 


and the hairs on the lower part of the front tibiae are compacted, so as to appear 
to be fasciculate near the apex, its front tibiae are longer and more complicated 
at the apex (figs. 3-5) than mi the type (fig. 2), but it was not made the type 
on account of its poor condition. 

Mandalotus melancholicus, n. sp. 

Fig. 6. 
$ . Black, parts of antennae and tarsi reddish. Densely clothed with sooty 
or sooty-brown scales, interspersed with sloping or curved setae ; on the elytra 
almost confined to a single row on each interstice; tibial fringes rather long. 

Rostrum with median carina glabrous throughout. Antennae rather long. 
Prothorax slightly wider than long, sides rounded and widest slightly in advance 
of the middle, median line well defined; with flattened granules transversely 
arranged, or altered to short transverse or oblique ridges. Elytra slightly narrower 
than widest part of prothorax, base trisinuate, posthumeral prominences feeble 
and scarcely visible from above ; with rows of large punctures, appearing much 
smaller through clothing, alternate interstices slightly raised. Metasternum and 
basal segment of abdomen rather shallowly depressed. Front coxae decidedly 
but not very widely separated, the middle ones almost twice as widely; front 
tibiae multigranulate internally, somewhat dilated towards base, and then suddenly 
narrowed to base itself, apex acutely pointed. Length, 5*5-6'5 mm. 
New South Wales: Armidale (C. F. Deuquet). Two specimens. 
The transverse or oblique arrangement of the prothoracic granules is not as 
pronounced as on the species referred to G, in the key, but regarding it as 
correctly placed there, it could hardly be associated with M. abdommahs (a much 
smaller and otherwise different species), as the basal segment of abdomen is 
punctate and clothed; passing that species it could only be associated with 
M. crawfordi, also much smaller and otherwise different. Regarding it as belong- 
ing to GG, it differs from M. fovcatus, in the much less depth of the depression 
common to the metasternum and abdomen, that species also has quite rounded 
prothoracic granules ; passing it, it could be placed with M. albonotaius, which is a 
smaller species, with very different clothing and granules. It seems better 
referred to G. The middle coxae could hardly be regarded as ridged, although 
shining along the middle ; they are certainly not armed. On one specimen there 
is an obscurely pale ring on each femur, and a few pale scales on the under 
surface, but on the other the clothing is practically uniformly dark throughout. 
In general appearance it resembles M. crudus (with mesosternum armed), 
arciferus and fimbriahts (with abdomen carinated), and piliventris (with densely 
clothed abdomen). It is close to M. corrugicollis, but the transverse arrangement 
of the prothoracic granules much less conspicuous; on that species the ridges on 
the disc are all distinctly wider than the head, whereas on the present one there 
are many true granules^ and no ridge is the width of the head; on the present 
species also there is an impressed median line, which is absent from corrugicollis, 
the front tibiae are more arched at the apex, and the clothing generally is darker. 

Mandalotus incisipes, n. sp. 

Fig. 7. 

$ . Blackish, parts of antennae and tarsi reddish. Densely clothed with 
muddy-brown scales and setae, the latter on the elytra almost confined to a row 
on each interstice. 

Rostrum with median carina exposed throughout. Scape rather long and 
thin (the rest of antennae wanting). Prothorax moderately transverse, sides 
gently rounded, median line slight; with flattened granules transversely arranged 
and often elongated. Elytra across posthumeral tubercles (which are rather 


obtuse) the width of prothorax ; with rows of large punctures, appearing much 
smaller through clothing; odd interstices slightly elevated. Metasternum and 
basal segment of abdomen with a rather deep excavation. Front coxae distinctly 
but not very widely separated, the middle ones each with an acute ridge but not 
dentate, and separated more than the front ones, front tibiae suddenly' notched 
near lower apex. Length, 6 mm. 

New South Wales: Mittagong, in January (H. J. Carter). Unique 
In the key could be associated with M. dentipes, but the notch on the front 
tibiae is on the lower side of the apex, on that species it is on the upper side. 

Mandalotus medianus, n. sp. 
Figs. 8, 19, 20. 
•*■< Blackish, parts of antennae and of legs obscurely reddish Densely 
clothed with sooty-brown scales, variegated with stramineous, and interspersed 
with setae, on the elytra almost confined to a single row on each interstice 

Rostrum with median carina concealed towards base, but exposed in front 
Antennae moderately long. Prothorax slightly transverse, sides rather strongly 
rounded; traversed by numerous fine ridges, becoming granules on sides Elytra 
slightly narrower than prothorax, base trisinuate, posthumeral tubercles rather 
reeble; with rows of large punctures, appearing much smaller through clothing 
alternate interstices feebly elevated, the apical slope somewhat rough but not 
tuberculate. hront coxae widely separated, not much less than the least distance 
between the middle ones, which are obtusely but fairly strongly dentate* front 
tibiae rather thm, moderately curved at apex, hind ones longer, shining internally 
and with transverse ridges across the median third. Length, 5-6 mm 

5 . Differs in being wider in proportion, prothoracic ridges shorter two 
basal segments of abdomen gently convex, legs shorter, middle coxae unarmed 
and hind tibiae without transverse ridges. 
New South Wales (C. F. Deuquet). 

In the key could be associated with M. oxyomus, from which it is distract bv 
thetransverse ridges on the inner side of the hind tibiae, somewhat as on M niaer 
It is somewhat like M. contortus, on a reduced scale, but the tibiae are very 
different 1 he paler scales are uniform on the head, form a distinct spot at the 
base of the third interstice on each elytron, clothe most of the sides, and form 
feeble spots on the rest of the upper surface; on the under surface and legs they 
cover about half the derm. The basal segment of the abdomen of the male is 
flattened and depressed in middle, the flattened space being almost glabrous and 
margined externally by a curved line, extending from the" tip of the segment to 
the middle of the coxa on each side, so that at first glance it appears carinatcd, 
although it is not really so. On the female the same space (although -entlv 
convex) is similarly bounded. . B 

Mandalotus canalicornis, n. sp. 

Figs. 16, 24. 

$ . Rlack, parts of antennae and tarsi reddish. Densely clothed with scales 
interspersed with stout setae. 

Scape very stout, lower surface grooved on apical third Prothorax 
moderately transverse, sides rather strongly rounded, granules transversely 
arranged and many altered to short ridges. Elytra across middle wider than 
prothorax, base arcuate, shoulders acutely produced; with rows of lar^e more 
or less concealed punctures; the odd interstices slightly elevated. Basaf segment 
of abdomen depressed m middle. Front coxae almost touching, middle tibiae with 
a slight notch near lower apex, claws distinctly separated. Length, 4-5 mm. 


2 Differs in being slightly more robust, two basal segments of abdomen 
gently convex, legs slightly shorter, and middle tibiae feebly incurved near lower 


New South Wales: Armidale (C. F. Deuquet). ^ 

As the prothoracic granules are transversely arranged the species would not 
go as far as H (the crassicomis group) in the key ; but in any case distinguished 
from all of that group by the normally separated claws (except M. nodicollis, 
which is structurally very different), and the transverse arrangement of the 
granules Referring'it to G, it could be associated with M. acutangulus, which has 
the scape thinner, but heavier than on other species of the genus (except those 
of H) and the front coxae more distant (about as far apart as the median ones 
of this species) ; on this species they are almost in contact. On M. cratvfordi, 
transversa, and setosus, the scape is much thinner. The three specimens taken 
have the clothing obscured by dried mud, but on scraping some of this away 
the distinctive sculpture is revealed. The middle tibiae of the male have a 
slight subapical notch, but it is obscured by the clothing and invisible from most 


Mandalotus goudiei, n. sp. 

$ . Black, parts of antennae and legs reddish. Densely clothed with sooty 
scales, with variable whitish or greyish markings, and interspersed with sloping 
setae, also varying in colour. 

Rostrum short, median carina traceable throughout. Scape very stout, except 
the basal fourth. Prothorax moderately transverse, sides strongly rounded; with 
numerous round granules traceable through clothing. Elytra subcordate, shoulders 
rounded, considerably wider than prothorax across middle; with rows of large 
punctures, appearing much smaller through clothing, or quite concealed; alternate 
interstices very feebly elevated. Basal segment of abdomen flattened m middle. 
Front coxae touching, middle fairly close together. Length, 3 mm. 

9 . Differs in being slightly more robust, two basal segments of abdomen 
gently convex, and slightly shorter legs. 

Victoria: Black Rock, in May (J. C. Goudie). Numerous specimens 
obtained by sieving fallen leaves. 

The smallest of all the species with heavy scape, and one of the most interest- 
ing of the genus. The claws at first appear to be single, but on close examination 
are seen to be close together (as on most of the species of H, in the key). On 
several specimens some of the body parts are reddish. The distribution of the 
paler scales is scarcely alike on any two specimens before me; on the type they 
cover most of the rostrum, form a distinct line on each side of the prothorax, 
and a few discal spots, cover about half of the elytra, of which the largest area 
begins on each shoulder, is obliquely dilated hindwards till it covers most of the 
apical slope, and cover much of the abdomen (there is a black median vitta on 
the three apical segments) and legs. On several specimens the shades are much 
less sharply contrasted, so that the surface appears rather feebly mottled; on 
several the pale line on each side of the prothorax docs not extend the full length, 
but is sharply defined; the markings in the scutellar region are particularly 
variable. The intercoxal process of the mesosternum is briefly subcorneal, but as 
it is short, and alike on both sexes, the species could not fairly be referred to C, 

in the key. 

Mandalotus granicollis, n. sp. 

a . Black, antennae and legs reddish. Rather densely clothed with brown 

scales, variegated with grey, and becoming sparse on under surface, most of which 

is shining; with sparse upright setae, more distinct on elytra than elsewhere; 

tibiae with rather long hairs on under surface, sparse on the front and middle 

pairs, denser and longer on hind ones. 


. o T Wltb r.™ ed ian caMna distinct only in front. Antennae moderately 

long Prothorax slightly transverse, sides rather strongly rounded; with numerous 
small, shining granules. Elytra widest slightly behind shoulders, where the width 
is equal to that of prothorax, base evenly curved, without posthumeral tubercles- 
with rows of punctures, appearing fairly small through clothing; third and fifth 
interstices wider than the others, but not elevated above them. Basal segment 
of abdomen rather deeply depressed along middle. Front coxae touching hind 
tibiae with a slight notch near outer apex, and several denticles (obscured bv 
clothing) about inner apex. Length, 3-5 mm. 

rr ir N «", S °? th n Val£S: M ° Unt Tomah ' in Oct ober. Type (unique) in Mr 
f\ E. Wilsons collection. ^ \ i / 

The hind tibiae are conspicuously fringed, but as only the male is known 
it cannot with certainty be associated with M. inusitatus, in which it is fringed 
m both sexes; it differs from the male of that species in the conspicuous median 
depression on the basal segment of abdomen, on each side of which there is a 
swelling (but not a tubercle or carina) ; passing that species, in the key, the feeble 
markings of the elytra are, not sufficient to associate it with M. matnlahis and 
cordipemns (two smaller species), passing which it is distinct from M nymvo- 
gaster (also with a shining abdomen), alphus and muscivorus, by the very 
different hind tibiae. It is perhaps nearer muscivorus than any previously named 
species In some lights some of the scales have a faint golden gloss The pro- 
thorax has numerous small shining granules, which apparently are normally with- 
out scales. " y 

Mandalotus cinereus, n. sp. 

$ Reddish-brown, some parts almost black, antennae and tarsi paler 
Densely clothed with almost uniform white or greyish-white scales, with numerous 
sloping or suberect setae, on the elytra confined to a single row on each interstice- 
trout tibiae with numerous long hairs on under surface. * " 

Rostrum with median carina shining throughout. Antennae long and thin 
I rothorax moderately transverse, sides strongly rounded, granules normally 
almost concealed. Elytra slightly wider than prothorax. base evenlv incurved • 
without posthumeral swellings; with rows of large punctures, appearing much 
smaller through clothmg; interstices almost even. Two basal seoments of 
abdomen flattened and minutely granulate in middle. Front coxae widely 
separated, tibiae rather thm, front and hmd ones moderately arched at apex and 
longer than the middle pair. Length, 4-5 mm. ' P 

9 . Differs in having the elytra wider, two basal segments of abdomen 
evenly convex, legs shorter, and front tibiae without special clothing. 

New South Wales: Darling River flood of May and June, 1890 (R Helms) 
lypes, m Australian Museum; cotypes, in South Australian Museum ' 

wifh^rlv^-^TT 1 a ^ ea ?" CC of beach-frequenting species of Timarcta, but 
with t airly distinct ocular lobes, and apical incurvature of presternum well 
defined. I he mtercoxal process of the mesosternum, in the female is wider thn 
the coxae, but the 1926 key deals only with males ; on the male of this ImSmZ 
process is scarcely perceptibly, if at all, wider than the coxae. In that key nass- 
m S M rufimanus (which has much shorter legs and antennae and different' cloth- 
ing), it should probably be associated with M. pdlidus and blackmorei which 
are yery differently clothed, and with shorter antennae. The prothoracic granules 
are feebly traceable before abrasion, but after this they are seen to be moderaXy 
large and obtuse certamly not very minute (as on the species of V) or ordinari v 
distinct (as on the species of VVV). On two specimens many of the scale havl 
a silvery gloss. Several females were taken, but only one male. 


Mandalotus modicus, n. sp. 

3 Black, antennae and tarsi obscurely reddish. Densely clothed with 

muddy-brown, feebly variegated scales, and with sloping and mostly pale setae, 

on the elytra confined to a single row on each interstice ; tibiae with rather long 

hair on under surface, denser, but not very dense, on the front pair than on the 


Rostrum with median carina fine and distinct to base. Antennae compara- 
tively long and thin. Prothorax moderately transverse, sides strongly rounded, 
median line moderately impressed; granules traceable through clothing. Elytra 
at widest the width of prothorax, conjointly arcuate at base, posthumeral swell- 
ings feeble; with rows of large punctures, appearing much smaller through the 
clothing, alternate interstices feebly elevated. Met aster num and basal segment 
of abdomen concave in middle. Front coxae widely separated, almost as widely as 
the middle pair, front tibiae moderately arched at apex. Length, 4-5-5"5 mm. 

2 . Differs in having the elytra across middle considerably wider than pro-/ 
thorax, basal segments of abdomen evenly convex, legs shorter, front tibiae less 
curved at apex, and without special clothing. 

Queensland; Maryborough, abundant in flood debris, in January (E. W. 

The middle coxae are slightly more distant than the front ones, but referring 
the species to NN, in the key, it could be associated with M. r(Mi, which is a 
smaller species, with much more separated front coxae; it somewhat resembles 
M. piliventris, but the abdomen is without the long clothing, which is so con- 
spicuous on the male of that species. Referring it to NNN, the prothoracic 
granules associate it with VVV, of which M. subglaber is a smaller and more 
sparsely clothed species; M. angustus is narrower, with front coxae much eloper 
together and paler clothing ; and M. ciliatus has much more conspicuous clothing 
on front and hind tibiae. It differs from M, albonotatus in the clothing at base 
of elytra and middle of abdomen ; M. angustipictas is narrower, with thicker scape ; 
and M. srmilis has smaller prothoracic granules and shorter tibiae; and all three 
species, which it somewhat resembles, have front coxae less widely separated. 
It is slightly more robust than M. villosipes, the depression on the under surface 
shallower, and less trough-like in character, and front coxae twice as widely 
separated! On many specimens the clothing is obscured by dried mud, but even 
on others in perfect condition it is only feebly variegated. On abrasion the 
elytral punctures are seen to be distinctly wider than the striae, before abrasion 
they appear to be much less, they are larger on the male than on the female. The 
tibiae of the male are shining and with small granules internally, the hind ones 
from one point of view appear to be feebly dentate at the middle, and gently 
incurved between there and the apex. On one female the deciduous mandibular 
processes are present and boomerang-shaped. 

Mandalotus oculivorus, n. sp. 

S . Dark brown, antennae and legs reddish. Densely clothed with greyish 
scales and with sloping setae. 

Rostrum without visible median carina. Antennae moderately long. Pro- 
thorax slightly transverse, sides evenly rounded. Elytra across middle distinctly 
wider than prothorax, base conjointly slightly arcuate, without posthumeral 
swellings ; punctures appearing small through clothing, or quite concealed ; inter- 
stices even. Two basal segments of abdomen very slightly depressed in middle. 
Front coxae distinctly but not widely separated, middle coxae obtusely dentate. 
Length, 2 mm. 

South Australia: Smoky Bay, in July (H. C. Allen). 


A minute species, of which two specimens were sent by Mr. Allen as eating 
the eyes of seed wheat in the ground, and doing considerable damage. The front 
coxae are not very widely, although distinctly, separated, and in the key the 
species might be associated with NN, from all the species placed there it differs 
m being much smaller. If referred to NNN, it could be associated with M. micro- 
scopiciis, from which, as also from M. incojispicnus, it differs in having the scape 
longer and thinner, sides of prothorax more rounded, and elytra wide/in propor- 
tion. M. puncticolUs is an even smaller species, and has the 'front coxae touching. 
The middle coxae from some directions appear ridged, from another obtusely 
dentate, and the species is much smaller than any other having dentate or sub- 
dentate coxae. ^ The clothing is almost uniformly grey, except that the elytra 
have a darkly-lined appearance, due to the flattening down of the setae on each 
interstice, but in some lights the elytral scales have a slight golden lustre. On a 
female sent with the type, the setae are more conspicuous and on the elytra are 
not flattened down. A female, from Adelaide, that appears to belong to the 
species, has the golden gloss distinct on the prothorax and elytra, and numerous 
small granules are distinctly traceable, on the type no granules are. Another 
female, from the Mount Lofty Ranges, has the elytra and most of the under 
surface black. It is probable, however, that the colour is variable, apart from the 
age of the specimens. On all four specimens the median carina of the rostrum, 
if present, is entirely concealed. 

The females have the abdomen evenly convex, middle coxae simple, tibiae 
shorter, with shorter clothing (on the tibiae of the male the under surface is 
clothed with long hair, but it is rather sparse, even on the front pair). 

Mandalotus acanthocnemis Lea. 
Fig. 9. 
Mr. Oke gave a figure of a front leg as of this species (p. 183, fig. E), show- 
ing the femur as dentate, and the tibia as having a fairly large triangular tooth. 
No doubt from certain directions the femur may appear dentate, but it is not so 
on the type; the tibial tooth is also more acute than as figured by him, but it is 
evidently variable (see his note at p. 181). 

Mandalotus egenus Oke. 
JTiere arc two specimens of this species, from Trafalgar. Victoria, in Mr. 
F. E. Wilson's collection. They agree well with the description, and I concur 
in Mr. Oke's opinion that a new section "DD, cee. A transverse carina on second 
segment— egenus" would be required to fit it into the 1926 key. 

Mandalotus excavatus Lea. 
A specimen probably belonging to this species, is in the Macleay Museum, 
from the Clarence River. It is immature, as the general colour is castaneous* 
and the right mandibular process is still present. It is considerably larger (6 mm. ) 
than the type, and the elevation on each side of the basal segment of abdomen 
is stronger, and produced upwards, so that it should be regarded as a tubercle; 
as such, in the key, instead of being placed with DD, it could be placed with D,' 
and associated with M. taylori, which has very different prothoracic sculpture', 
and front coxae separated only half the distance. 

Mandalotus ferrugineus Lea, var. 

Two specimens, sexes, from Laureldale, New South Wales, apparently 

represent a variety of this species. They differ from the types in being larger 

(male 10 mm., female 8 mm.). The male has the abdomen partly abraded, 

exposing a curved ridge, hardly a carina, on the basal segment, arched forwards' 


and a series of small granules on each of the third and fourth ; the middle coxae 
are ridged but not as acutely as on the type (on the type from some directions 
they appear to be dentate) ; on partial abrasion its prothorax is seen to be trans- 
versely sculptured; the elytral tubercles and projections at the base are exactly 
as on the type. At first glance they appear to belong to M. mirabilis, but the male 
is without the long clothing of the under surface of that species, and differs in 
other respects. 

Mandalotus decipiens Lea. 
Fig. 21. 
A sketch is given showing the greatest curvature of the hind tibiae, for com- 
parison with the sudden notch near the apex of that of the following species. 

Mandalotus glaber Blackb. 
Figs. 15, 22, 23. 

A sketch is given of the remarkable middle tibiae of this species, and two 
others of the hind ones from different points of view. 

Mandalotus interocularis Lea. 
Numerous specimens from Cressy (Victoria) belong to this species, but are 
unusually large, 6'5-7 - 5 mm., excluding the rostrum; the carina on the basal 
segment of the abdomen of the male is of the same shape and position, but there 
is a narrow groove immediately anterior to it, so that it appears double (on typical 
specimens this is scarcely indicated), the legs are somewhat stouter, and the front 
coxae are slightly more widely separated. 

Mandalotus irrasus Lea. 

The female of this species differs from the male in being more robust, two 
basal segments of abdomen moderately convex, and legs somewhat shorter. 

Mandalotus medcoxalis Lea. 
Additional males of this species, from Dorrigo, range in length 4-7 mm. The 
female differs from the male in having the two basal segments of abdomen feebly 
convex, the legs shorter, middle coxae unarmed, and hind tibiae less strongly 

Mandalotus metasternalis Lea. 

A male of this species, the second I have seen, from Teralba, New South 
Wales, in Mr. H. J. Carter's collection, is smaller (3 - 5 mm.) than the type, and 
has the tubercles of the metastcrnum smaller, although fairly distinct when viewed 
from the sides, the front tibiae are also less curved at the apex, and the granules 
of the hind tibiae are very indistinct. 

Mandalotus Niger Lea. 
Figs. 25, 26. 
J have previously (1) commented upon a specimen of this species as having 
the mesosternal process rounded, instead of slightly produced, and there is now 
another male, from Illawarra, before me in which it is transversely elliptic. 

Mandalotus nodicollis Lea. 
A specimen of this species, in the Australian Museum, taken between Bourke 
and Wilcannia, on the Darling River, has the scales of the upper surface whitish- 
grey, and the setae unusually long. Most of the specimens previously seen were 
so densely covered with dried mud that the scales were entirely concealed. 

C 1 ) Lea, Trans. Roy. Soc, S. Aust., 1911, p. 75. 


Mandalotus pentagonalis Lea. 
Figs. 10, 11. 
Mr. Goudie has recently taken specimens of this species, at Black Rock, 
Victoria, by sieving fallen leaves. The type was immature, the fresh specimens 
are darker, and on several of them the scales on the upper surface are almost 
entirely black. The front tibiae of the male have a slight notch near the outer 
apex, but it is invisible from most directions. The female differs from the male 
in being more robust, mesosternum with intercoxal process transverse and 
unarmed, abdomen more convex, and legs shorter, with the front tibiae not 

Mandalotus rufipes Lea. 

M. graminicola Oke. 

The type of M. rufipas is a female, and was omitted from the 1926 key for 
that reason. Mr. Oke has recently sent us three paratype males of M. graminicola, 
which undoubtedly belong to the same species ; he considered it could be asso- 
ciated with M, bryophagus, in the key, and in fact at first glance the front coxae 
appear to be in contact, but, examining them closely, there is seen to be a fine 
line between them (this is more pronounced on the female owing to her smaller 
coxae), so that, in the key, its real place is with M. blackburni, a much larger 
species without tubercles on elytra. Mr. Oke's specimens are slightly darker 
than the type, and the sides of the prothorax are less dilated; on two of them the 
median carina of the rostrum is scarcely traceable, on the other, owing to partial 
abrasion, it is distinct. The male is distinct from all the species: with abdomen 
carinated, by its small size, and conspicuous elytral tubercles. 

Mandalotus tenuis Lea. 
At the foot of his description of M, egenus, Mr. Oke said he considered that 
this species should be placed in a separate genus, with M. tenuis, "as neither can be 
said to have ocular lobes." In my description of tenuis I noted: "The ocular 
lobes and the incurvature of the prosternum are unusually feeble." They are 
certainly very feeble, on both species, but in Timareta they are non-existent. 

Mandalotus tibialis Lea. 
Figs. 12, 13. 

Some specimens of this species were sent from Moss Vale, New South Wales, 
as destructive to cabbages. The largest male measures 5 mm. in length. The 
female differs from the male in having the middle coxae unarmed, the front tibiae 
without the remarkable projection near the base, and the hind ones not multi- 
carinate internally. 

Timareta infortunata, n. nom. 

Mandalotus pusUlus Lea. 

Mr. Oke has called my attention to the fact that in transferring M. pusillus to 
Tvmareta, I overlooked that Blackburn had previously (2) described a T. pusilla, 
I, therefore, propose the above name as a substitute. 

Cryptoplus Er., Wiegm. Arch., 1842, I., p. 198. 

Aolles Pasc, Journ. Linn. Soc, Zool., X., 1870, p. 450. 

Cryptoplus was referred by Erichson to the Erirhinides, and as nearest to 
Anoplus. It was evidently unknown (except by description) to Lacordaire, who 
relying on Erichson's description and comments also placed it next to Anoplus, 

( 2 ) Blackburn, Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 1893, p. 265. 


and treated it as the typical form of the Cryptoplides, which he placed as the third 
"Groupe" of the.Erirhinides. It was unknown to Pascoe, Blackburn and others, 
all of whom allowed it to remain in the Erirhinides. 

Although when dealing with clawless, and apparently clawless, Curculionidae 
of Australia I considered the genus, not actually knowing it, and having searched 
for it many times, especially amongst the Tasmanian weevils before me, without 
success, no reference was made to it. 

Early in 1931 I appealed to Dr. Walther Horn for information as to the 
antennae and tarsi of the type; he informed me that it was in the Zoological 
Museum of the Berlin University, where Mr. Korschefsky examined it and 
stated "that the funicle has only six joints and the tarsi only one claw." Sub- 
sequently Prof. Dr. Kuntsen, of the institution, courteously sent it to me for 

On arrival in Adelaide it was at once apparent that it belonged to the genus 
Aolles. This genus I at one time considered as a subgenus only of Haplonyx 
(an opinion evidently shared by Chevrolat), but subsequently, on account of the 
great number of its species, treated as of generic rank. It is, in fact, doubtful 
if Cryptoplus should be regarded as more than a subgenus of Haplonyx, and it 
is certain that it belongs to the Haplonycides, and not to the Erirhinides. 

Explanation of Figures. 
27, side view of head and rostrum of Cryptoplus pcrdix Er. ; 28, of C. orbiculatus Lea; 
29, of C. rostralis Lea. 

Cryptoplus perdix Er. 

Aolles maculipennis Lea, var.? 

Fig. 27. 

Two of the characters mentioned by Erichson are misleading. He described 
the funicle as seven-jointed and the rostrum as straight. 

The type is pinned and unset, and it is difficult from most directions to see 
the funicle sufficiently clearly to count the joints, but from one direction and in a 
good light, it was quite distinctly seen to be six-jointed only (as it is on all the 
species previously referred to Aolles, and this character, with the apparently 
triarticulate tarsi, were relied upon by Pascoe as entitling that genus to separation 
from Haplonyx). Its rostrum is also not quite straight, although twice noted as 
''rectum/' the curvature is certainly very slight, but is sufficiently distinct from 
the sides; on most species of the genus, however, it is quite straight, although on 
a few it is slightly more curved and thinner than on that species. It is also some- 
what longer and thinner on the female than on the male of all the species, of 
which both sexes are before me, and there is sometimes a faintly increased curva- 
ture on the female. From above it appears considerably wider than from the 
sides. I have carefully compared the type with all of the 33 species referred to 
Aolles (except nuceus, not represented in the Adelaide collections, but which 
may belong to rubiginosus), and, although quite an ordinary looking species, it 
does not agree perfectly with any of them. 

The markings of the upper surface are nearest to those of C. variegatus, 
whose rostrum is black and quite straight, and practically identical with those of 
a male of C. maculipennis, whose rostrum is quite straight on the under surface 
and feebly curved at the apex on the upper surface (most specimens of maculi- 
pennis, however, do not resemble it very closely). C. nigrirostris (Haplonyx) is 
also very close, but on all the many specimens of that species before me (some 


smaller and some larger than the type of perdix), there is a postmedian fascia 
on the elytra, and the rostrum is quite straight and black. C. ornatipemiis (of 
which I have taken a specimen at Hobart) is very close to, if not a variety of, 
nigrirostris. C. intermedins has a more distinctly curved rostrum (but which is 
black), and is a decidedly narrower species. C. pictus has a feebly curved black 
rostrum, but has striking markings on elytra. C, rostralis is a larger, fasciate 
species, with a longer and more curved rostrum. All the other species are very 
distinct from it. 

Crypto plus orbiculatus Lea (Aolles). 

Figs. 28, 30-32. 

Three photomicrographs are given to show the antennae and legs of this 
common species, also an outline figure of the side of the head and rostrum. 

Explanation of Figures. 
30, front leg of Cryptoplus orbiculatus Lea; 31, middle leg; 32, antenna. 

Cryptoplus rostralis Lea (Aolles). 
Fig. 29. 
On this species the rostrum is longer and more curved than on any other 
species before me. 


As previously noted cs) the character of the "Metasternum longer than the first 
abdominal segment" of the original species, is not to be depended upon, and on 
each of the four species here described, it is slightly shorter than that segment. 

Menios spurcus, n. sp. 

8 . Black, some parts blackish-brown, antennae and tarsi paler. Densely 
clothed with soft, muddy-brown scales, in places with obscure markings, and 
interspersed with numerous stout, erect setae, some of which form fascicles. 

Rostrum about the length of prothorax, basal two-thirds densely clothed, 
elsewhere subopaque and with small punctures. Antennae inserted about two- 
fifths from apex of rostrum. Prothorax distinctly transverse, sides strongly 
rounded, apex less than half the width of base ; with dense, concealed punctures. 
Elytra oblong to near apex, distinctly wider than prothorax; with rows of large, 
partly concealed punctures. Femora rather strongly and acutely dentate ; tibiae 
thin. Length, 4*8-5 -2 mm. 

$ . Differs in having rostrum slightly longer, clothed only on basal third, 
elsewhere shining and with small punctures, and basal segment evenly convex, 
instead of flattened in middle. 

North Australia: Darwin (G. F. Hill). 

( 3 ) Lea, Trans. Roy. Soc, S. Aust, 1913, p. 285. 


A dingy species, somewhat like M. nebulosus, but with facets of eyes slightly 
smaller, elytral fascicles differently disposed, the setae more numerous, and lateral 
interstice not glabrous. M. sordidatits has clothing of much the same colour, 
but more evenly plating the surface, and with different fascicles. On each of two 
specimens there is a fairly distinct dark fascia, across the middle of the elytra, 
but narrowed at the suture, and some still more obscure subapical spots; from 
two others markings are practically absent. There are some scattered setae on the 
prothorax, but four distinct fascicles across middle, four less distinct ones at base 
(these appear to be easily abraded), and two feeble ones at apex; on the elytra 
scattered setae are rather numerous, and there are three or four feeble fascicles on 
the third interstice, and a few still more feeble ones elsewhere. 

Menios ferrugineus, n. sp. 

2 . Blackish, antennae and tarsi reddish. Densely clothed with rusty-brown 
scales, in places mottled with sooty-brown ; with stout setae scattered about, and 
forming numerous fascicles. 

Rostrum not very stout, apical two-thirds shining and with small punctures. 
Antennae inserted about two-fifths from apex of rostrum. Prothorax moderately 
transverse, apex suddenly narrowed and less than half the width of base ; with 
dense, concealed punctures, and a short median carina. Elytra much wider than 
prothorax, parallel-sided to beyond the middle; with rows of large, setiferous, 
partly concealed punctures. Basal segments of abdomen evenly convex. Femora 
strongly and acutely dentate, tibiae thin and compressed. Length, 5-5 mm. 

Queensland: Kuranda (F. P. Dodd). Unique. 

At first glance apparently belonging to Tychreus, but with the coarsely faceted 
eyes of Menios. There are six fascicles on the prothorax, of which the two 
median ones are more distinct and supported on larger tubercles than the others ; 
on the elytra there are three fairly large fascicles on the third interstice, three 
smaller ones on the fifth, and a few still smaller ones elsewhere. The dark 
mottlings of the elytra are almost confined to the apical slope and middle of sides, 
and on the prothorax to the sides, they also form obscure rings on the legs. 

Menios poecilopterus, n. sp. 

Blackish, antennae and tarsi reddish. Densely clothed with rusty-brown 
scales, mottled with paler and darker ones, and with numerous short setae, in 
places compacted to form feeble fascicles or clusters. 

Rostrum about the length of prothorax, not very thin, basal half clothed ; 
elsewhere subopaque and with dense and small punctures. Antennae inserted 
slightly nearer apex than base of rostrum. Prothorax moderately transverse, sides 
strongly rounded, apex about half the width of base ; with dense, concealed punc- 
tures. Elytra parallel-sided to near apex; with rows of setiferous punctures 
indicated through clothing, alternate interstices slightly elevated. Basal segment 
of abdomen slightly flattened in middle. Femora strongly and acutely dentate, 
tibiae rather thin. Length, 5 mm. 

Queensland : Cairns (J. A. x\nderson). Type (unique), in Queensland 

Near M, albifasciatus and sparctts, and like those species its fascicles are 
few in number and ill-defined. In many respects they approach Evaniocis, but 
the species of that genus have the club essentially different. It has the general 
appearance of Phlaeoglymma mixta, but differs from the genus in having the 
mesosternal receptacle more elevated and cavernous, and eyes with coarser facets. 
The pale scales on the upper surface are usually in small spots, of which several 
form a curved line on each shoulder, and an irregular fascia crowning the apical 
slope ; the dark spots are still smaller in area, and many are due to clusters of 


blackish setae ; of the setae there are many on the prothorax, compacted to form 
six clusters, scarcely fascicles; on the elytra the black setae form fairly long spots 
on the third interstice, near the base, and at the middle, on the second before the 
middle, and some irregular clusters before and behind the pale humeral spots ; on 
the pale spots some of the setae are almost white. There is a single line of scales 
on the inner side piece of the mesosternum. The type is probably a male. 

Menios papuensis, n. sp. 

$ . Blackish, some parts obscurely paler. Densely clothed with rusty-brown 
scales, variegated with paler and darker ones, and with numerous setae, in places 
forming fascicles. 

Rostrum moderately stout, distinctly curved, the length of prothorax; with 
dense and rather small, but sharply-defined punctures, concealed only about basal 
third. Antennae inserted slightly nearer apex than base of rostrum. Prothorax" 
moderately transverse, sides strongly rounded, apex less than half the width of 
base; with large, setifcrous punctures, and smaller concealed ones. Elytra much 
wider than prothorax. parallel-sided to near apex; with rows of rather large, 
rough, partly concealed punctures; many of the interstices with small granules, 
mere numerous on the ninth than on the others. Basal segment of abdomen 
flattened in middle. Femora stout, strongly and acutely dentate, tibiae somewhat 
compressed. Length, 7 mm. 

Papua: Mount Lamington (C. T. McNamara). Unique. 

In the table of allies of Chaetectetorus^ this species could only be referred 
to Acrotychrens or to a new genus; but, on the only known species of that genus, 
the femora are more clavate, more strongly dentate, and the tibiae are strongly 
arched at the base ; the general appearance also is very different. The upper surface 
is strikingly like that of Pseiidomctynis antares, but the rostrum is wider, 
moderately curved, and the facets of the eyes are larger. The species of Mctynts 
have the rostrum stouter, facets of the eyes smaller, and tibiae wider. The 
metasternum is slightly shorter than the following segment, and as this is the only 
character which separates it from the original species of Menios, and the difference 
between the two sclerites being variable, it appears desirable to refer it to that 
genus, now first recorded from New Guinea. On the upper surface the scales 
are irregularly mixed, no fairly large patch being of any one shade of colour, 
although the fascicles are mostly composed of dark setae ; on the prothorax there 
are two rather feeble clusters of setae in front, and four distinct fascicles across 
the middle; on the elytra there are two fairly large fascicles, supported on 
tubercles, on the third interstice (one near the base, the other postmedian) and 
a smaller one behind, four small ones on each side of the suture (the largest crown- 
ing the apical slope), three small ones on the fifth, and very feeble ones on the 
seventh. On the sides of the prothorax, invisible from above, the lower margins 
of the punctures appear as small, shining granules. 

Menios nebulosus Lea. 

Two specimens from South Australia (Mount Lofty and Kangaroo Island) 
appear to belong to this species, but differ from the types in being slightly larger 
and with more white scales on the elytra; these form oblique vittae from the 
shoulders to near the suture at the basal third, and a moderately distinct fascia at 
the summit of the apical slope; on the Island specimen the sides of the prothorax 
and base of elytra are clothed with fawn-coloured scales. In general they are 
strikingly close to Phlacoglymma mixta, but have the mesosternal receptacle 
cavernous, instead of open. 

( 4 ) Lea, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1909, p. 594. 


Menios alternatus Lea. 
A male from Dunk Island, in the Queensland Museum, is paler than usual, 
and has a fairly well-defined white V on the elytra, touching the suture at the 
basal third, and almost touching the shoulders; there is a fairly large irregular 
dark spot on each elytron. The fascicles of its upper surface are ill-defined, being 
represented only by a few feebly compacted scales. 

Menios internatus Pasc. 

Mr. F. E. Wilson has reared specimens of this species from stalks of the 
waratah (Telopea speciosissima), at Mount Victoria (New South Wales). 

Metyrculus sordidus, n. sp. 

i , Black, antennae and tarsi reddish. Densely clothed with sooty-brown 
and paler scales, and with numerous short, stout, sloping setae. 

Rostrum stout, slightly shorter than prothorax, dilated to apex, densely 
clothed throughout. Antennae inserted slightly nearer base than apex of rostrum. 
Prothorax very little wider than long, sides rather strongly rounded; punctures 
concealed. Elytra much wider than prothorax, parallel-sided to near apex; with 
rows of large punctures, appearing small through clothing. Mesosternal receptacle 
briefly Y-shaped. Metasternum and basal segment of abdomen subequal, the 
latter faintly depressed in middle. Femora not very stout, edentate. Length, 
3*5 mm. 

Queensland: Bowen (Aug. Simson). Unique. 

The mesosternal receptacle, somewhat elevated and keeled, associates this 
species with M. mediofasciahis, which is a much larger and otherwise different 
species; it is about the size of M. trimaculattis, but the elytra are not bimaculate 
at the median third, and the scales on the metasternum are not individually 
distinct; on M. cinerascens the mesosternal receptacle is U-shaped. Most of the 
scales on the upper surface are sooty-brown, with some pale ones on the scutellum 
and near the shoulders, and some small, inconspicuous spots elsewhere; on the 
under surface, both of body and of legs, most of the scales are whitish. The 
setae nowhere form fascicles, or even clusters, and they are usually of the same 
colour as the scales amongst which they are placed ; they form a regular row on 
each elytral interstice. 

Metyrculus semicircularis, n. sp. 

$ . Dark brown, antennae paler. Densely clothed with slaty-grey, sooty, 
and white scales, and with numerous short, sloping setae, in places compacted to 
form fascicles or clusters. 

Rostrum wide, slightly shorter than prothorax, sides somewhat dilated to 
apex, densely clothed throughout. Antennae inserted almost in middle of rostrum. 
Prothorax very little wider than long, sides gently rounded, apex about half the 
width of base ; punctures concealed. Elytra much wider than prothorax, parallel- 
sided to beyond middle; with series of large punctures, appearing much smaller 
through clothing, or quite concealed. Mesosternal receptacle briefly U-shaped, 
base not keeled. Femora edentate. Length, 2*0-2-5 mm. 

Torres Straits: Cornwallis and Mabuiag Islands (C. T. McNamara). 

Allied to but slightly smaller than M. sinuatus, and with more pale scales on 
the pronotum, the base of the mesosternal receptacle is also slightly smaller (much 
as that of M. cinerascens). Most of the scales on the upper surface of the Corn- 
wallis Island specimens are slaty-grey, with some small dark spots, sometimes 
sooty, on the sides of the elytra; on the prothorax there is a distinct white semi- 
circle, its ends touching the elytra near the shoulders, and less distinct pale mark- 
ings on the apical sides ; on the elytra there are small white spots about the 


shoulders, crowning the apical slope, and about the apex; there are some dark- 
markings on the legs, but most of the scales on the under parts are white. The 
setae are mostly dark, and form feeble clusters on the prothorax, and two fairly 
distinct fascicles on the third interstice on each elytron. On the Mabuiag Island 
specimens the semicircle on the pronotum is present, but less distinct; on one of 
them the pale markings of the elytra are more conspicuous, and form a rather 
wide but not uniform fascia across the summit of the apical slope (to a certain 
extent this specimen resembles Achopera bifasciata, but that is a decidedly 
narrower species, with a larger mesosternal receptacle) ; on another they are less 
distinct; on each of them, in addition to the fascicles on the third interstice, there 
is a small one on the second, and another on the fifth. All the specimens taken 
appear to be males. 

A specimen from Cairns, in the Maclcay Museum, appears to belong to the 
species, but is slightly larger (2*8 mm.), the semicircle on the prothorax is feeble 
(but can be traced) ; white spots are absent from the elytra (or very feebly 
denned), most of their scales being pale slaty-grey, with some irregular dark 
spots on the sides. Where its scales have been abraded the derm is seen to be 
reddish, probably from immaturity. 

Metyrculus postscutellaris, n. sp. 
9 . Black, antennae and tarsi reddish. Densely clothed with pale rusty- 
brown scales, becoming mouse-coloured on most of apical half of elytra, mostly 
brown on abdomen, but with some blackish and whitish ones, whitish and brown 
on metasternum; elytra with a row of inconspicuous, short, sloping setae on each 
interstice, but with a distinct white one in each seriate puncture. 

Rostrum rather wide, the length of prothorax, quite straight, basal third 
clothed, elsewhere shining and with small but distinct punctures. Antennae 
inserted slightly nearer apex than base of rostrum. Prothorax distinctly trans- 
verse, sides strongly narrowed near apex, which is less than half the width of 
base, with five fascicles, supported on slight tubercles, transversely placed slightly 
in advance of middle, the median one slightly larger and with paler scales than the 
others ; with dense, concealed punctures. Elytra closely applied to and no wider 
than prothorax, parallel-sided to beyond the middle; with rows of fairly large 
punctures, and with a few small (and usually concealed) granules; with a small 
granulate swelling immediately behind the scutellum. Mesosternal receptacle 
with emargination short and wide. Metasternum slightly shorter than first seg- 
ment of abdomen, but longer than second. Femora stout, edentate, and strongly 
grooved, tibiae compressed. Length, 6*5 mm. 

$ . Differs in having rostrum slightly shorter and wider, opaque, and with 
crowded punctures, antennae inserted slightly nearer the apex of rostrum, and 
two basal segments of abdomen flat in middle, instead of convex. 

Queensland: Cairns (Dr. W. Horn, from H. Hacker, and Lea collection, 
from Dr. E. W. Ferguson). 

Somewhat larger and distinctly wider than any other species of the genus ; 
to a certain extent its appearance is suggestive of Tychreus, but the femora are 
edentate and strongly grooved. There are no true fascicles on the elytra, but the 
post-scutellar elevation is very distinct. The head and rostrum of the male being 
badly abraded, and only part of one antenna left, the female was made the type 
of the species. 

Metyrculus mediofasciatus Lea, var. 

Two specimens from Ebor (New South Wales) agree in many respects so 
perfectly with the types of this species, that they can hardly represent more than 
a variety of it; but they have the median fascia of the elytra snowy-white (with a 
few darker scales and setae in it), on the abdomen and legs nearly all the scales 


are also snowy-white, and on the abdomen they are nearly all distinctly longer 
than wide (subsetose in character, although adpressed). On the types of the 
species the abdominal scales are all brown and much shorter, most of them being 
quite circular. A specimen from Dorrigo has the elytral fascia white, with the 
abdominal scales equally thin, but of a darker colour than on the Ebor specimens. 

Metyrculus bimaculatus Lea, var. C, n. var. 
A male from Eccleston (New South Wales) is larger (6 mm.) than usual, 
and the white spot on each elytron is broken up into two narrow strips on the 
fourth and sixth interstices, the part on the sixth being slightly nearer the base 
than the part on the fourth. A somewhat similar, but slightly larger specimen, 
was in the Blackburn collection, the spot on its right elytron is divided as on the 
Eccleston specimen, but not that on the left. 


A female of this species, from Tasmania, differs from the male (the only 
sex hitherto known), in having the rostrum parallel-sided, shining, and with 
minute punctures from apex to behind antennae, and then rapidly increasing in 
width to base; the antennae are also inserted nearer the middle, and the abdomen 
is more convex. 


A specimen of this species from Dorrigo (New South Wales), differs from 
the type in having most of the elytral scales (except those forming fascicles) 
dark green, with a slight metallic gloss ; a few of the prothoracic scales are also 
somewhat greenish, but most of them are deep black. 


A male in the Queensland Museum (labelled as taken in January, 1893 by 
C. J. Wild, on Mount Tambourine), appears to belong to this species, but ditters 
from Tasmanian specimens in being somewhat larger (10 mm.). 

Achopera alba, n. sp. 

2 Black. Densely clothed with whitish scales, interspersed with stout, 
depressed, whitish setae, except that on the prothorax some are brownish. 

Rostrum about the length of prothorax, not very wide in front, but dilated 
from insertion of antennae (slightly nearer base than apex) to base ; basal third 
densely clothed, elsewhere glabrous (except for a few setae on sides), highly 
polished and with a few small punctures. Prothorax moderately transverse, sides 
rather strongly rounded, apex more than half the width of base; punctures con- 
cealed Elytra distinctly but not much wider than prothorax, base distinctly 
trisinuate sides parallel to beyond the middle; with rows of large punctures 
appearing narrowly oblong through clothing. Mesosternal receptacle rather 
strongly elevated, base short. Metasternum slightly longer than basal segment 
of abdomen along middle, twice as long at sides. Femora not very stout, edentate. 
Length, 8 mm. 

Western Australia: Eradu (J. Clark). 

This and the following species have a strong general resemblance to 
A isabellina, but the scales are consistently larger, and with a somewhat woolly 
appearance, they may, however, be at once distinguished by the elytral setae; on 
that species they are thin and true setae ; on this they are much wider, and appear 
like larger scales, set in rows on the interstices; there are other differences in 
the rostrum and antennae ; isabellina, so far, is only known from Queensland. 


Achopera subalba, n. sp. 

*-« Blackish, antennae and tarsi reddish. Densely clothed with whitish 
scales, with scattered brownish ones of various shades, but not forming distinct 
spots, and interspersed with stout, decumbent setae. 

Rostrum the length of prothorax, rather wide, sides gently incurved to 
middle where the width is slightly more than the distance separating eyes - basal 
third densely clothed, elsewhere moderately clothed, but punctures traceable 
bcape inserted nearer base than apex of rostrum, and much shorter than funicle' 
prothorax moderately transverse, sides strongly rounded; punctures concealed' 
Wytra oblong-cordate, distinctly wider than prothorax, base incurved only at 
scutellum; striae distinct, but punctures entirely concealed. Length, 5 mm. 

North Western Australia: Wyndham, in January (J. Clark). 

In general appearance like a small specimen of the preceding species but 
with a fine longitudinal impression on the rostrum at its narrowest part" The two 
species may be distinguished as follows : — 

A. subalba, ^ a fy a 

Elytra at base not incurved near Elytra trisinuate at base as a 

each shoulder, result the shoulders slightly clasp the 

base of prothorax. 

Prothoracic scales large, and not Prothoracic scales slightly smaller 

mixed with setae. and mixed with setae, which .although 

depressed, are distinct by their darker 

Scales of under surface large and Scales of under surface smaller, 

almost umform. denser> and mixed with ^^ ^ 

pressed setae. 

Achopera pictiventris, n. sp. 

S . Blackish, antennae and tarsi reddish. Densely clothed with sooty scales, 
with pale markings, and interspersed with depressed setae 

Rostrum moderately stout, slightly shorter than prothorax, sides gently 
incurved to middle; basal half densely clothed, apical half almost glabrous and 
wuh dense punctures. Scape inserted slightly nearer base than apex of rostrum 
and much shorter than funicle. Prothorax moderately transverse, gently convex' 
sides strongly rounded, apex less than half the width of base ; with dense concealed 
punctures Elytra at base not much wider than widest part of prothorax not 
quite parallel-sided to near apex, base distinctly trisinuate; with rows of large 
punctures, appearing much smaller through clothing, or quite concealed but 
striation evident. Mesosternal receptacle with base large, and emargination very 
short. Metasternum much shorter than basal segment of abdomen, and slightly 
shorter than second; basal segment with a wide, shallow depression, continued 
on to second. Femora edentate. Length, 4-5 mm. 

9. Differs in having rostrum thinner, less of the base clothed, elsewhere 
shining and with smaller punctures, two basal segments of abdomen evenlv 
convex, and legs slightly shorter. " 

Western Australia: Perth (H. M. Giles). 

A dingy species, with distinctive abdominal clothing, which might with equal 
propriety, be referred to Achopera or Metvrculus, the character of the meta- 
sternum, longer or shorter than the following segment, formerly used in the 
table of allies of Chaetectetorus, is not to be relied upon. As in its flatter body 
widely concave abdomen of male, abdominal clothing, and depressed setae of upper 


surface, it agrees more with the species of Achopera, it is ret erred to that genus; 
from A. lachrymosa it differs in being wider and metasternum decidedly shorter. 
On A. sabulosa the metasternum is quite as short, but the clothing is very different. 
A maculata is a narrower species, with very different abdominal clothing In 
appearance it is fairly close to some varieties of Memomorpha inconstant, but the 
rostrum is much shorter. From Metyrculus bimaculatus and medwmacidatus, 
which have pale median spots on the elytra, it is at once distinguished by the 
abdominal clothing. The scales on the upper surface are mostly sooty with some 
feeble brownish spots on the sides of prothorax and apical half of elytra; there 
is however, a small, conspicuous white spot, on the third and fourth interstices on 
each elytron, at the basal third; on the metasternum there is a sooty vitta on each 
side of the middle; on the abdomen of the male a wide median portion has sooty 
scales, the sides with whitish ones, on the legs the scales are whitish and sooty; 
on the female, the whitish median line of the metasternum is continud along the 
two basal segments of abdomen. 

Achopera microps, n. sp. 

$ Dark brown, legs and antennae reddish. Densely clothed with chocolate- 
brown and stramineous, or whitish, scales, interspersed with sloping setae. 

Rostrum not very thin, the length of prothorax; densely clothed except at 
muzzle, which is shining and with small punctures. Scape inserted in middle of 
rostrum, much shorter than funicle. Prothorax as long as wide, sides gently 
rounded, apex half the width of base ; punctures concealed. Elytra not much wider 
than prothorax, almost parallel-sided to near apex, base gently Insinuate ; with 
rows of large, subquadrate punctures, appearing much smaller through clothing 
or quite concealed, but striation distinct. Mesosternal receptacle rather solid 
emargination short. Metasternum distinctly longer than basal segment ot 
abdomen, the latter gently depressed in middle. Femora edentate. Length, 

3-5-4-0 mm. . , , ,. , . . , ... 

2 . Differs in having the rostrum thinner, apical half shining and with 
small punctures, and basal segments of abdomen gently convex. 

New South Wales : Dorrigo (W. Heron). Two specimens. 

A narrow, depressed species, with general outlines much as those of A. lachry- 
mosa but with different scales and setae ; it is narrower than A. umformis, and the 
metasternum is longer. The prothoracic markings resemble those of some speci- 
mens of A. alternata, but the elytral interstices are even. The eyes are smaller, 
and the tarsi narrower than is usual in the genus. At first glance it looks some- 
what like Ephrycinus pittstriatus, but is flatter, with much less conspicuous setae. 
On the male the scales on the prothorax are mostly pale, with a large, irregular, 
medio-basal brown patch ; on the elytra the pale markings cover about one-fourth 
of the surface, in irregular spots and asymmetrical fasciae; on the female the 
brown patch on the prothorax is broken up into four spots, and the pale markings 
on the elytra cover less of the surface ; on each of them the clothing of the under 
parts is almost uniformly pale. The setae are usually of the same colour as the 
scales, on the elytra they form a regular row on each interstice. 

Achopera multimaculata, n. sp. 

3 . Blackish, antennae and tarsi reddish. Densely clothed with sooty-brown 
and obscurely whitish scales, interspersed with short, sloping setae. 

Rostrum rather wide, slightly shorter than prothorax ; densely clothed, except 
at tip, which is shining and with small punctures. Scape inserted slightly nearer 
base than apex of rostrum, and much shorter than funicle. Prothorax not much 
wider than long, apex more than half the width of base ; with dense, concealed 
punctures. Elytra distinctly wider than prothorax, parallel-sided to near apex, 


base moderately trisinuate; with rows of large punctures, appearing narrow 
through clothing, or quite concealed. Mesosternal receptacle large, with a basal 
stem, emargination short. Metasternum slightly longer than basal segment of 
abdomen, the latter shallowly depressed in middle. Femora stout edentate 
Length, 4-5 mm. ' 

Torres Straits: Murray Island (A. M. Lea). Unique, 

A multimaculate species, structurally like A. lachrymosa, except that the 
elytral striae are more pronounced. A. ttniformis is wider, the dark clothing 
occupies less of the surface, and the setae are more distinct. The elytra are 
wider in proportion than those of the preceding species, the metasternum is but 
little longer than the following segment, and the eyes are slightly larger The 
scales on the prothorax are mostly dark, with several small pale spots, of which 
three are conjoined to form a short, mediobasal Y; on the elytra the pale spots are 
small, numerous, asymmetrical, and two or more are sometimes transversely 
conjoined; on the under surface the scales are pale, but some of the setae are 
dark. The setae of the upper surface are distinct only from the sides, they form 
a regular row on each interstice. 

Achopera longiventris, n. sp. 

£ . Blackish-brown, some parts obscurely paler, antennae reddish. Sparsely 
clothed with stramineous and brownish scales, and with short, sloping setae. 

Rostrum moderately stout and curved, the length of prothorax; sparsely 
clothed even at base, and with comparatively large and dense punctures, except 
on a narrow, shining median line. Scape inserted slightly nearer base than apex 
of rostrum, and much shorter than funicle.' Prothorax not much wider than long- 
with dense and comparatively large punctures. Elytra slightly wider than pro- 
thorax, parallel-sided to near apex, base truncate; with rows of large quadrate 
or oblong punctures, usually wider than interstices; the latter each with a single 
row of setiferous punctures. Mesosternal receptacle rather large, with a short 
basal stem. Metasternum and two basal segments of abdomen with rather large 
punctures; the former much shorter than basal segment (which is depressed in 
middle), and scarcely as long as the second, second slightly longer than third and 
fourth combined, and much longer than fifth. Femora not very stout edentate 
Length, 5 mm. 

Queensland: Prairie, in October (— Chisholm). Unique. 

A narrow, flat species, with two basal segments of abdomen unusually long 
I he general outlines are somewhat as on large specimens of A. lachrymosa but 
the clothing is much sparser, many of the elytral punctures are not at all con- 
cealed, and are even more distinct than on A. xanthorrhoeae, which is a smaller 
species, with conspicuous markings. Although its clothing is much sparser than on 
all other species of the genus, the type does not appear to be abraded; there are 
several small spots of pale scales on the elytra; the setae are distinct only from 
the sides, they form a regular row on each interstice; on the under surface each 
of the punctures contains a seta, which seldom arises above the general level. 

Achopera subcylindrica, n. sp. 

Dark brown, antennae and tarsi reddish. Densely clothed with chocolate- 
brown and pale stramineous scales, interspersed with short, sloping setae. 

Rostrum wide, shorter than prothorax ; tip glabrous and with dense punctures 
Scape inserted nearer base than apex of rostrum, and much shorter than funicle 
Prothorax slightly longer than wide, apex almost the width of base; with dense 
concealed punctures. Elytra not much wider than prothorax, parallel-sided to 


near apex ; with rows of large punctures, partly concealed by clothing, but striation 
distinct. Mesosternal receptacle rather stout. Metasternum and basal segment of 
abdomen subequal. Femora stout, edentate. Length, 2*0-2-2 mm. 

Queensland: Cedar Creek (Dr. E. Mjoberg), Kuranda, in November (G. E. 
Bryant). Type, in Stockholm Museum; cotypes in British and South Australian 

A minute, thin, subcylindrical species ; the six specimens taken appear to be 
all males. It is about the size of A. parva, and with scales of the same colours, 
but differently disposed, and with much shorter setae; on parva the setae are 
numerous, and on the elytra the length is decidedly more than the width of aril 
interstice, on the present species the setae are less erect, and indistinct (except 
from the sides), with the length decidedly less than the width of an interjstice ; 
the mesosternal receptacle is also different, on this species its emargination is 
widely transverse, on parva it is distinctly longer than wide. On the upper 
surface the brown scales may appear as numerous small spots, occupying less than 
one-fourth of the surface, to half or even three-fourths of it ; on the under surface 
the scales are almost uniformly pale. 

Isax tricostirostris, n. sp. 

tV Black, antennae and claw joints obscurely reddish. Densely clothed 
with dark brown scales, slightly variegated with paler brown ones. 

Rostrum thin, feebly curved, the length of prothorax ; basal half with crowded 
punctures, and three thin ridges, apical half shining. Scape inserted slightly nearer 
apex than base of rostrum, and not quite extending to eye. Prothorax about 
one-fourth wider than long, apex about half the width of base; with dense and 
rather small punctures (scarcely larger than on head), and with a fine median 
ridge, extending to apex but not to base. Elytra somewhat flattened, distinctly 
wider than prothorax, sides gently rounded to near apex; with rows of fairly 
large, subquadrate punctures ; interstices with rather dense punctures and minute 
granules, third, fifth, and seventh slightly elevated. Mesosternal receptacle U- 
shaped, no longer than wide. Metasternum about the length of second segment of 
abdomen, and distinctly shorter than first, the latter widely concave in middle. 
Femora stout, feebly grooved and edentate. Length, 8 mm. 

New South Wales: Illawarra. Type (unique), in Macleay Museum. 

The mesosternal receptacle not twice as long as wide, metasternum shorter 
than the following segment, and femora edentate are at variance with other 
species of the genus; the rostrum, although not quite straight, is but little more 
curved than on /. planipennis, and in general appearance it is close to that species. 
For the present it may be considered an aberrant member of the genus. The type 

is slightly abraded. 

Sympiezoscelus foveiventris, n. sp. 

Blackish-brown or reddish-brown, scape paler. With some whitish scales 
at base of rostrum, and sparse setae on legs. 

Head with rather small but sharply defined punctures. Rostrum stout, 
about two-thirds the length of prothorax, sides incurved to middle; with rather 
coarse punctures about base, minute elsewhere. Scape stout, inserted about two- 
fifths from base of rostrum, and much shorter than funicle. Prothorax slightly 
transverse, sides rounded, and almost evenly decreasing in width to apex; with 
small but sharply defined punctures, becoming larger on sides. Elytra with out- 
lines continuous with those of prothorax, base strongly trisinuate ; with rows of 
fairly large and somewhat rugose punctures, the marginal and submarginal rows 
united at about one-third from base; interstices impunctate. Metasternum 

depressed in middle, and bifoveate at base. Basal segment of abdomen with two 
large, subbasal foveae, suture with second with a row of punctures, apical segment 
irregularly bifoveate. Femora very stout, edentate, tibiae rather short, each with 
an acute tooth at outer apex. Length, 4*5-6-0 mm. 

Queensland: National Park, in December, and Mount Nebo, in April (H. 
Hacker) ; New South Wales; Rivertree, in August (E. Sutton). Type, in South 
Australian Museum; cotypes in Queensland Museum. 

A flattened, elongate-elliptic species, readily distinguished from S. spencei 
and norfolcensis by the foveae of the under surface, and the much smaller punc- 
tures of the upper surface. At first glance the specimens look like abraded ones 
of Xestocis, but on that genus the femora are strongly dentate. There are six 
specimens under examination, but no well defined sexual differences between 
them, although on a small one an oedeagus is protruding. Some specimens have 
the head entirely glabrous. 

Xestocis nicer Lea. 

Two specimens from Dorrigo (New South Wales), have the elytra of a 
rather dingy red, with a large black spot on each side of the middle; on the type 
such spots are present, but scarcely traceable, on account of the darkness of the 
adjacent parts. On some specimens of X. castaneus, from Norfolk Island, there 
are somewhat similar spots, but on that species the elytral punctures are con- 
siderably smaller at the base. * 

Gymnocis, n. gen. 

Head small. Eyes rather small, with coarse facets. Rostrum moderately 
wide, gently curved. Scape stout, much shorter than funicle; first joint of the 
latter rather long, second much shorter, the others strongly transverse; club 
briefly ovate. Prothorax slightly transverse, apex much narrower than base. 
Scutellum small. Elytra with outlines continuous with those of prothorax, non- 
striate. Mesosternal receptacle large, with a long central ridge, emargination 
very short; cavernous. Metasternum much longer than the following segment, 
largely excavated in middle, sides almost vertical ; episterna rather narrow. Two 
basal segments of abdomen large and soldered together, third and fourth com- 
bined distinctly shorter than fifth, with deep sutures. Femora very stout, feebly 
grooved, edentate ; tibiae compressed, with a small subapical tooth, in addition to 
terminal hook, the middle and hind ones each with a feeble projection near outer 
apex ; tarsi thin. Elongate-elliptic, depressed, glabrous. 

A remarkable genus, allied to Bepharus and Sympiezoscelus, but distinguished 
by the cavernous metasternum, and complete absence of elytral striae. The out- 
lines are much as those of S. foveiventris, and the femora are similarly powerful. 
The cavity of the metasternum is continued as a wide, shallow depression, on the 
two basal segments of abdomen, and the latter are soldered together, even at the 
sides, their suture only marked by a curved row of minute punctures. 

Gymnocis impunctatus, n. sp. 

Blackish-brown, antennae and tarsi somewhat paler. Elytra with muddy- 
grey scales, and a few setae, only about apex, on front of head, base of rostrum, 
sides and tip of abdomen, and parts of legs; metasternum with a few setae 
between coxae, and a few on claw- joints. 

Head polished and impunctatc, except in front, where the punctures are con- 
cealed. Rostrum shining and impunctate, except at base. Scape inserted slightly 
nearer base than apex of rostrum. Prothorax with sides rounded, base narrowly 
margined ; impunctate. Elytra with sides feebly dilated to basal third, and then 
narrowed to apex; without punctures, except a few concealed ones about apex. 
Length, 4" 5 mm. 


Queensland: National Park, under bark of a rotten hoop-pine Araucaria 
Cimninghamii in December (H. Hacker). Type (unique), in Queensland 

At first glance apparently entirely glabrous and without punctures; the few 
that are present being more or less concealed by muddy-looking scales. 

Idiopterocis, n. gen. 

Head small, almost concealed from above. Eyes small, widely separated, 
with coarse facets. Rostrum moderately long, rather wide, moderately curved. 
Scape moderately stout, much shorter than funicle; first joint of funicle long, 
second shorter, the others small and transverse; club briefly ovate. Prothorax 
rather long, flat, sides almost vertical. Elytra nonstriate, with vertical sides. 
Mesosternal receptacle rather large, emargination widely transverse; cavernous. 
Metasternum distinctly shorter than the following segment; episterna narrow. 
Femora moderately long, feebly grooved, edentate; tibiae slightly compressed; 
tarsi thin. Elongate, flattened; irregularly squamose and setose. 

A remarkable genus, evidently allied to Bepharus, Sympiezoscelus, and 
Gymnocis, but distinct by the elytra, metasternum and abdomen. In the table of 
allies of Chaetectetorus, it could be associated with Metyrculus, but the two genera 
differ in many particulars (prothorax, elytra, eyes, etc.). The elytral epipleurae, 
to a certain extent, are suggestive of those of Zenoporopterus mirus. The tarsi are 
thin, and the third joint, although bilobed, is not widely so. There is a minute 
process at the position of the scutellum, but I am not sure whether it is a real one, 
or a minute scaly depression; it is certainly not a distinct scutellum. 

Idiopterocis trilinealbus, n. sp. 

S . Black, some parts shining, antennae and tarsi reddish. Irregularly 
clothed with white, or stramineous, scales and setae. 

Head with dense, concealed punctures. Rostrum about the length of pro- 
thorax, with a fine median carina, and dense concealed punctures, except that the 
tip is glabrous, and with small punctures, Antennae inserted almost in middle 
of rostrum. Prothorax slightly longer than wide, sides feebly dilated from base 
to one-third from apex, and then narrowed to apex, which is more than half the 
width of base, base truncate; disc with fairly large, even punctures, becoming 
smaller on sides. Elytra closely applied to prothorax, with shoulders feebly 
clasping its base, sides slightly dilated to basal third, and then regularly narrowed 
to apex; parts polished and with sparse and minute punctures, except where 
clothed, both on disc and epipleurae. Two basal segments of abdomen widely 
and shallowly depressed, the first distinctly longer than second, second slightly 
longer than third and fourth combined, with straight sutures. Length, 3*3-3*5 mm. 

$ . Differs in having rostrum slightly thinner, median carina shorter, about 
one-fourth of its apex glabrous, abdomen flat, and femora slightly thinner. 

Lord Howe Island (A. M. Lea and wife). A pair taken, in cop., on the 
under surface of a rotting log. 

The prothorax is rather densely clothed with scales, each of which fills a 
puncture, but there are also a few setae arising above the general surface, on the 
sides the scales are smaller, and cover less of the surface; on the elytra there 
are three conspicuous lines of white scales (with a few long and slightly rusty 
setae), on the suture and crowning the vertical sides, with a few scattered scales, 
so the disc has two widely glabrous spaces, narrowing to apex, with the epipleurae 
also almost completely glabrous; the abdomen is glabrous, except on the sides; 
the femora and tibiae have pale scales and long setae. Most of the derm of the 
female is reddish, but probably from immaturity. 


Mitrastethus lateralis, n. sp. 

3 . Castaneous-brown. Densely clothed with light, muddy-brown, adpressed 
scales, slightly mottled with darker brown, but highly polished on outer side piece 
of mesosternum, on prosternum adjacent to it, on middle of metasternum, of 
two basal segments of abdomen, and hind coxae; each odd interstice of elytra 
with a row of short, sloping setae. 

Rostrum feebly curved, the length of prothorax; apical fourth polished and 
almost impunctate. Scape stout, inserted slightly nearer base than apex of 
rostrum, and much shorter than funicle. Prothorax moderately transverse, apex 
less than half the width of base, which is strongly bisinuate and with a small 
median depression ; with dense, concealed punctures. Elytra not much wider than 
prothorax, nowhere quite parallel-sided; with rows of rather large punctures, 
appearing much smaller through clothing ; interstices with dense, concealed punc- 
tures. Femora stout, edentate, hind tibiae thicker than the others. Length, 5-6 mm. 

?. Differs in having rostrum longer, thinner, clothed only on basal third, 
and basal segments of abdomen gently convex in middle, instead of flattened. 

Norfolk Island (A. M. Lea). Abundant. 

A rather flat, elliptic species, with general appearance much as of the two 
previously named species, but each outer side piece of mesosternum, etc., highly 
polished and glabrous, in all the numerous specimens obtained. On some males 
of M. aastraliae the outer side piece is polished, although it usually has a few 
scales ; but on the female it is usually as densely clothed as the adjacent parts ; some 
Dorrigo specimens are quite as small as those of the present species, but the 
majority are considerably larger. 

Mitrastethus australiae Lea. 
Four specimens from Queensland, in the National Museum, have fairly 
numerous black setae scattered amongst the pale ones on the elytra. Numerous 
others from Dorrigo (New South Wales), are smaller than usual, and also have 
a few black setae scattered about, but less numerous than on the four others. 


by James Arthur Prescott, M.Sc, Waite Agricultural Research Institute 


The importance of the saturation deficit of the atmosphere in water vapour pressure has received 
attention of recent years, particularly from workers in plant physiology and in soil science. The 
effectiveness of rainfall for plant life or in the process of soil leaching is governed by the 
evaporating power of the air, and it has been shown by Patton (1) and by the author (2) that for 
Australian rainfall and temperature. 



By James Arthur Prescott, M.Sc, Waite Agricultural Research Institute. 

[Read August 13, 1931.] 

The importance of the saturation deficit of the atmosphere in water vapour 
pressure has received attention of recent years, particularly from workers in plant 
physiology and in soil science. The effectiveness of rainfall for plant life or in 
the process of soil leaching is governed by the evaporating power of the air, and 
it has been shown by Patton (1) and by the author (2) that for Australian 

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Fig. 1. 
Map of Australia, showing mean annual temperatures and mean annual humidity based 
partly on data supplied by H. A. Hunt, 1929. Isotherms are indicated by continuous lines, 

humidity percentages by broken lines. 

records the evaporation from a free water surface is probably a linear function 
of the saturation deficit of the air. 

For twenty-three stations in Australia the mean evaporation in inches is 
related to the saturation deficit in inches of mercury by the following expression : — 

E = 263 s.d. 

Of the factors which have been discussed in this connection, the most 
important are: — The Transeau ratio (3) of precipitation to evaporation, and the 
Meyer ratio (4) of precipitation to saturation deficit. Factors taking account of 


rainfall and temperature include those of Lang (5), de Martonne (6) 
Emberger (7), and Crowther (8). It is very probable that in these latter cases for 
working over a wide range of temperature and humidity conditions, the satura- 
tion deficit will eventually prove to be more useful than temperature. 

During the course of recent investigations on the distribution of soil types 
and vegetation associations in Australia, the probable values for the saturation 
deficit have been worked out from the most recent available temperature and 
humidity records, and these are submitted in the following maps. Fig. 1 indicates 
the data from which the saturation deficit isobars in fig. 2 have been calculated 

Fig. 2. 

Map of Australia, showing isobars of vapour pressure saturation deficit expressed in 

inches of mercury. This deficit is roughly proportional to the evaporation from a free 

water surface, the general relationship being expressed by the equation E = 263 s.d The 

values for the saturation deficit are based on the data of Fig. 1. 


(1) Patton, K. T. : Proc. Roy. Soc, Vic, vol. xlii., p. 154, 1930. 

(2) Prescott, J. A.: Council for Scientific and Industrial Research Aus- 

tralia. Bulletin, No. Hi., 1931. 

(3) Transeau, E. N. : Amer. Nat., vol. xxxix., p. 875 1905 

(4) Meyer, A.: Chem. der Erde, p. 209, 1926. 

(5) Lang, R. : Int. Mitt. Bodenkunde, vol. v., p. 312, 1915. 

(6) de Martonne, E. : Comptes Rendus, vol. clxxxii., p. 1395, 1926. 

(7) Emberger, L. : Comptes Rendus, vol. exci., p. 389, 1930. 

(8) Crowther, E. M.: Proc. Roy. Soc, B., vol. cvii., p. 1, 1930 


byH. H. Finlayson, Hon Curator of Mammals, SA Museum 


The earlier practice of Australian Museum staffs, in publishing accounts of collecting expeditions 
and of giving lists of mammals met with in various districts, seems largely to have been abandoned 
in recent years. As compared with the great volume of detailed information relating to the 
occurrence of birds, for example, published by the different Ornithological bodies, the data for 
mammals is sparse and infrequent, and, curiously enough, all the more important contributions on 
this head have been made by Europeans not resident in the country. 




By H. H. Finlayson, 
Hon. Curator of Mammals, South Australian Museum. 

[Read September 10, 1931.] 

Plates I. to III. 

The earlier practice of Australian Museum staffs, in publishing accounts of 
collecting expeditions and of giving lists of mammals met with in various districts, 
seems largely to have been abandoned in recent years. As compared with the 
great volume of detailed information relating to the occurrence of birds, for 
example, published by the different Ornithological bodies, the data for mammals 
is sparse and infrequent, and, curiously enough, all the more important contribu- 
tions on this head have been made by Europeans not resident in the country. 

Australian workers seem to have been more and more content to confine their 
published records to occasional specimens of interest which have been submitted 
to them for identification, and, with a few early exceptions, regional surveys of 
the type which have made West European and North American mammalogy 
almost an exact science, are not undertaken. 

This state of affairs is most unsatisfactory. It not only hampers a much 
needed campaign of museum collecting, intelligently co-ordinated, but the lack of 
local records has an embarrasing effect on the discussion of some theoretical 
problems, as pointed out recently by H. A. Longman and partly remedied by him. 
("Mem. Queensland Mus.," vol. x., pt. 1.) On theoretical grounds, indeed, the need 
for a full and accurate statement of the constitution and distribution of the 
mammal fauna is obvious, and the frequent revision of this data is urgently 
required in determining the rational incidence and duration of protective legisla- 
tion. As is absurdly apparent in some of the official lists which have appeared 
from time to time, the records of thirty, or even ten years ago, are not a reliable 
basis for determinations of the present status of species. 

In the summer of 1928-29 the writer spent three months in the Dawson Valley, 
Central Coastal Queensland, for the purpose of observing and collecting mammals. 
The district was chosen, partly because it supports an unusually dense and varied 
Macropod fauna, in which group interest was chiefly centred ; partly because far- 
reaching schemes of closer settlement are mooted there, which, if carried through, 
will render such a survey increasingly difficult and incomplete. 

Collecting and investigation were carried out at numerous points along the 
Dawson and Fitzroy Rivers, from Taroom in the south to Mount Hedlow in the 
north. The region is a highly diversified one as to physical features, but as prac- 
tically the whole of the country worked over has been excellently described and 
illustrated in two brochures issued by the Lands Department and Irrigation Com- 
mission, Brisbane, it will be unnecessary to give further description here. 

Over the greater part of the area the Macropod element in the fauna is over- 
whelmingly dominant, and it is only in the more humid coastal zone to the north 
and east that the Dasyuridae, Peramelidae, and smaller Phalangeridae become 
numerous. This, together with the limited time available and the special interest 
cited, are responsible for the fuller treatment accorded the former, but, neverthe- 
less, no opportunities were lost of obtaining both specimens and records of all, and 
the notes given provide a fair estimate of the present state of the fauna. The 


material obtained by the writer in person has been usefully supplemented in many 
cases by specimens taken during the succeeding winter by friends resident in the 

The most extensive collecting previously done in this part of Queensland is 
that of Lumholtz, who spent much time from 1880-1884 in the Rockhampton Dis- 
trict in the northern portion of the area here dealt with, and whose collection was 
worked out by R. Collett in "Zoologische Jahrbucher/' Band II., 1886-1887, p. 830, 
et. seq. Collett's work is a most comprehensive one on the systematic and osteo- 
logical side, but is necessarily deficient in the all-important data which calls for 
personal observation in the field. In the present paper opportunity has been taken, 
not only of dealing briefly with habits (chiefly as they afreet distribution), but of 
giving detailed flesh measurements and other observations from living or recently 
killed animals. 

The comparative utility of these measurements and the methods of determin- 
ing them will be dealt with more fully elsewhere ; for the present they are suffi- 
ciently defined in "Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr./' liv. (1930), p. 55. 

Macropus giganteus typicus^ 1 * (Forester). 

Widely distributed up and down the valley in suitable country, but never, in 
my experience, as plentiful nor forming such large groups as it does in New South 
Wales and Victoria. Near the towns and closer settlement areas, and in the sheep 
country, it is, of course, one of the first species to disappear, but in the great 
stretches of cattle country it is regarded very tolerantly, and is not being seriously 
pressed to maintain its position. 

Few Australian animals have been so appropriately named in popular usage. 
From Tasmania north, over the whole of its range, it exhibits the same preference 
for open park-like forests where the floor is grassy and free from undergrowth, 
and the same shunning both of open plains and dense scrubs. In the Dawson 
Valley its typical habitat might be said to be the river flats of Moreton Bay Ash 
and Coolibah, but in several localities it is well represented in hilly country. This 
is notably so on the Grevillea Plateau, where it is rapidly becoming more plentiful 
as the adjacent lowlands are split up for closer settlement. These plateaus present 
rougher country than the flats, but they are yet quite openly timbered and well 
grassed, though with somewhat coarser species. Specimens were obtained at 
Box Tree Creek in the Taroom district, at Drumburle on the Grevillea Plateau, 
and at Coomooboolaroo, south of Duaringa, and they may be completely merged 
as Collett found, with representative series of skins from New South Wales and 
Victorian localities. There is some variation in coat colour, and the summer coat 
is short and harsh, but not more so than frequently obtains in the south. Winter 
skins have not been examined. 

Flesh dimension of an aged male from Coomooboolaroo and a subadult female 
from Drumburle are as follows: — Head and body, 1,110, 835; tail, 1,165, 800; 
chest (girth), 660, 365; manus, 105, 80; nail of third finger, 38, 23; pes, 380, 320; 
fourth toe, 140, 125 ; nail of fourth toe, 50, 36; ear, 138 X 67, 125 X 68; rhinarium 
to eye, 116, 90; eye to ear, 80, 73; weight, 1144 lbs., 50 lbs.; humerus, 202» 110; 
ulnaradial, 235, 197; femur, 282, 220; tibia, 537, 380. 

Skull dimensions of the above male are : — Greatest length, 195 ; basal length, 
183 ; zygomatic breadth, 100; nasals, length, 85 ; nasals, greatest breadth, 24; depth 
of muzzle, 37; constriction, 24; palate length, 128;. palate, breadth inside M 2 , 33; 
anterior palatine foramen, 9; diastema, 60; basi-cranial axis, 49 (ca) ; basi-facial 
axis, 130 (ca) ; facial index, 265 (ca) ; M sl " 3 , 32'5. 

0) In indicating dominant varieties this usage is preferred, throughout the paper, to 
the repetition of the specific name. 


Macropus giganteus melanops. 
This well-marked variety of M. giganteus is the common kangaroo of the 
mallee belts of the south-eastern portion of the continent, and has recently been 
recorded for Queensland by Longman, though without detail as to locality 
(loc. cit.). It was not observed in the area under consideration, nor could any 
evidence of its presence be obtained by enquiry amongst residents of long stand- 
ing. As its external appearance is very different from that of the Wallaroo and 
Forester, its absence from the district may be safely assumed. It may be noted 
also that no scrubs of similar texture to the mallee are to be found along the 

Macropus robustus typicus (Wallaroo). 

Numerically, the Wallaroo is the chief kangaroo of the district, and has a 
wide but sporadic distribution there. It is everywhere well known, and frequently 
plentiful, more particularly in the south. 

Although it shows a preference for rough and rocky country, it is much less 
of a hill kangaroo than any of the more westerly sub-species I am acquainted with, 
and many of the higher weathered ranges with exposed outcrops and little timber 
(an environment which would be considered typical "euro" country in South and 
Central Australia) are quite deserted by it. This may be due, in part, to the 
flanking of these hills with more or less dense brigalow and softwood scrubs, 
which would tend to cut it off from the lower feeding grounds, but it remains 
true, I think, that its adaptations to a mountaineering life are somewhat inferior 
to those of the inland forms. In the country drained by the Downfall, Cockatoo, 
and Palm Tree Creeks, on either side of the Dawson, at the Nathan Gorge, 
wallaroos are very plentiful, and are here found on the little plateaus between the 
precipitous creek gorges — these tops are here quite thickly timbered often with 
Caliitris thickets, and a love of such cover seems to be highly characteristic of the 
wallaroo. Further north, along the lower reaches of the Dawson, at Coomoo- 
boolaroo for instance, the country is much less rough and broken than in the upper 
districts, and the little ironstone ridges, densely grown with the lance-like rose- 
wood, in which it is chiefly found, form a most unexpected habitat for any member 
of the robustus group. In fact, its habitat here in the north is scarcely differen- 
tiated from that of giganteus, for, though it camps amongst the rocks on the 
ridges during the day, its feeding grounds are practically identical or at least largely 
overlap those of the Forester. 

It is rather solitary, and seldom more than two were put up together. Old 
males were always alone. Sexual differences as regards size, colouration, and 
general aspect are very marked. The full-grown male is in every way a most 
remarkable kangaroo, and in external features totally different from any other 
species. When seen at some distance, it appears quite black ; the arms and 
shoulders are very heavy and powerful ; it carries itself with an habitual stoop, 
and even when startled at close quarters never seemed to me to assume an altogether 
upright position. Its movements are slow and rather ponderous, and the coarse, 
shaggy coat and long pendant hairs of the sides of the face combine to convey a 
curious impression of uncouthness. 

Old males are exceedingly tenacious of life, and will struggle away over rocks 
and frequently escape with wounds which would completely incapacitate rufus or 
giganteus. I noticed here, with the variety typicus, as 1 have often done w;ith 
erubescens in South Australia, that the coat of the male when freshly killed is 
quite sticky, and on the ventral surface the skin and the base of the hairs have a 
distinct greasy deposit, not unlike the suint elaborated by sheep. The peculiar red 
pigment, so well known on rufus and recorded for this species by Le Souef 
"Aust. Zoologist," vol. v., p. 249 (1928), was not noted. (See, however, page 72.) 


Unfortunately, no adult females were measured, but there can be no doubt that 
the does, even at full growth, are much smaller than bucks, and are quite differently 
built. Although without the heavy fore-quarters of the bucks, there is yet a 
suggestion of "dumpiness" about them, and they lack much of the trimness of 
giganteus and rafiis does. 

In referring the Dawson Valley wallaroo to M. robttstus typicus some qualifi- 
cation is necessary, as a comparison of the skins obtained with others from the 
New England district of New South Wales brings out considerable differences in 
colouration, particularly in the males. These differences may be partly seasonal 
in character, as winter skins from Queensland have not been available 
(cf. Le Souef, loc. cfk). 

In the northern skins the dorsal surface of males is strongly suffused with 
red-brown, the bases of the hairs being of this colour, and their tips pure black. 
In the New South Wales specimens the general tone is a much colder slaty black, 
the hairs basally not being strongly contrasted with the tips, and a distinct bluish 
tinge being apparent on parting the fur. Collett (loc, cit.) noted that in specimens 
from Coomooboolaroo the tail was black, and this is a striking peculiarity of all 
the Dawson wallaroos. The whole of the tail, both above and below, from base 
to tip, is jet black, whereas in the New South Wales animal it is lighter below 
than above, and is nowhere quite black except at the extreme tip. The limbs are 
similar, but areas which are cream or honey-coloured in the southern animal are 
red-brown in the northern. 

The female is closer to the typical form than the male, but is likewise dis- 
tinguished by a pinkish suffusion approaching that of erubescens. Both sexes 
in the north have a harsher coat, and all hair tracks and opposition ridges are 
more marked, particularly about the face. 

The skulls (2) agree closely with those from New England. 

The external differences mentioned are probably as considerable as those 
which separate some of the so-called sub-species of robustus, but having noted the 
variations from the type and the locality in which they occur, there seems little 
to be gained by adding further to the list. The lavish application of names to the 
colour phases of variable species is of doubtful value at any time, and when it is 
done, as it very often has been done with marsupials, without the least knowledge 
of tht animal in nature, it can scarcely command serious attention. 

Flesh dimensions of an adult male (P 4 M 4 ) from Coomooboolaroo: — Head 
and body, 985 ; tail, 1,000; girth of chest, 550; manus, S3 ; nail of third finger, 27; 
pes, 317; fourth toe, 115; nail of fourth toe, 35; ear, 125 X 65; rhinarium to 
eye, 100; eye to ear, 75; humerus, 155; ulnaradial, 240; femur, 265; tibia, 415. 

The skull of this male has: — Greatest length, 180; basal length, 164; zygo- 
matic breadth, 93; nasals, length, 74; nasals, greatest breadth, 29; nasals, over- 
hang, 14; depth of muzzle, 36; constriction, 17; palate, length, 109; palate, breadth 
inside M 2 , 29*5; anterior palatine foramina, 10; diastema, 40; basi-cranial axis, 
48; basi-facial axis, 123*5; facial index, 256; molars *■** 30*5; P 4 , 8*5. 

Teeth in a young skull:— I 1 , 5 X 10*5^;P,4*5 X 6*5;P,9*5 X6'5;]? 8 ,7. 

C 2 ) On extending the comparison to erubescens, of which a large series oi skulls has been 
available, I find that the anterior palate : diastema ratio, determined by Schwarz, holds good. 
In addition, the unworn molars of erubescens are slightly larger than those of typicus, and; 
its muzzle region, even in very aged skulls, does not undergo that lateral bulging which in 
typicus approaches the normal condition seen in antilopinus (see Wood- Jones, "Mammals of 
S.A." vol. ii., p. 251). I cannot agree with Mr. Le Souef , however (loc, cit.), that these and 
some differences in colouration are of sufficient importance to warrant the separation of 
erubescens as a full species. 

( 3 ) Values for incisors are antcro-posterior length X vertical height (of enamel). 


Subgenus Wallabia. 

From the point of view of the occurrence and distribution of the "Large 
Wallabies," the Dawson Valley is of great interest, as of the six existing main- 
land species, five are to be found within its confines, the single absentee being the 
isolated West Australian, M. irnta. 

This is true of no other district in Australia, and as the habitat zones of the 
different species, though for the most part well defined and discrete, constantly 
recur in close proximity to one another over the whole area, unique opportunities 
for the study of contrasting habits and general bionomics, are presented. These 
matters, however, can be touched on but very briefly here. 

It may be noted that two species, M. mficollis and M. agilis, find, respectively, 
the northern and southern limit of their range here. 

Macropus (WJ agilis (Bunga), 

This wallaby has long been known to occur on Stradbroke Island, off the 
mouth of the Brisbane River, and is the commonest large wallaby in North 
Queensland, but the extent of its range southward along the coast has been a 
matter of uncertainty. The most southerly occurrence definitely recorded appears 
to be that at Inkerman, in the Burdekin River district. [O. Thomas. P.Z.G. 
(1908), p. 703.] It was with some surprise, therefore, that the species was found 
to be fairly numerous and quite well known along the valley of the Fitzroy/ 4) 
and within a few miles of Rockhampton, 320 miles further south. 

It occurs sparsely on the lower grassy slopes of the Berserker Hills, but is 
more numerous in the long-grass flats which border the creeks, feeding the Fitzroy 
from the north, and, in particular, it was observed and specimens obtained on the 
Serpentine and Mount Hedlow Creeks. This is a country of more or less coastal 
characteristics, i.e., both humidity and rainfall are higher than inland, and vegeta- 
tion notably more luxuriant, and it is probable that it is confined to this coastal 
belt and does not penetrate inland to any extent. Whether it is to be found, at 
present, further down the coast I am not able to say from personal observation. 
If the "River" or "Grass" wallaby is actually agilis, however, then it certainly 
extended much further south as late as 30 years ago, as I had frequent accounts 
of it from men who knew the coast at that time. Mr. H. A. Longman, Director 
of the Queensland Museum, informs me that he has seen captive examples at 
Gladston; their place of origin, however, was not ascertained and was probably 
not local, as Mr. R. Vallis, a keen observer of the local fauna, who knows both 
the Rockhampton and Gladston districts well, assures me that he has never seen 
it at the latter place. 

It does not occur along the Dawson proper. This southern representative of 
the _ species, in its short summer coat, is a very handsome wallaby, the ground 
colour of the dorsal and lateral surfaces being a rich, almost orange, buff, with 
but little pencilling of darker tips to dull the colour effect. The check stripe and 
hip stripe are strongly marked, the nape is more rufous than the back, and except 
that the toes show little darkening distally, both male and female agree well with 
M. agilis jardinei, as given by Schwarz/ 5 > [Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., series 8, vol. v., 

(4) Not to be confused with a river of the same name in North-West Australia, from 
which agilis has been recorded and discussed by Lonnberg. 

C 5 ) The forms described by Schwarz are undoubtedly recognisable as colour phases, but 
whether they are valid in a geographic sense may be doubted. In going over considerable series 
of skins from the Kimberleys, Arnhem Land, Groot Eyelandt and the Queensland peninsula in 
my own collection, and in the S.A. Museum, examples agreeing more or less with aurescens, 
agilis, and jardinei are to be found from each place. 


(1910), p. 164.] Winter skins subsequently obtained from the same locality, 
however, show a considerable increase in the grizzling of black and white hair 
tips, and this imparts a much greyer and colder tone to the coat. Both the male 
and female, taken in March, were strongly suffused over the whole ventral surface 
with a rich crimson waxy exudate, showing up conspicuously on the throat, chest, 
base of tail and inguinal areas. As already mentioned, this is a familiar feature in 
M. rufus. A. S. Le Souef has recorded it for M. robustus, Petrogale rothschildi, 
and P. purpureicollis, and I have observed it on old males of gigantens typicus 
(in February, Ryan's Creek, North-east Victoria), but I have not seen it pre- 
viously on a brush wallaby, , nor on a female of any other species. Certainly in 
rufus, and probably in all species, it is a seasonal feature and connected with 
heightened sexual activity, but the times of its incidence and maximum develop- 
ment have yet to be determined. 

Dimensions of a subadult male (P 3 M 3 ) and female (P 4 M 3 ), shot together 
on the Serpentine Creek, are as follows :— Head and body, 725, 643 ; tail, 860, 770 ; 
chest, 390, 340; manus, 70, 52; nail of third finger, 29, 26; pes, 258, 233; fourth 
toe, 95, 85; nail of fourth toe, 29, 33; Ear, 91 X48; 81 X 40; rhinarium to eye, 
82, 80; eye to ear, 58, 55; weight, 39, 27 lbs.; femur, 202, 185; tibia, 288, 270; 
ulnaradial, 155, 134; humerus, 112, 95. 

Skull measurements of a subadult male (P 4 M?), and an adult female from 
the Serpentine, follow: — Greatest length, 145, 139; basal length, 133*5, 126*5; 
zygomatic breadth, 77, 78; nasals, length, 64, 60; nasals, greatest breadth, 22-5, 
23; nasals, overhang, 12, 11; depth of muzzle, 26*5, 24; constriction, 17*5, j 16; 
palate, length, 91, 85*5; palate, breadth inside M 2 , 26, 26*5; anterior palatine 
foramina, 8*5, 9; diastema, 37*5, 33; bast-cranial axis, 39, 36; basi-facial axis, 
100, 94 ; facial index, 256, 261 ; molars *■*, 27, 23 ; P 4 , 9*5, 8-5. 

Incisors in a young skull have I 1 , 5 X 11 ] I 2 , 4 X 5 ; I 3 , 7*5 X 5-5. 

Macropus (W.) dorsalis. ("Wallaby"; "Scrubber.") 

Probably the most numerous and widespread mammal in the district, and, 
indeed in coastal Queensland generally, and usually referred to simply as the 
"Wallaby."< 6) 

Year in, year out, since the opening up of the country, it has been systemati- 
cally snared and shot, but, in spite of the enormous destruction thus caused, its 
numbers are apparently little, if at all, diminished. Residents of long standing 
have pointed out to me quite small patches of scrub which have been closely 
snared every winter for 40 years, and in which the species is as plentiful as ever. 
Much the same may be said of M. billardieri, in Tasmania, and M. eugenii, on 
Kangaroo Island, South Australia, and it would seem as though the yearly 
"pruning" of these wallaby colonies, within limits, actually stimulates the rate of 
increase, possibly by removing aged males, which always form a large proportion 
of the catch at the beginning of operations. 

In the Dawson Valley, and, I believe, over the greater part of its Queens- 
land habitat, dorsalis has become sedentary and gregarious to a degree quite 
unapproached by any other large wallaby. A. S. Le Souef (Wild Animals of Aus- 
tralasia, p. 189) speaks of it being found in "South-Eastern Australia," in "rough, 
open country" ; but in the area treated here it is absolutely confined to scrubs and 
jungles, and its mode of life is not definably different from that of the Thylogale,. 
to which group, in fact, it seems allied by several structural features as well. 

Over the greater part of the valley its typical stations are the great stretches 
of Brigalow scrub, which make up a large proportion of the total area. The pure 

( B ) Further north this usage is transferred to M. agilis, according to Lumholtz. 


TWalow country although containing dense stands of trees, has a fairly open 
SSTSt more common afe the Brigalow-sof twood communities, in which growth 

" S "h Sftte and secretive, not given to daylight feeding and therdo^ 
difficult to observe Even in scrubs where it is numerous it is difficult to obtain 
more haS fleeting glimpses of it as it retreats ahead of one down its runaways 
S cl ngs very dofefy toits cover, and I suspect that most of to feeding is done 
within the scrubs and that it does not rely to any great extent on the grass of the 
open count v On summer, at least). Although rarely seen in the open except in 
flS times it has a well-marked trait in that it dislikes the dripping scrubs after 
S and at such times it will come out in numbers along the edges of the Bauhmia 
flats Which frequently skirt the scrub in the lower country. 

On inspection of the animal in the flesh, a number of minor external characters 
are to be Seed which may be added to existing descriptions. Attention has no 
heen drawn I believe, to the relatively very large size of the fore-hmb-a most 
conspicuous' featu eTn the general make-up of the animal. Not only is the who e 
HmbTe?riong but the proximal segment is powerfully muscled and maintains its 
Sh almS g e'venly from shoulder to elbow. The arm is carried very straight at 
the side, with the two segments nearly in line. 

" The foot is small and slender. Three fully adult males give a mean value or 
its length of 205 mm., the lowest figure 1 have obtained (in flesh measurements 
w thinAe subgenus. The nail of the fourth toe is uniformly long sharp-pointed, 
Tnd unusually straight, the dorsal edge having practically no curvature. 

Many examples of both sexes and differing ages were found to have failed in 
the development of the normal pigmentation of the soles o the feet palms of 

to "he Dawson Valley animal. The ratio of, length of head and body tail, in 
adult maks (?> is there, as 1 : 1-14, a value which is exceeded by m 1-36 +, 
by parryi 1'34, and by ruficolhs V27 . 

The internal surface of the ear is bluish. On examining several hundred 
skins of dorsalis it is apparent that the general colour of the pelage and the 
deve opment o the cheekfdorsal and hip stripes, are all subject to consitoaMe 
individual variation Comparison of a selection of these Dawson skins with others 
T^mSonrQnLs\and, indicates the existence of similar differences m these 
Sties which cannot be correlated in any definite way with either age or sex. 
The seasonal change is marked. The coat becomes much denser and longer 
« winter and there is a marked intensification of the colour on the rufous 

in the w— . ... , 

areas of the fore-quarters and rump 

areas ui luc wi*. ^c*t**i.w^ ± , 

Tn nil old males examined, the disposition of the hair tracts on the nape and 

rfW^&lnSS^ from any other "Large Wallaby." The normal caudad 

ract ta ke rise, as usual, at a point near the occiput but is greatly restricted in 

extent anteriorly by two ^m/o^eversal_which ra diate from a point near the 

F) The relative length oTthe tail is less in females of all species of Wallabia examined. 


armpit and cover the greater part of the scapular and nuchal surfaces with hairs 
directed cephalad. In a dorsal view the effect is very striking, since two converlinl 
opposition ridges are produced which, meeting the black dorsal stripe form f 
sharply-defined arrowhead. (Sec fig. 1.) »«»pe, iorm a 

In regard to its adult <«> dimensions and skull characters, dorsalis is remark- 
ably variable, and this may perhaps be explained in terms of its varying adapta- 
tion or readaptation to a gregarious, sedentary life. S audpia 

Detailed measurements of an aged male (P*M*} from relatively open Briga- 
ow country on Spring Creek in the Upper Dawson Valley, and the foSr convfn- 
tional measurements of an adult female (P^M*) from a Latitat* scrub on the 
Fitzroy, are as follows :-Head and body, 720, 550; tail, 825, 580; gir h of chest 
385; manus, 64; nail of third finger, 27; pes 205 157- fnnrrh Ll ?c ,7 
fourth toe, 30; ear, 88 X 46, 83 f rhina/hJm to eye, 78- ye to ar' 55 "eilht 
35 lbs.; femur, 180; tibia, 260; humerus, 136; ulnaradial, 175 ' * ght ' 

Dorsal surface of M. (Wallabia) dorsalis, showing the hair tracts. An aged male. 

shaoe n o f h the d n U , I Ll kU JL lhere i!- n0t T l J a great ran S e of variation in siz ^ in the 
ridees but therf ' ?* ^^ ° f P* interorbita l region, and of the temporal 


The mean values for skull dimensions of three males an d two females ; (all 
P*M*) are as follows :-Greatest length, 135, 119-5; basal length, 121 -f 5, 106 5, 
zygomatic breadth, 67, 58 ; nasals, length, 55 44 ; nasals greatest breadth 21 -5 15 
depth of muzzle, 22-5, 19;; constriction, 15, 15; palatal length, 80-5, 72 ; palate, 
breadth inside M\ 23, 20; anterior palatine foramina, 7, 6 j dm ^™^ ^J s > 
basi-cranial axis, 36, 33; basi-facial axis, 89, 76; facial index, 247, 230, M* , 

22-5, 19*5. 

The basal length for adult males may fall as low as 109 mm. 

Macrofus (W.) parryi (Whiptail). 
This magnificent species still occurs in large numbers in suitable tracts all 
over the valley, but in the northern part of the area is rapidly diminishing. In 
1884 it was obtained by Lumholtz near Rockhampton and on Coomooboolaroo, tor 
instance, but is now quite unknown in the vicinity of the first place and on the 
second has become rare. (9) 

It resembles the Toolache in spending the greater part of its time in very open 
country, and is more easily approached and observed than any other wallaby in 
the district Typical of the whiptail habitats are the beautiful undulating upland 
parks of the broad-leafed ironbark (Eucalyptus siderophlora)—nch\y grassed 
and with frequent low, broken, rocky outcrops, bordered sometimes by wattle or 
Brigalow scrubs, but in themselves quite free from bush growth of any kind and 
with the trees rather widely spaced. As a characteristic example of this type ot 
country might be cited the Grevillea plateau, where parryi is still in very large 

Not only is its feeding done in such surroundings, but it makes its camps 
amongst the exposed rocky outcrops and is thus always more or less m view. 
It is rarely or never seen in a scrub. It is, no doubt, this fact of its frequently been 
seen amongst rocks which inspired the old name, "Parry's Wallaroo, but which a 
practical knowledge of both species proves to be unjustified, as except for an 
increase in the bulk of the toe pads, it makes no approach to robustus m structure. 
Its temperament also is quite different, and in no part of the valley was I able to 
examine whether their habitats overlap. 

It is diurnal to a greater extent than any other brush wallaby, and except 
during the hottest weather may be seen feeding out in the open till 10 a.m m the 
mornings and again after 4 p.m. in the afternoons, and m winter, I am informed 
by those who are constantly riding over its beats, it may be seen about all day. 
It is distinctly social in habit, and very likely truly gregarious, though it would take 
closer and more prolonged observation than I was able to give to determine the 
point It certainly camps in rather large parties, 12 or 15 being frequently seen lying 
up together, but in the late afternoon, when feeding begins m earnest, there is 
a tendency, I believe, for the larger males and females to go off in pairs. At 
Drumburle, where I watched it most, they were so numerous, however, that towards 
evening whole hillsides were dotted with the members of these disbanded camps, 
and it was impossible to make out the existence of any natural grouping. Old 
males are always solitary, as in many other species. 

The midday camps can be approached fairly closely, and are then seen to be 
most unrestful affairs; there is a constant preening and scuffling and changing of 
position, with interludes of playful sparring, much in the manner characteristic 
of M. rufus. In January there were no indications of rutting and females were 
taken with young in many stages, from almost independent "joeys" to naked 
embryos of 200 mm. 

( fl ) I am indebted to Mr. H. G. Barnard for the information that there are signs that it 
is recovering its former position in the Dawson Range on the southern end of Coomooboolaroo. 


More than once, evidence was obtained of a degree of attachment between 
the sexes unusual in marsupials. On one occasion a young male (P S M 2 ) and an 
older female (P'M») were observed feeding alone in a gully. The male was shot, 
anc, the female immediately made off in a panic, but stopped at about 150 yards 
and looked back. Withm a few minutes, not having seen me, she returned to the 
body of the male and, after circling it in a cautious and hesitating way to mv 
amazement, launched a violent attack upon it, striking repeatedly with her feet 
springing back and striking again, with every appearance of rage and desperation' 
So engrossed m this was she that I was able to approach very close, and then 
perceived that her blows were solely directed at a great superficial wound on the 
Hank ot the male caused by emergence of the high velocity bullet. 

It is well known that partially disembowelled animals will tear desperately at 
the extruded viscera with their teeth. In the case of kangaroos instances of it 
have frequently been told me by professional shooters, and I have observed it 
myself. My impression is strongly that in such cases the animal is mistaking the 
wound or gut, objects which are entirely strange to it, for something which is 
altogether extraneous and which is responsible (by aggression) for their distress 
in the above case, I have no doubt that it was the intention of the female to assist 
the male in beating off an attack. 

_ Like so many mammals living in open country they are very curious, and their 
curiosity has earned them a reputation for stupidity amongst trappers and shooters. 
It is said by such, that m winter when large "mobs" congregate on the sunny side 
of ridges, a dozen may be shot down one by one before the rest make up their 
minds to go, provided the shooter does not move from his position. 

Locally it is regarded as an extremely fast wallaby, but as it is not hunted 
with dogs to any extent, it is difficult to get data for comparison with other species 
Although 1 never saw one hard pushed, my own impression was otherwise • it has' 
ordinarily, a rather loose-jointed, high-bounding gait, which would need to be 
greatly flattened out before it could extend a greyhound. 

Le Souef ("Animals of Australasia") has already noted its habit of standing 
bolt upright and the attitude he illustrates is in no way exceptional, but is always 
assumed when it leaves its feeding for a moment to look about it. Even the 
joeys rear themselves back in the same extreme way. and are often hard pushed 
to maintain their balance with their weak little tails— a most ludicrous sight 
When in this upright position the hips are spread more than in other species' 
the femora apparently sloping outwards from the pelvis at a considerable angle! 

Temperamentally it is not at all shy, and in captivity is mild and gentle in its 
ways. Old males have little of the aggressiveness shown, for instance, by ruficollis 
and ualabatus. } ' 

■ .u Af J er u eX i mi ^ g many living exam P Ie s at close quarters and measuring eleven 
in the flesh, the following details of external characters not apparent in museum 
material are to be observed. All writers have commented on the slender and grace- 
ful build of parryi; this is largely due to its great height, the unusually long neck 
and sloping shoulders, and the long attenuated f orelimb ; the hind-quarters being 
very large and powerful. Even in old males the slimness of the fore-quarters is 
not lost ; the arms may become heavily muscled, but the wide chest and great 
development of pectorals commonly seen in "Old Men" of ruficollis, ualabatu* and 
agihs is not usual m parryt, and its body weight is notably low in comparison' with 
its linear dimensions. 

The head in addition to its striking markings, is peculiar in other respects- 
it is light and delicate, long and narrow, with a slender, shallow muzzle pinched 
in at the sides somewhat, near the nostrils (see plates II. and III ) The ears 


as remarked by Collett (loc. tit.), are unusually large; they are bent inwards at 
the tip, and their inner naked portions are salmon-coloured. 

The pes is exceedingly large and with a naked sole, but this is not of even 
width, the calcaneal extremity being expanded. The toe pads are thick, fleshy 
and resilient. The nail of the fourth toe is large and strong and its upper edge 
strongly convex. The point is blunt, but is not undercut by an oblique facet of 
wear as in robustus. The fifth digit is relatively large, as in all wallabia, and is 
not reduced as in the wallaroos. (Compare Gould, quoting Strange, Mammals of 

The tail is a very striking feature, being excessively long, very mobile in life 
and with little lateral compression. Chevron callosities on its lower surface are 
not marked, but a large bare patch is generally present on the dorsal surface of the 
base of the tail. 

As regards pelage, parryi appears to be a very uniform species all over its 
range; sexual, seasonal, and individual variations all being quite insignificant. 
Midwinter skins (August), when compared with those taken in January, show a 
slight increase in density on the ventral surface, but the dorsal coat remains short 
and rather thin and the colouration is precisely the same. It is a peculiarity of 
parryi that its epidermis, over the greater part of the body surface, is highly 
pigmented and appears a dark brown, or even black, on parting the fur. The coat 
of the fully-furred pouch young is exactly as in the adult. Hair trends generally 
are as in ruficollis (see "Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr.," 1930, p. 53). There is T 
however, in addition, a strongly developed opposition ridge on the haunch below, 
and nearly parallel to, the prominent white stripe in the same area. 

In considering the future of this wallaby in Queensland, there are sound 
reasons for anxiety. It is true that it is still numerous over a large area, but no 
one with any knowledge of the fate of open country species elsewhere would 
maintain that it will long survive the present rate of slaughter in the cattle country 
of the Dawson. Where man is concerned its instinct for self-preservation is 
almost nil, and as its colouration and habits make it a most conspicuous animal 
at any time, its destruction is almost a mechanical matter. It is very probable 
that the scores of thousands of- whiptails which are killed every year in coastal 
Queensland, represent, not the natural increase, as is assumed locally, but rather 
the natural drainage of the species from large areas of relatively poor feeding 
grounds into smaller areas which are more attractive to it and which will support 
a denser population. When the country is settled these "fur pockets" act as 
natural traps, and destruction which appears to be local actually affects a much 
wider area, indirectly. It is this factor of natural concentration which is largely 
responsible for the element of unexpected suddenness which often marks the 
extinction of mammal species before advancing settlement. 

M. parryi is one of the most beautiful of Australian mammals, and is one 
of the very few species which can be easily and freely observed under natural 
conditions. It is to be hoped that its value will be recognised while there is still 

Mean values for the flesh measurements of two males and two females, from 
Drumburle, and all with P 4 and M 4 in place, are as follows : — Head and body, 
793, 732; tail, 1,077, 858; girth of chest, 470, 315; manus, 85, 54; nail of third 
finger, 33, 24; pes, 286, 247; fourth toe, 104, 94; nail of fourth toe, 32, 30; Ear, 
105 X 53, 98 X 49 ; rhinarium to eye, 80, 75 ; eye to car, 61, 53 ; weight, 49, 32 lbs. ; 
humerus, 148, 100; ulnaradial length, 200, 155; femur, 225, 185; tibia, 330, 275. 

All skulls examined show a close agreement in general features ; from that 
of ruficollis, which it resembles closely when aged, it is distinguished by its 
narrower P 4 , shallower muzzle, and greater transzygomatic breadth. In the 
Dawson area the skull is lightly ossified. 


Mean values for the skull measurements of the above males and females are 
as follows : — Greatest length, 146, 137; basal length, 134, 124*5 ; zygomatic breadth, 
75, 73; nasals, length, 61, 56; nasals, greatest breadth, 21, 21; depth of muzzle, 
26-5, 23*5; constriction, 20, 19*5; palatal length, 89, 83; palate, breadth inside 
M 2 , 24*5, 23; anterior palatine foramina, 6*5, 7*5; diastema, 38*5, 35*5; basi- 
cranial axis, 39'5, 36*5; basi-facial axis, 99*5, 91*5; facial index, 251, 250; 
M sl -s, 23*5, 22-5; P*, 5, 5. 

Macropus (W.) rufjcollis, var. (Roany: bush-tail). 
So far as published records go, the northern extension of the range of this 
wallaby is very indefinite. It was stated by Longman in 1922 to occur in South 
Queensland, and somewhat later specimens were obtained by him from Mundu- 
berra, on the Burnett. 

In the Taroom district of the Dawson Valley, in about the same latitude, 
but west of this locality, I had frequent reports of a "roan wallaby/' or "bush 
tail," and finally, after obtaining a single specimen on the Palm Tree Creek, was 
able to identify it as riificollis. It is not a common species on the Dawson, and 
I neither saw nor had reliable reports of it further north than Drumburle. 

The single example obtained, a subadult female, was shot in a heavily-grassed 
gum flat, in just such country as is frequented by agilis further north. 

Although its general external characters and skull and dentition are un- 
mistakably those of ruficollis, its colouration is very distinctly, even strikingly 
different, from the southern form. On comparison with a young female taken 
in the Tumut district of New South Wales, about a month earlier, these differences 
may be summarized thus : — 

The general dorsal colour is much lighter, and a marked cinereous tone 
prevails owing to the reduction in number of entirely black hairs, to the fading 
of the black terminal band of the other hairs to a rufous brown, and the con- 
sequent greater prominence of the subterminal white band. The black pencilling 
of all extremities is reduced. The hair at the base is everywhere some shade of 
ochraceous orange, whereas the epidermal band in the southern animal is a dark 
brownish slate. The rufous areas of nape and rump are similar in position and 
extent, but the colour is paler in the Queensland animal — almost buff. The 
muzzle, cheeks, arid crown are a clear pale rufous, almost free from brown and 
black admixture, and, in particular, the back of the ears are uniformly coloured 
a pale buff orange, the extreme tip only being brownish; in the southern ruficollis 
the apical J*| of the back of the ear is dark brown or black. The lower ventral 
surface is clothed with uniform cream or fawn-coloured hairs, very different from 
the dark slate silver-tipped hairs of the New South Wales animal, 

^ The differences noted are quite as marked as those which separate the varieties 
typicus and bennetti, but I am unable to assert their constancy owing to lack of 
material. The accumulation of an adequate series has been undertaken, and 
pending its completion I refrain from giving this local form a name. 

Flesh dimensions of the 5 (P 4 M*) :— Plead and body, 618; tail, 727; girth 
of chest, 280; manus, 50; nail of third finger, 33; ear, 94 X 51 ; rhinarium to 
eye, 70 ; eye to ear, 53 ; weight, 24 lbs. ; humerus, 78 ; ulnaradial, 132 ; femur, 175 ; 
tibia, 265. 

Skull :— Greatest length, 130; basal length, 116; zygomatic breadth, 68; nasals, 
length, 53; nasals, greatest breadth, 18; nasals, overhang, 11*5; depth of muzzle^ 
24; constriction, 18; palate length, 77*5 ; palate breadth inside M* 22; anterior 
palatine foramina, 6; diastema, 27*5; basi-cranial axis, 33; basi-facial axis 85- 
facial index, 258; M' 1 " 8 , 24-5; P\ 7; I\ 10 X 5;P, 5 X 3*5;F,6X8. ' ' 


Macropus (W.) ualabatus, var. ingrami. (Swamper.) 
This species is found throughout the length of the valley, but has a very inter- 
rupted and rather sparse distribution. It was observed and specimens obtained, 
in the Taroom district, at Thangool in the Callide Valley, at Coomooboolaroo 

Fig. 2. 

Superior, palatal and lateral views of the skull of M. (wallabia) ualabatus ingrami. 

Adult male, from Thangool. Three-quarters natural size. 

and in the Berserker Hills, but in many intermediate localities, where it was sought 
in likely country, it was quite unknown. Further east, on the slopes of the Coast 
Ranges, its habitat is one of well-watered, densely-clothed and shady gullies, which, 


except for the increased humidity, offer conditions quite similar to those obtain- 
ing in Gippsland and southern New South Wales, where the typical variety has 
its chief station. On the Dawson it has to contend with much drier conditions, 
and the ualabatus element in the fauna here, probably represents only the scat- 
tered (and fluctuating) fringe of the main body. In some places its first appear- 
ance is still remembered. Mr. Charles Barnard, the present owner of Coomoo- 
boolaroo, remembers when the first "black wallaby" was taken by the local blacks 
(in the early eighties) in the Dawson Range at the south end of the run, and 
brought in to the homestead and exhibited by them, as a great curiosity. It lives 
very obscurely in small scattered parties and lies up in moderately dense cover. 
At Thangool, where it was rather more plentiful than elsewhere, it camped on the 
fringes of the Brigalow scrubs and was snared on the same pads as were used by 
dorsalis, but unlike the latter it was frequently seen in the early mornings about 
the clearings of the settlers, feeding on the Rhodes grass. 

The material obtained agrees well with Thomas's description ^ 10 > of 
M. ualabatus ingrami from Inkerman, 300 miles north of the most northerly 
locality from which I obtained specimens. 

It is a small brightly coloured form of ualabatus, characterised by a great 
increase in the fulvous element of the colouration. The subterminal band of the 
dorsal hairs is longer than in typicus, is pale gold yellow rather than orange 
rufous, and the overlay of entirely black hairs is much reduced. The face mark- 
ings are conspicuous, the coat shorter, and although its colours are brighter the 
hairs lack much of the lustre and sparkle of the southern form. 

The skull is smaller than that of typicas, aged examples attaining a basal 
length of 113 mm, as against 128 mm. In general proportions and contours it is 
similar to that of the southern variety, and, like it, is massive and densely ossified. 
Significant of relationship, also, is the practical identity in size and proportion of 
male and female crania— a striking peculiarity of ualabatus typicus separating it 
sharply from other eastern species. 

Minor, but constant, differences separating the two varieties are: (1) the 
relatively greater posterior expansion of the nasals in ingrami the ratio length -4- 
posterior breadth being only 2*36 as against 2*80 in the south; (2) the virtual 
absence in ingrami of the interorbital constriction, always very marked in mature 
skulls of typicus; numerically expressed, the ratio, basal length -h constriction 
is 6*0 in the former, 7*6 in the latter; (3) the diastema (at comparable dental 
stages) is shorter in ingrami, going into the basal length 4*8 times, as against 
4*5 times in typicus. 

The teeth, particularly the secator, are smaller and lighter in ingrami — con- 
siderably more so than linear dimensions alone indicate. 

Unfortunately detailed flesh measurements of adults were not obtained. 

The mean values for the dimensions of four adult skulls (P 4 M 4 ) are as 
follows:— Greatest length, 119; basal length, 109; zygomatic breadth, 61; nasals, 
length, 46; nasals, greatest breadth, 19'5; nasals, overhang, 9; depth of muzzle, 
23*5 ; constriction, 18; palate, length, 70*5 ; palate, breadth inside M 2 , 21 ; anterior 
palatine foramina, 6; diastema, 22'8; basi-cranial axis, 33; basi-facial axis, 79; 
facial index, 239; F\ 8; M**» 20-5. 

The maximum values for the teeth, derived from a scries (11) of 8 ingrami 
and 15 typicus skulls arc:— I 1 (ingrami), 4*5 X 9*5, (typicus), 4*5 X 9*5; 
\\ 5*5X5*5, 5*5X6*5; P, 7*5 X 6*5, 8*0 X 6*5; P : \ 6*5, 7; V\ 8*5, 10; 
M sl ' 3 22-5 23*5. 

There ' can be little doubt that this wallaby is identical with Krefft's 
Halmaturus mastersi, obtained in about the same latitude on the Burnett in 1870. 

( t0 ) "P.Z.S.," 1908, p. 792. 

( u ) Antero-posterior length X vertical height (of enamel). 


The name mastersi was given as a doubtful synonym of Giinther's var. apicalis, 
by Thomas in 1888, and when the Inkerman specimens were examined in 1908 
Krefft's name was again suppressed, presumably on the grounds of insufficient 

Although it would be seemly to commemerate Krefft's priority in the matter, 
there appears no regular way of so doing, except by founding a new subspecies 
on such trifling differences as can be made out between the Inkerman and Dawson 
animals, and this is a very undesirable course. 

It may be noticed, as an apparent anomaly, that the reduction in size of 
ualabatus, which occurs on passing from Gippsland to Central Queensland, is not 
continued further north; apicalis, from Cape Grafton, being (fide descriptions) 
as large as the typical form. 

Subgenus Thylogale. 

The local distribution of the small wallabies of this group in the Dawson 
Valley is a matter of uncertainty, owing to the fact that its presence is usually 
masked by the much more numerous M% dorsalis, which has come to occupy almost 
all the scrubs in which Thylogale might be sought. In most localities where 
dorsalis is taken in large numbers for commercial purposes, the snarers tell of a 
much smaller "Paddymelon" which they obtain occasionally. From its description 
I would identify it with M. thetidis or M. wilcoxi rather than with Onychogale 
frenata, to which, according to Longman, this vernacular name is most commonly 
applied in Queensland/ 12 ^ 

It is, at any rate, quite certain that numerically Thylogale are an insignificant 
factor in the fauna of the Dawson Valley proper, and the only specimens which 
were obtained came from the moister country on the Fitzroy. 

Macropus (thylogale) wilcoxi (?). .. 

Three examples of a "small wallaby" were obtained in the Berserker Hills, 
where they were called "Paddymelons" by local naturalists who considered them 
rare, and as no Thylogale are listed by Coliett, in spite of Lumholtz's long sttay 
in the Rockhampton district, its rarity is not apparently a recent development. 
The three specimens are practically identical, and present such a mingling of the 
characters of thetidis and wilcoxi (as recorded) that the identification given is 
provisional only. Material for direct comparison has been scanty, and existing 
descriptions are confused and appear to be based on quite inadequate numbers from 
restriced localities. 

In a general view the skins are nearer thetidis than wilcoxi } having the 
characteristic rufous nape and fore-quarters, a marked reversal of the hairs 
cephalad on the anterior dorsal area, and uniformly coloured ears, with no indica- 
tion of the bright rufous basal patch of the New South Wales wilcoxi. On the 
other hand, the posterior and outer aspects of the lower leg and tarsus are bright 
rufous strongly contrasted with the grey brown of the upper leg and the pale 
brown of the foot and toes. In a series of thetidis skins from the Northern Rivers 
district of New South Wales there is no approach to this character, and Gould's 
plate of thetidis represents the whole of the leg as being uniform grey coloured. 
Thomas, in the catalogue, speaks of the arms and legs being grey or rufous. There 
is a faint pale hip-stripe. 

The skull, on the whole, is nearer wilcoxi than thetidis, but this decision is 
based almost entirely on the dentition. On applying the tests given by Thomas 
for distinguishing the two species, to such skulls of both as are available here, it 

C 12 ) The word "Paddymelon" is of very uncertain connotation in all the States, and 
in the writer's experience is applied to at least eight species of marsupials. It is frequently- 
used by bushmen, in a general or categorical sense, for animals which are strange or 


would appear that the characters relied upon (except those of the teeth) are so 
variable in both as to be quite useless for the purpose. This is true of the nasals, 
premaxillae, interorbital space, palatal foramen, and nasal spine. 

The third incisor, however ? is a considerably larger tooth in thetidis than in 
wilcoxi, and its anteror posterior length is distinctly greater than its height, whereas 
in wilcoxi the length is about equal to the height, or rather less. Both secator 
and molars are somewhat shorter and slighter in thetidis. 

In these respects the Berserker wallaby agrees with wilcoxi, and as they may 
be given more weight than discrepancies in coat colour, I refer it to that species 
rather than to thetidis. It is plain, however, that a systematic restatement of the 
characters of these two small wallabies, based on a large series culled from the 
whole of their range, is urgently needed. 

No flesh measurements were obtained, but both sexes at the P 4 M 4 stage are 
smaller than either thetidis or wilcoxi from northern New South Wales. 

Skull dimensions of a male and female, both with P^M' 1 : — Greatest length, 
94, 87; basal length, 86, 78; zygomatic breadth, 51, 46*5; nasals, length, 35, 31; 
nasals, greatest breadth, 15, 13*5; nasals, least breadth, 7*5, 7; nasals, overhang, 
4*5, 3*5; depth of muzzle, 18, 15; constriction, 11*5, 11*5; palatal, length, 54, 49; 
palatal, breadth inside M 2 , 16*5, 15*5; anterior palatine foramen, 4, 3*5; diastema, 
18, 18; basi-cranial axis, 29*5, 25*5; basi-facial axis, 58*5, 53'5; facial index, 198, 
209; M ?1 - 3 , 15-5, 15'5;P 4 , 5*5, 5*5; P (in a young skull), 6 X 5*5. 

Petrogale peniciixata, var. herberti. 

This rock wallaby is still, as in Lumholtz's time, very numerous and widely 
distributed. It is to be found in thriving colonies in almost every range of hills 
away from the large towns, and occurs indifferently whether the rock outcrops 
are bare or densely clothed with scrub. Like the local wallaroo, it is considerably 
less specialized to a life amongst rocks than some of the inland forms, and on the 
upper Dawson, in the broken country round the heads of the creeks, it spends 
much time in the patches of low scrubs, living much as the Thylogale do. Like 
them, also, it is less diurnal and more wary than P. xanthopas or Plateralis, and 
although it takes the sun on the rock faces in the early morning and again in the 
late afternoons, it does not expose itself as freely as the latter. 

In spite of its black and white axillary patches and stripes it is not at all 
conspicuous, and in life appears a very plain, unadorned little wallaby. The 
general form is squat and dumpy with short, strong arms and legs, and the males 
become very heavy and strong about the arms and chest. Its physiognomy is very 
peculiar. The head (pi. L, figs. 1 and 2) is short, and at the crown is deep 
from above downwards, and wide from side to side. The short ears are thus set 
far apart, and the inter-auricular distance nearly equals the length of the ear. The 
rock wallaby is the only macropod in the Dawson Valley which is totally pro- 
tected by law, and (possibly on this account) is regarded with little favour by 
settlers, and is shot freely. It is unlikely, however, to suffer any material 
diminution in the near future. 

A series of eighteen skins from four localities in the valley, representing a 
north and south range of about 170 miles, has been examined. The series presents 
characters which agree essentially with Thomas's description of P. herberti ["Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist.," series 9 (17), 1926, p. 625], and one of the Westwood specimens 
examined by him has been available for comparison and blends perfectly with 
the rest. It is plain, however, that there is a much wider range of individual 
variation in external characters than might be inferred from the original descrip- 
tion, and of these differences the following may be noted: — (1) The degree of 
tawny suffusion on the dorsum varies greatly both in extent and intensity; a 
point of some importance as affecting its distinction from assimilis. (2) The 


white vertical band behind the scapular and the black axillary patch are frequently 
prolonged posteriorly, so as to form parallel longitudinal stripes reaching as far 
as the knee. In two summer skins this is almost as marked as in the central 

Fig. 3. 

Superior, palatal and lateral views of the skull of Petrogale penicillata herberti 

Adult male from Mount Hedlow. Slightly enlarged. 


lateralis, but in others is but faintly developed. The nuchal stripe is also variable. 
(3) The colour of the forearm is generally some shade of yellowish brown, but 
may be yellowish white, and is then not distinguishable from that of the single 
assimilis available. (4) The tail may be quite black for three-quarters of its 
length (as noticed by Collett), or the black may be confined to the last inch or so, 
the remaining portion of its length between the tip and basal patch being either a 
grizzle of black and tawny, or almost uniform buff. Any distinction from 
penicillata or assimilis, based on this feature, can be of little value. All black 
areas tend to become orange brown. The bushiness of the tail varies a great deal ; 
in some the hairs reach 55 mm., in others the longest hairs on the tail are but 
15 mm. (5) The ventral surface, which is a variable mixture of grey-fawns, is 
commonly blotched with pure white. There are indications of this in specimens 
from all four localities, but at Morinish, 30 miles north-west of Rockhampton, 
it is especially pronounced, and the rock wallabies there are white-chested or even 
white-bellied, < 13 > (6) The tawny suffusion of the lower back is largely determined 
by the showing through of the brownish tips of the under-fur. In addition to the 
variability of this feature, striking differences in general appearance are also 
brought about by a change in the colour of the tips of the guard hairs from black 
to orange rufous, a much brighter colour than the normal tawny. In such 
specimens the dorsal colour approaches Peradorcus. 

The series examined is a comprehensive one of about equal numbers of males 
and females, taken in February, March, June, August and October, and in several 
developmental stages. In spite of the wealth of data which it presents, I find^ it 
impossible, after careful comparisons, to correlate these variations in any definite 
way with locality, sex, age, or season. Some of the differences noted are, no 
doubt true individual variations, but others, particularly the intensity of tone and 
colour, prominence of markings, and texture of the pelage, probably represent 
merely passing phases of a cycle of change which do not synchronise in different 
individuals. The change of black hairs to red, for example, occurs in young as 
well as aged individuals of both sexes, and is quite independent of season. The 
two skins which represent most strongly the erythristie and cinereus stages were 
both taken at Mount Hedlow in June from males at the same dental stage. 

The single seasonal feature which occurs in all is the great increase in density 
of the coat, particularly of the rich brown-black under-fur. 

The skull (fig. 3) is rather variable in adult size (basal length, 100-107 mm.). 
As compared with the central forms, it is strongly built and densely ossified. 
Especially characteristic and unvarying is the wide posterior margin of the nasals; 
the naso-frontal suture, although very sinuous in its course, being almost trans- 
verse in its direction. 

Collctt's notes (loc. cit.) on P. penicillata relate to this form. 

In his investigation of the penicillata herberti, assimilis group, Thomas has 
had large scries of recently collected material upon which to work, and his con- 
clusions are backed by such unique experience in these matters that one cjannot 
doubt that the three types are recognisable, although it is plain that the distinctions 
relied upon are somewhat trivial, and (in the case of the northern pair) by no 
means constant even in a limited area, and, as Thomas himself admits, are average 
rather than individual characters. 

In regard to the degree of separation to be accorded the forms in classifica- 
tion, however, there is room for other opinion. The recent description of ten new 
rock wallabies as full species is based on altogether insufficient knowledge and is 

(13) Mr. R. Vallis, a local naturalist, first drew my attention to this peculiarity, 
suggesting that the form is distinct from that further south. He was not aware, however, 
that the white blotching occurs in other places, and, as the Morinish wallaby is otherwise 
quite similar, I cannot share his opinion. 


a most regrettable course, not only by reason of the confusion which is introduced 
in identifying such closely related forms, but more particularly on account of the 
lack of balance which then exists (in the literature) between these suddenly 
expanded genera and those which have, for purely fortuitous reasons, escaped 
the attentions of nomenclatonal enthusiasts. As varieties, most of these new forms 
would be sufficiently made known, without doing violence to the real distinctions 
ot structure, habits and range, which separate the older species. 

As Pocock has recently said ("Proc. Royal Soc, London," 1930), Thomas in 
his later work, seems to have used the word species in a purely geographic sense 

^ wZ ]I !i thl \ re u dUC u ed f ° rm k Cann0t be a PP lied t0 the Penicillata trio, since 
the highlands which they occupy extend practically unbroken over the whole of 
their range, and the factor of isolation is absent. 

For these reasons I would refer the Dawson Valley rock wallaby to 
Petrogale penicillata herberti. y 

Flesh measurements of an adult male and subadult female (P*M 3 ) from 
~ra n C £ e ft k ' m * e Jaroom district, are as follows :-Head and body, 535, 515; 
tad, 650, 580; girth of chest, 265, 220; manus, 47, 42; nail of third finger, 12, 11 ■ 

T; % 5 £ f ° Urth t0e ' % 7 & nai1 ' 14 ' 13; ear ' 62 X 32 > 61 X 32?rhmarium 

A^'mn ?7 ; T t0 ear ,', 45 1 'i° ; weight ' l3 lbs '' ll lbs - humerus, 73, 63; ulna- 
radial, 100, 87; femur, 145, 137; tibia, 186, 173. 

Mean values for the skull measurements of 5 males and 3 females all adult 

£5^2? M' l08 ' !° 0; baSd length ' 93 > 87 ' z ^ omatic breadth? 56, 53i 
nazals, length, 45 42; nasals, greatest breadth, 13, 12-5; nasals, least breadth 
8 6; nasals overhang, 6. 5; depth of muzzle, 18, 16; constriction, 14-5, 14-5 
palatal length, 60, 56; palate breadth inside M* f 16, 16-5; anterior palatine 

67 fi^H , 'r t**8h<£$ \l!l basi " cr r al *™> 28, 26; Zm-hxM axis, 
6/, 63; facial index, 234, 234'5; M sl -», 17, 16-5; P 4 , 7, 6-5. 

Msi- 3 M 9n im p U 4 m 7 V c alu ^ f c 0r ' h V eet !! derived from *e series of 18 skulls are:- 
M»^,20;P*, 7-5;P», 5;F, 4X 8-5; P, 3-5 X 5; P,4'5X5. 

Onychogale frenata. 
Observed twice only, and no specimens obtained. It was obtained by Lum- 
holtz m the Rockhampton district in 1880-1884, and recently Longman floe cit ) 
has stated that it is not uncommon in South Queensland. Over the greater part 
ot the Dawson country, however, it is either absent or rare, as few reliable 
accounts of it could be obtained. 


Neither specimens nor reliable accounts of this animal were obtained 
It was collected by Lumholtz 200 miles north-west of Rockhampton, and 
later was recorded by Thomas from Inkerman (1908). 

Subfamily POTOROINAE. 
Aepyprymnus rufescens. 

This interesting animal, though highly characteristic of coastal Queensland 
has received very little mention in recent years, and there has been no published 
data from which one might estimate its position in the fauna of that State 

Strangely enough it was not taken by Lumholtz, though it must have occurred 
in many of the districts in which he worked, and has thus escaped the searching 
examinations of Collett. It has been twice recorded from North Queensland 
localities by O Thomas ("P.Z.S.," 1908, p. 788, and "Ann. Mag. Nat ffist '"l923 
ser. 11, p. 170), and by Lonnberg and Mjoberg from Carrington ("Kungl. Svenska 


Vetenskaps Akadamiens Handlingar," Band 52 No 2 1916), but without comment 
and as each record was based on a single individual, it might be inferred to be 

comparahve^y ™ ^ ^ Valleys, however, this is far from being the case, 

and it is widely spread over the whole area from sea level to the tops of the 
plateaus. It occurs in almost all types of country, both open and forested, but 
never, apparently, in dense scrubs, and, like the Bettongs, it has a preference for 
grassy lands free from bush growth. The banks of creeks and river flats are 
favourite resorts, and there are few such places which by systematic beating 
cannot be made to yield up a few. ' 

The nature of the country is such that it is seldom far from surface waters 
in normal times, and it does not hug the watercourses so much for the water as 
for the long grass which lines them. When, however, surface waters fail it suffers 
severely Like most of the coastal species it has little resistance to drought, and 
will go to great lengths in excavating holes in dry creek beds to get down to water 
level In January, 1929, the Cariboe Creek ceased to run at Thangool, and for 
miles the sandy bed thus exposed was criss-crossed with the pads of Aepyprymnus 
coming down at night to drink at pot holes of their own making. 

In the cattle country it is stated by squatters to have diminished considerably 
in recent years, and by them it is regarded with indifference. But round many 
of the newly-formed cotton settlements in The. Callide Valley it is plentiful, and at 
Thangool and Biloela and other points on The Cariboe has become an unmitigated 
nuisance and is cordially detested by the struggling settlers. Its raids on he 
crops are determined and resourceful, and as no ordinary fence will bar them tor 
long poisoning is the only effective check. Scores of thousands have been killed 
in this way, and skeletons (few and far between in Museums) are littered thickly 

round the cotton plots. .„.,,■ u :„ 

It is almost strictly nocturnal, and even where plentiful is seldom seen in 
daylight unless it is driven from a "camp." It is solitary in habit and adult males 
ancl females are not often put up together, though a female is often accompanied 
by a nearly full-grown young. . 

By most authors (quoting Gould?) it is stated to build a grass nest, but m 
spite of much searching in likely places none were found, and nest making may 
possibly be a winter industry only. It is not at all fast and is easily caught by a good 
dog in the open, but is an expert dodger and (as all accounts of the New South 
Wales animal state) makes immediately for a hollow log, if such is available. 

When cornered it remains cool and fights with a deliberate and collected fury, 
very different from the panic usually displayed by wallabies in a similar case. When 
taken in box traps or snares it is a most difficult animal to handle, as it is 
immensely strong and active and bites and claws severely. The long rodent-like 
incisors are not sharp enough to make large gashes, but they are difficult to dis- 
lodge, as the animal grips with all its strength and holds on, and a painful bruised 

wound results. , M ._ - 

When taken young it becomes tame and affectionate, if gently handled, its 
ways even in confinement, are full of interest, and convey, as do those of all the 
Poto'roinae, a much greater impression of versatility, resource, and intelligence 
than is the case with the more specialized Macropodmae. It is capable of most 
unexpected movements, and is not without a sense of play. A pet which I observed 
at Rockhampton, when teased by tossing towards it an empty 4-ounce tobacco tin, 
would while lying on its side, kick it back high in the air, with one foot, ihis 
it did repeatedly, changing position very neatly when the tin was thrown in from 

4 " At night it has little fear of man, and the strange sights and sounds and 
smells of a bush camp can always be relied on to attract it, and if it has not been 


Fig. 4. 

A, B, C— Superior, palatal and lateral views of the skull of Aepyprymnus rufescens 

A subadult female, from Thangool. Natural size. 

D, E.-Palatal and buccal views of the teeth of Aepyprymnus rufescens, showing the characters 

of the incisors and the trenchant modification of the deciduous premolar (MP 4 ) 

An immature male; 1-7 times natural size. * v ' 

molested by dogs it can be enticed up to a tent door to receive scraps of food 
Though \Irge\y rhizophagous under natural conditions, it becomes almost 
omnivorous in captivity and apparently thrives so. 

When on the move it makes, at frequent intervals, a grunting sound similar, 
but not identical, with that of B. pemcillata. 

In March, February and January females were taken with naked pouch 
emhrvos ud to 100 mm. in length. , j 

Of external characters noted in the flesh the following may be mentioned 
Bodilv size at the P 4 M* stage is rather variable, the head and body measurement 
Actuating from 360-390 mm. and the pes from 130-140 mm. but contrary to 
Gould's statement, I find that females are appreciably larger m linear dimensions 
than males and are very considerably heavier (see measurements). It is not only 
a Mgger animal than any of the Bettongs, but is relatively stouter and more 
strongly built, and the limbs, head, and tail are more massive. The tail is either 
equal to or shorter than the head and body, never longer, and it gives no evidence 
on inspection of a prehensile capacity or usage 

In the characters of the head it is quite different from Bettongia cumculus 
and B penicillata, but approaches B. lesueun^ in the short rather blunt muzzle, 
round staring eye, and bold, insolent expression. All sets of facial vibrissae are 
present, but are feebly developed. All are black. 

The soles of the feet, and palms of hands, are broadly naked without 
lateral infringement of hairs, and these parts, and all claws and the rhmanum 
are pale horn-coloured with no trace of black pigmentation, such as occurs 
frequently in Bettongia and Potorous. The. inner naked portions of the auricle, 
on the other hand, are coloured bright orange or salmon. _ 

In several specimens examined, the cloaca showed a heavy infestation of a 

dung-eating beetle. - ■. 

In general the characters of the pelage are very constant, the texture ot the 
fur, colouration, and markings being almost exactly the same throughout the series 
of 14 skins examined. They agree well, also, with the existing descriptions of the 
animal all of which appear to be based on New South Wales examples Gould s 
plate however, although reproducing the gradations of colour faithfully, is too 
sombre in effect and does less than justice to the bright silver and russet tones of 
the living animal and its fresh skin. 

The dark pencilling of the tail shows some variation m extent, sometimes 
being continued distinctly to the tip, sometimes fading out and leaving varying 
lengths of its distal portion pure white. . 

Young animals, at the ?*W- to P»M? stage, have a denser under-fur than 
adults, and the characteristic black ear back is not fully developed, the contrasted 
area being dark rufous. . . 

The sexes are identical, and the seasonal change, at least in adults, is 
negligible. Except for a gular reversal, the hair tracts retain everywhere the 
primitive cephalo-caudad and proximo-distad directions. 

The furred pouch young, at the 350 mm. stage, is very different from the 
adult The coat is harsh, closely adpressed, glossy and brilliantly coloured Ihe 
head and greater part of dorsum are a rich uniform dark rust colour, abruptly 
contrasted with a pure black and white grizzle on the post sacral and femoral areas. 
Fourteen skulls have been examined and measured, representing stages from 
P 3 M X to P 4 M 4 Apart from trifling differences in the shape of the nasals, the 
series is a uniform one. The skull rapidly assumes a very dense ossification as 
growth advances and is relatively much heavier than m any other of the 
Potoroinae. No anomalies in tooth succession are presented, and no super- 
numerary molars ar e developed as they frequently are in Bettongia. 

<") See Wood-Jones, "Mammals of South Australia," vol. ii. p. 207. 


The secator (1B) appears to come into place shortly after 1VP, at a ^ stage when 
the general dimensions of the skull are already approaching their maxima. 

In the incisor series a number of characters are presented which, though fore- 
shadowed in Bettongia, as stated by Bensley, reach a development in Acpy- 
prymnus quite bizarre, and which have scarcely been brought out by existing 
accounts. The first incisor, though not so disproportionately large in its exalveolar 
portion as in Potorous, makes some approach to the persistent pulp condition 
characteristic of rodent activities, in being excessively long-rooted and in retaining 
even in very old skulls a wide open apical foramen. In striking contrast to the 
same tooth in the Macropodinac also, it attains its maximum development late in 
life. The broadening from side to side of the second incisors is so great, that in 
young animals before the teeth are worn, they fall short of contact in the midline 
of the palate by less than 1 mm. (fig. 4 D). The transverse diameter of the 
third incisor is also greatly increased from what obtains in any of the Bettongs 
and, in addition, its cutting edge is rotated inwards so that it makes an angle of 
60° with the long axis of the palate. The deciduous premolar (MP 4 ) is less 
molariform than in either Bettongia or Potorous, and is partially specialized as 
a secator by the elongation of the antero-external cusp into a longitudinal blade, 
the edge of which is practically continuous with that of P 3 (see fig. 4, d and e). 
The effective cutting edge of this combination is equal to, or slightly exceeds, that 
of the P 4 which replaces it. 

Flesh dimensions of an adult male and a subadult female (P 4 M 3 ), both from 
Thangool, follow: — Head and body, 383, 387; tail, 355, 388; manus, 28, 28; nail 
of third finger, 17*5, 20; pes, 141, 136; fourth toe, 62, 60; nail of fourth toe, 24, 22; 
ear, 55 X 30, 52 X 29; rhinarium to eye, 41, 42; eye to ear, 35, 36; weight, 
5i lbs., 7 lbs. 

Mean values of the skull dimensions of five adult males, and an adult female, 
are: — Greatest length, 84, 83; basal length, 73*5, 72; zygomatic breadth, 51, 50; 
nasals, length, 28, 29*5; nasals, greatest breadth, 17, 19; nasals, least breadth, 10, 
10*5; nasals, overhang, 8*5, 9; depth of muzzle, 16*5, 17; constriction, 16*5, 17; 
palate length, 48, 46; palate, breadth inside M 2 , 18, 17; anterior palatine foramina, 
3, 3*5; diastema, 10, 10-5; basi-cranial axis, 24, 23'5; basi-facial axis, 51*5, 50*5; 
facial index, 214, 215. 

Maximum dimensions of teeth in the whole series of 14 individuals are : — 
M sl - 3 , 18*5, F* 7, P 4 , 9*5; I 1 , 3 X 9; I 2 , 3*5 X 4;I 3 ,4*5< 16 > X 4*5. 

Of the remaining Potoroinae, Bettongia penicillata was taken by Lumholtz on 
Coomooboolaroo, but has now apparently quite disappeared from there, and is 
not known elsewhere in the valley, and Potorous tridactylus, though it may occur 
in the wetter coastal scrubs, was not taken. 

Plate I. 
Figs. 1 and 2. Pctrogale penicillata herberti. Showing characters of head. Males 
from Mount Hcdlow. 

Plate II. 

M. (wallabia) parryi. Showing characters of head. Adult male from Drumburl. 

Plate III. 
M. (wallabia) parryi. Same individual. 

( 15 ) Waterhouse's statement ("Nat. Hist, of Mammalia") that the last tooth of the 
Potoroinae to come into place is the permanent premolar must be based on a case of 
delayed succession. 

( w ) First value is length of cutting edge, not the antero-posterior length as in more 
normal incisors. 



■ I - ■ 
















. 110 



By B. Jean Murray, B.Sc. 

(Communicated by J. G. Wood, M.Sc.) 

[Read August 13, 193L] 

Plate IV. 

Contents. fh*$£* 

1. Introduction 
II. Climatic Factors 
TIL Edaphtc Factors 

IV. Analysis of the Flora of the Rf.gion — Floristics 
V. Analysis of the Vegetation of the Region — Ecolog 

(a) Life-forms 

(b) Main associations 

(1) Vegetation of the tableland 

(2) Vegetation of the sandhills 

(3) Vegetation of the fiats ,. 

(4) Salinas and fresh-water swamps 
VI. Vegetation Map of the Lake Torrens Plateau 

VII. Summary 
Literature Cited 


The Lake Torrens plateau and surrounding country is an interesting region 
to a botanist, as it has not been studied ecologically before, although plant collec- 
tions were made by some of the early exploring expeditions, notably those led by 
Babbage and Stuart. Accounts of these expeditions and pioneers of the North- 
west are given by Threadgill (23) and Richardson (21). The botanical collec- 
tions made by Hergolt, of the Babbage Expedition, in 1858-9, were named by 
von Mueller (19). In more recent years Cannon (3) made a brief ecological 
study of the vegetation round Port Augusta and Tarcoola ; Adamson and 
Osborn (1) described the vegetation at Ooldea, a station on the East-West Trans- 
continental line, 427 miles west of Port Augusta; and Cleland (4) gives an account 
of a journey through part of the Lake Torrens plateau and farther North-west 
to Mount Eba and Tarcoola; it contains plant lists and a brief description of 
some of the flora, including that on Andamooka. 

The present paper is based on observations and collections made from 1927 
to 1930, during which time all the stations between Carriewerloo and Arcoona 
(as far north as Young's Lagoon) were visited and the vegetation studied in 
different seasons. The country consists of pastoral districts mostly devoted to 
sheep, although, until recently, cattle predominated on the northern stations on 
the plateau. 

The Lake Torrens plateau lies on the stable foreland to the west of the Lake 
Torrens faults and consists of Ordovician (?) or, possibly, older rocks which 
have been eroded to form flat-topped hills and stony or "gibber" tablelands ; the 
altitude is from 500-1,000 feet above sea-level. It is surrounded by Recent to 
Pleistocene country (less than 500 feet) consisting mostly of loamy flats inter- 
sected by sand-ridges, salt-water lakes and lagoons and fresh-water swamps. The 
whole area lies between the 5- and 8-inch rainfall isohyets and is part of Tate's 
Eremian Region (22). 

Descriptions of the topography and geology of this district are given by 
Fenner (6, 7), Howchin (12, 13, 14), Gregory (10), and Jack (17). Ward (24) 
gives the composition of the beds of the plateau as, "dolomitic limestone ; 
quartzite with shaly bands ; greenish shale weathering brown ; massive siliceous 


conglomerate. No fossils known"; and that of the sedimentary beds surrounding 
it as, "Unconsolidated sand of coast and interior; consolidated sand dunes; saline, 
gypseous and calcareous earths; travertine limestone; river, lake and 'swamp 
deposits; lateritic ironstone; vegetable earths; gravels of outwash fans." 

The eastern boundary of the plateau is Lake Torrens, which Madigan (18) 
has proved to be quite dry, with patches of glistening white salt. After heavy 
rains it may hold a little water, in places, but this is soon evaporated. 

This region is situated within the typical flask-shaped arid belt determined 
by the trade winds, and converges towards the southern with the southern boundary 
of this arid belt (11). The country dealt with in this paper lies between the 5- 
and 8-inch isohyets to the north and south, respectively. The rainfall over this 
area is uncertain and influenced both by monsoonal summer rains and winter rains 
of Antarctic origin; there are no regular wet and dry seasons, and rain is almost 
as likely to fall in one month as in another; there is perhaps (particularly towards 
the southern end of the region) a slight preponderance of winter rains with June 
as the wettest month, whereas in Central Australia it seldom rains during the 
winter - Table 1. 

Mean Monthly Rainfall in Points (100= 1 Inch). 

Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr, May .Tune July Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec Year 

Purple Downs 25 47 ^6 45 35 89 95 42 41 76 37 68 54 685 

Arcoona .... 39 55 51 38 41 79 88 39 33 61 38 46 38 607 

Oakden Hills 46 49 45 35 58 74 92 49 56 68 55 64 47 692 

South Gap .... 46 47 50 42 52 85 86 48 54 59 46 57 50 676 

Whittita .... 45 51 48 43 58 84 99 57 63 66 48 50 50 717 

Farina 50 53 53 68 42 67 90 37 42 47 48 48 58 653 

Port Augusta 69 54 50 72 77 114 117 71 87 95 85 69 59 950 

[Figures kindly supplied by Mr. E. Bromley, Government Meteorologist. 

Yearly records up to 1917 are given by Hunt (16).] 

The average rainfall on most of the sheep stations visited is from 6*5 to 
7 inches per annum; this is to some extent misleading, for should the country be 
assured of its average annual rainfall it would be in a much better condition, but 
good seasons alternate with periods of severe drought when the rainfall may drop 
to less than 2 inches in a year, to be succeeded by years of greater rainfall until a 
climax is reached. These very wet years restore the ravages of drought, fill the 
dams, wells, and waterholes. Thus the reliability of rainfall is poor throughout 
the area which lies between the isopleths showing 20% to 30% variation from the 
average amount of rainfall and verging towards 40% variation at the north end 
of the plateau. Another feature of the rainfall is the manner in which it falls; 
in some instances the whole year's rainfall may fall within a few days, while in, 
others it may be scattered through several months in a number of ineffectual 
falls < 3 )- Table II. 

Distribution of Annual Rainfall. 


Highest number of wet days per annum 
Lowest „ „ „ 
Mean „ „ „ 

Number of Years in Mean 

Mean annual rainfall (in points) 
Highest annual rainfall (in points) .... 
Lowest „ „ „ ....- 

(Figures for the first four items only available up to 1915; last three up to 1928.) 



South Gap. 































No reliable figures for the temperatures are available. The area lies between 
the 65° and 70° isotherms, and the nearest meteorological stations are at Port 
Augusta and Farina which have annual mean maximum and minimum tempera- 
tures of 77-2° and 55*3° Fahr., and 80'6° and 54*2° Fahr., respectively. Iso- 
therms showing mean monthly temperatures throughout this region are given by 
Hunt (15). February is the hottest month. Even, in summer there are con- 
siderable extremes of temperature, the intense heat of the day being rapidly lost 
at night by radiation, which is very great in such exposed regions ; while in winter 
the extremes of heat and cold are still greater, and ground frosts fairly common 
on clear nights during one to four months of the year. Owing to the high tem- 
peratures throughout the year, the dryness of the air, and the prevalence of drying 
winds, the rate of evaporation is very great, this area lying between the 60" and 
80" isatmics. Managers of some of the stations visited estimate the evaporation 
of the big dams and waterholes as at the rate of 12 feet per annum; and 
Howchin (13) gives 100 inches per annum for the amount of evaporation in the 
arid country round Lake Eyre. 

Where the variation in temperature is negligible the main characteristics of 
the vegetation of a region are determined chiefly by the amount of rainfall and its 
reliability. By these Tate determined the outlines of his Eremian or arid region ; 
and Wood (26) gives the 8-inch isohyet as the lowest margin for the occurrence 
of mallee in South Australia. In the Lake Torrens District mallee is a climatic 
indicator only found towards the south-western boundaries of the southern 
stations, such as Carriewerloo and Yudnapinna, through which the 8-inch isohyet 
passes. Between the 8- and 5-inch isohyets no mallee occurs, and the vegetation, 
which is of the arid type, is fairly uniform in character, differences in the asso- 
ciations being due mainly to edaphic and not to climatic conditions. Perhaps the 
reliability of the rainfall has more effect in determining the constitution of the 
vegetation than the actual amount; a region with an average rainfall of 6-8 inches 
of normal reliability could support a much less arid vegetation than one where, as 
in the case of this district, the reliability varies up to 40% from the normal, and 
wet seasons are widely separated by long dry seasons, tending to increase the 
xerophytic character of the flora. 

The vegetation, particularly the therophytic or annual, is noticeably affected by 
the season in which rain falls. The wealth of herbage produced by winter and 
spring rains differing largely in constitution (being chiefly composed of Cruciferae, 
Leguminosae, Zygophyllaceae and Compositae) from that (mainly grasses) grow- 
ing after summer rains. Certain plants will only develop or flower if rain falls 
at the particular seasons favourable to them, e.g., the parakeelya and Crimim 


(A) Habitats. 

There are three main types of habitat in the district : — 

1. The gibber tableland; also characteristic of the tops and sides of the 
flat-topped hills. 

2. The red sandhills. 

3. The loamy or sandy flats and claypans between the sandhills and sur- 
rounding the plateau. 

The gibber tableland comprises most of the plateau and corresponds in extent 
and boundaries very closely with the area marked "Ordovician" ( ?) by Ward (24). 
The gibbers are reddish-brown in colour, of all shapes and sizes, but usually flat 
and angular, about four inches across by a half to one inch thick; with age and 
weathering they tend to become rounded and smooth; in some parts younger 


Eyrian gibbers may be found (17). The mantle of gibbers acts as a natural 
mulch; beneath them the soil is red, argillaceous or loamy and of considerable 
depth (some feet). It collects, without gibbers, in depressions to form "crab- 
holes" or small swamps. 

The sandhills on the plateau may be from 30-40 feet high or less and usually 
lie at right angles to the prevailing winds, generally in a north-easterly to south- 
westerly direction; they consist of fine to coarse siliceous particles, red in colour. 
They are separated by loamy or sandy flats or claypans of varying size. The 
latter have a retentive floor and may hold fresh or salt water for a short time 
after rain ; some are more extensive and form "playa"-lakes or salinas. 

The district surrounding the plateau on the south and extending to and 
around the numerous lakes and lagoons around the Island Lagoon, which marks 
the western boundary of these investigations, consists chiefly of undulating 
country or flats of light red sandy loam or red sandy soil, between red sandhills, 
or with patches of scattered sand-ridgcs. Both these sandhills and flats resemble 
those to be found in certain localities on the tableland (see map), but they are 
usually of greater extent and the soil on the flats is usually deeper. 

There are no permanent water-courses throughout the district, which is out- 
side the great artesian water system (17); but some of the larger gum-creeks, 
such as the Elizabeth, Pernatty, and Whittita Creeks, may hold water for a con- 
siderable time after heavy rains. The tableland and numerous hills and bluffs are 
drained by smaller stony acacia creeks, which only flow after rain but do not 
retain water for long. 

B. Soils. 

The soils of the Lake Torrens plateau and environs have not been properly 
investigated yet, but appear to be the typical red soils developed under insufficient 
moisture conditions characteristic of similar dry regions in sub-tropical latitudes 
and warmer regions of the temperate zone in other parts of the world, i.e., South 
Africa, Spain, and the dry steppes of Russia and round the Caspian Sea (8). As 
Glinka (8, 9) pointed out, whatever the origin of the rocks subjected to similar 
climatic conditions the soils eventually produced from them will be very similar, 
and this is the case in this region. 

The water-retaining capacity of the various soils in this region is considerably 
less than that given by Wood (26) for typical saltbush, bluebush, and mallee soils 
outside the 8-inch isohyct. The amount of w r atcr at saturation in typical soils from 
Oakden Hills Station is given below: — 


Water at Saturatk)i\\ 

Locality. Amount of Water. 

Tableland (saltbush soil) 24"0% 

Gypsum (growing saltbush) .... .... .... .... 30'5% 

Limestone knoll (myall and bluebush) .... .... 22*0% 

Loam flat (myall and bluebush soil) .... .... .... 19*0% 

Claypan 22*5% 

Claypan, Pernatty Station .... .... .... .... 22-5% 

Dry swamp (lignum) 1-8*5% 

Sandhill (mulga soil) 16*5% 

Because of the small amount of moisture the vegetation is not well developed, 
and consequently there is little humus in the soil, which is always alkaline. The 
author is indebted to Professor Prescott and his staff at the Waite Institute for 
the analyses of the soil samples given in the following table: — - 


Table IV. 

Analyses of Soils. 

Tableland — Saltbush and samphire. 

1. Woocalla : (a) Gibbers over dark -red clayey soil .. 

(b) Ironstone gibbers, red clayey soil . . 

2. Top of South Oakden Hill, samphire and saltbush, 

gibbers over red clayey soil 

3. Pernatty, gibber plain, no vegetation, polished gibbers 

over red sand to depth of 4 cm., then clay 
Loamy flat, Whittita — Saltbush, mostly dead. Profile taken 
from sides of dry sandy c-reek, washed out in loam flat. 

(a) Coarse red sand over light bright-red sandy 
soil, 3 cm. 

(b) Dull, darker reddish-brown soil, fine particles, 
20-29 cm. .. 

(c) Subsoil, dark bright-red, hard, some scattered 
stones of various sizes up to 4 cm. long ; 
patches of white throughout, over 40 cm. 

(d) Below, damp dark red soil 
Loam flat, Yudnapinna — Eremophila glabra, saltbush and 

bluebush (Kochia sedifolia). 

Sandy loam, coarse sand over fine particles, 13 cm. 
Loam flat, Oakden Hills — Myall and bluebush (K. sedifolia 

and K. pyramidata) 
Toby's Swamp, Pernatty — Canegrass flat (Glyceria 
ramigera) . 

Red sand to depth of 4-6 cm.; black soil below . . 
Edge of swamp, Pernatty — Gums (Eucalyptus rostrata). 

(a) Whitish sand 

(b) Hard greenish-white patch in sand, no vegetation 
Claypan, Pernatty — No vegetation. 

Hard light red clay 
Swamp, Oakden Hills — Caneg-rass, samphire and typical 
mixed swamp flora. 

Clay, brown and cracked on surface, 1-2 cm.; red 
clay below, 4-6 cm. 
Lake Torrens, South Gap. 

1. Sample taken on lake, 100 yards from shore. 

(a) To 24 cm. 

(b) Below 24 cm. 

2. Sample taken on shore two yards from edge of 

lake — Samphire (Arthrocncmum halicnemoidcs 
va-r. pergranulatnm). 


3. Sample taken on shore, 60 yards from edge of 

lake — Samphire, saltbush and bluebush (K. tomen- 
tosa var. appressa). 
Sandy soil 

The following- was obtained and analysed later by 
the author: — 

Sandhills, Oakden Hills — Mulga. 

Bright red sand for a considerable depth . ,, 

pH. Value. 

Total Salts. 







































amount of gypsum 
high 5-30 









It will be seen that the alkalinity of the soils is high ; and in many cases the 
percentage of total salts is high also, possibly owing to the frequent occurrence 
of gypsum throughout the district as well as the large amount of sodium chloride 
present in many soils, accounting for the halophytic character of the vegetation, 
i.e., the general occurrence of samphire on the tableland; the saltbush (Atriplcx 
vesicarium) is also more tolerant of salt than the bluebush (K. sedifolia), which 
usually only occurs in crab-holes or towards the edge of the tableland. 



(A) Origin and Distribution of Species. 

This region is part of Tate's Eremian Region of the Australian Flora (12, 
22). In Cretaceous times, when the endemic flora of Australia arose, the Lake 
Torrens plateau was doubly cut off from the migration of species from the west 
(25) ; when the Cretaceous seas receded, the climatic changes of the Tertiary 
period were already bringing that increasing aridity which has since proved such 
an effective barrier against invasion from the south-western flora. It, therefore, 
seems apparent that at least for long periods of time migration from the west into 
this limited area must have come from the south by way of the narrow coastal 
belt. On the other hand, eastern communications with this area were never com- 
pletely severed. The relationships between the percentages of species found also 
in West and East Australia are almost identical to those quoted by Wood (27) for 
the Flora of the Gulf Region of South Australia, thus pointing to the same sources 
of origin. These figures are all the more striking because the individual composi- 
tion of the floras is very different. 

Three hundred and eighty-seven plants are recorded for the Lake Torrens 
Region. Fifty-six Natural Orders are represented, including 177 genera con- 
taining 372 species, of which 17 were only found in a varietal form; in addition 
there were 15 varieties of species already found there, and 15 were introduced 

Table V. 
Distribution of Species throughout Australia. 

Total number of species found in Lake Torrens region .... 
Number of species found also in Eastern Australia 
Number of species found also in Western Australia 
Western Australian species found also in Eastern Australia 
Species found in Eastern Australia but not in Western 

Australia 150 39 40 

Species found in Western Australia but not in Eastern 

Australia .... 
Species endemic to South Australia .... 
Species found also in Central Australia 
Species found also in North and Tropical Australia 
Species found throughout Australia, chiefly in warm dry 

parts of Temperate Australia .... 
Cosmopolitan species 

*In the last column of this tabic corresponding figures for the Gulf Region based on 
Wood's figures (27) a-re given for comparison. 

Although having most in common with the arid flora of the Far North and 
with that of the adjacent Flinders Range, it will be seen from the following table, 
based on localities given by Black (2), that most of the species found on the 
Lake Torrens plateau are widely distributed throughout the drier parts of South 

Table VI. 
Distribution of Species throughout South Australia. 

Total. %. 

Total number of species in Lake Torrens region .... .... 387 — 

Number common with Far North .... .... .... .... .... 237 61 

Number common with dry northern districts .... .... .... 43 1 1 


* Gulf 


80 84 


44-5 46-5 


40 41 

























Number common with Far North-West 

Number common with western region from Port Augusta to 

Oolclea .... 

Number common with Flinders Range 

Number common with Murray Lands 

Number common with North-East and P2ast 

Number common with Southern region 

Number common throughout the State .m« 

Endemics found only in the Lake Torrens region (including 

3 undescribed varieties) 7 2 

Only 43 (including 4 varieties) of the 657 species listed by Wood for the 
Gulf region are found also in the Lake Torrens region; but 170 species (including 
8 varietal forms) are shared with the Mallee region which lies between the 
8- and 20-inch isohyets, and for which Wood (26) gives, a total of 590 species. 
Out of 188 species given by Adamson and Osborn (1) for Ooldea, on the 
Nullarbor Plain, 95 are shared with the Lake Torrens region, which has a similar 

(B) Endemics, Restricted and Compound Species. 

The following endemics are found only in the Lake Torrens district : — Szvain- 
sona Burkittii, S. adenophylla, Phyllanthus rhytidos permits; also a new genus 
of Borraginaceae (Embadium stagnense J. M. Black), a weeping variety of Acacia 
Sowdenii, which itself only occurs from Port Augusta to Ooldea, a succulent 
variety of Euphorbia eremophila and, possibly, a new species of Bassia. 

Other South Australian endemics of very limited distribution recorded for 
this district are: — Thysanotus exiliflorus, Amarantus Mitchellii. var. grandiflorus ; 
Hakea cycloptera ( 19) , Thryptomene Elliottii, Minuria annua, Anacampseros 
australiana, and Dhnorphocoma minutula. The last two are monotypic genera. 
While other species, not endemics, of limited distribution in the State found in 
this district a.rtz:—Cyperus enervis, Heleocharis mitlticaulis, Eucarya spicata, 
Trichinium erubescens (4), Sisymbrium erysimoides, Lepidium pseudo-ritderale, 
Acacia Burkittii , Zygophyllmn prismatothecum, Ilermannia Gilesii, Verbena 
supina, Eremophila Paisleyi, Trichodesma zelanicum, var. latisepalum; Helichry- 
sum Cassinianum, and Calocephalus Sonderi (19). 

The number of species is high in certain dominant genera (e.g., Atriplex has 
17 species and varieties, Bassia 16, Kochia 15, Eremophila 13, Acacia 11, Zygo^ 
phyllum, and Heliptenmi 9), while normally the rate is low, even including 
varieties as distinct for purposes of comparison (2*2 species per genus). Many 
of the more successful species are in a great state of variability; 17 species were 
found in varietal forms only, while 15 varieties of species also present were found. 
Hie genera Eragrosiis, Szvainsona, Sida, and Br achy come, and the species' 
Atriplex vesicarium, Acacia aneura, A, Sowdenii^ Cassia Sturtii, and Euphorbia 
eremophila being particularly noticeable in this respect. No doubt these are all 
compound species or linneons, and in some cases several distinct jordanons have 
been described; the numerous forms noticed in Atriplex vesicarium, Kochia 
tomentosa, Acacia aneura, and Cassia Sturtii need investigating to show whether 
they are jordanons, hybrids or epharmones, but as they are usually found growing 
more or less together in similar habitats, it is most likely that they are hybrids 
between two or more jordanons. 

Atriplex vesicarium, the common saltbush, is a particularly variable plant, 
and much research is needed to separate the various strains ; pastoralists recognise 
them when they point out various kinds as more or less palatable to sheep — all 
of which would be classified without" hesitation by a systematist as A. vesicarium. 


The chief distinction appears to be in the size of the leaves, and in some measure 
in the size of the bladder or appendage on the fruits which gives the plant its 
name of "bladder saltbush." The most common kind found on the tableland, and 
the one most liked by sheep, has very small leaves and large spongy bladders on 
the fruiting bracteoles. Sheep apparently do not care much for the type with 
larger leaves which usually has much smaller or often no appendages on the fruits ; 
this form approaches to A. paludosum, which also has a form (var. appcndicu- 
latum) that often has a small appendage on the fruiting bracteoles and is a form 
connecting this species with A. vesicarium (2). The two forms are evidently 
closely related, A. paliidosum and the forms, possibly hybrids, of A. vesicarium 
most closely approaching it being unpalatable to sheep, which are partial to the 
more typical A. vesicarium forms. A. paludosuni was not found by the author, 
although recorded for Beda near Lake Torrens (19). 

Crotalaria dissitiftora exhibits an epharmonic desert form, only producing 
its three leaflets in damp localities or after an exceptionally rainy season. Cassia 
eremophila, var. platypoda, may also be an epharmone, while a new succulent, 
normally leafless form of Euphorbia eremophila is being studied to see whether it 
be merely the tableland epharmone, a 'true jordanic variety, or distinct species. 
Angiiillaria dioica, found on the tableland at Yeltacowie, had typical pinkish- 
white flowers, while those found about 30 miles away, on a sandy bluebush flat 
at Arcoona, had greenish-yellow flowers with a brown gland, and the plants were 
much larger; the two types were never found growing together. 


(A) Life-forms. 

In Table 8 is given the biological spectrum of the vegetation of the whole 
Lake Torrens region, together with those of the vegetational units found on the 
various habitats. For comparison the "Normal or World Spectrum" is shown, 
also that for the somewhat similar arid region at Ooldea, and that for the Mallee 
region which lies outside the 8-inch isohyet and forms the southern boundary of 
the Lake Torrens region. There are no other spectra of the vegetation of arid 
regions in South Australia available at present. 


Mallee (26) 

Ooldea (1) 

Lake Torrens region 

Gibber tableland 


Loam or sandy flats 


Fresh- water swamps 

Salt-water swamps 

Table 7. 

Spectrum of Lake Torrens Region. 

No. of 

Species. MM. M. N. Ch. H. G. Th. E. 

400 6 17 20 9 27 3 13 3 

600 — 13 30 19 11 3-5 21 — 

188 0-5 19 23 14 4 0-5 35 4 

387 1 10 24 17*5 11 1-5 32 2 

156 1 14 25-5 13 8-5 0-5 33-5 2-5 

106 — 18 24-5 9 12 1 31 3-5 

121 — 17 20-5 11-5 14-5 1-5 31 3 

33 6 12 30 15 6 3 27 — 

155 1 4 19-5 18 15 — 42*5 — 

13 — 7-5 69 15 — — 7-5 — 


The most noticeable feature of the spectrum of the whole Lake Torrens 
district, also of its constituent plants, as compared with the normal, is the very 
high percentage of low, woody plants, chaemophytes and smaller nanophanaero- 
phytes, and of the ephemeral plants or therophytes, while the hemicryptophytic 
percentage (mainly represented by grasses) is very much lower. It will be seen 
from a comparison of their spectra, that this region is more or less intermediate 
between Ooldea and the Mallee. 


(B) Main Associations. 
In this district are to be found three distinct types of vegetation to be 
correlated with the three main habitats already described, i.e.:— 

(a) Saltbush steppe on the gibber tableland and flat-topped hills. 

(b) Mulga scrub on the sandhills. 

(c) Myall scrub on the loam flats between the sandhills on the plateau and 
covering larger areas beyond its limits. 

In addition there are distinct associations on the claypans, round fresh-water 
swamps and dams, and round salt-marshes, lakes and lagoons. These are some- 
what similar to those described for arid New South Wales by Collins (5). 

(1) Vegetation of the Tableland. 
(a) Saltbush Association. 

About two-thirds of the whole Lake Torrens plateau consists of undulating, 
stony country coated with gibbers and known locally as "the tableland." The 
stations of Arcoona, Yeltacowie, and South Gap consist very largely of this table- 
land country. It is characterised by a low, grey, scrubby vegetation, which 
stretches for miles in a wide unbroken expanse; for, except along the water- 
courses and in depressions of the small crab-hole type or larger "dongas," there 
is a complete absence of trees or shrubs of any size. 

The dominant plant on the gibber tableland is the "bladder saltbush," 
Atriplcx vesicarium. This is the main fodder plant or stand-by of the semi-arid 
country, and can withstand very dry conditions owing to its mealy grey leaves, 
the swollen epidermal cells of which are a protection against excessive sunshine 
and evaporation, and also absorb the heavy dews of this semi-arid region during 
the long intervals between rains. The gibber covering of the tableland also serves 
as a sort of natural mulch, shading the soil and protecting it from drying out, and 
conserving the dews for the use of the surface roots of the saltbush and other 
xerophytic plants which are able to withstand excessive insolation and dry 

The saltbush may exist in almost pure association, forming a stable' climax 
community of the open type for most of the. year but mixed with a therophytic 
flora after the rainy season. On the other hand, it may be associated with other 
xerophytic plants of the same type, i.e., "tomentose microphylls," chiefly species 
of bluebush such as Kochia scdifolia, K. pyramidata, K. aphylla, K. Georgei, 
K. tomentosa, K. spongiocarpa, K. ciliata, K. eriantha, K. excavata, var. tricho- 
poda; "bindyi," including Bassia ventricosa, B. intricata, B. obliquiciispis, B. 
divaricata, B, paradoxa, and B. pachyptera; Frankenia serpillifolia, and compo- 
sites such as Ixiolaena leptolepis, Minuria Cunninghamii, and M. denticulata. 
Other common plants in this association are the samphires (Arthrocncmitm 
leiostachyum and Pachycornia tenuis), pigf ace (Mesembryanthemum aeqitilaterale) , 
Trichiniiim obovatum, Swains ona slipularis ("Vetch"), and Abutilon halophilum. 
Various tuft grasses occur among the saltbush in many places, Mitchell, grass 
(Astrebla pectinata) being the most important. This is fairly common on the 
tableland, especially towards the northern end, but towards the southern end it 
appears to occur in localized patches; it is a valuable fodder found throughout the 
Far North and Far North-Wcst, but is probably confined to the drier regions 
and limited by the 7-inch isohyet. 

The therophytic part of this association is dependent upon the season when 
rain falls. After winter rains the "annual saltbush" (A. spongiosum and A. halt- 
moides), Blennodia narsturtioides and other Cruciferae, Zygophyllym ammophilum 
and Z. prismatothecam are among the first to appear ; then numerous composites 


such as Brachycome pachyptera, Senecio Gregorii, Helipterum polygalifolium, 
H, corymbiflorum, and ephemerals like Dimorphocoma minutula, Minnuria annua, 
and Helipterum pygmaeum; Erodium cygnorum, E. ciciitarium, Daucus glochi- 
diatus, and the "poison-weed" (Lotus australis, var. parviflorns) also occur; then, 
various grasses make their appearance. These are more abundant after summer, 
rains, when numerous succulent plants also occur, such as "munyeroo" (Poriu- 
lacca oleracea) and the rather rare "kunyami" (Anacampseros australiana), both 
splendid fodder plants ; the latter was found on South Gap, near Lake Torrens. 
Trichinium nobile is not uncommon, and Euphorbia Drummondii, known locally 
as the "belladonna plant," is fairly abundant and considered poisonous to stock. 
A curious plant found on the tableland on South Gap, Yeltacowie, and on the top 
of South Oakden Hills was a leafless, brownish succulent-stemmed form of 
Euphorbia eremophila, the typical form of which was only found in creek beds on 
the tableland, though it was common on the sandhills and round swampy places. 
Zygophyllum fruticulosum and Guniniopsis quadrifida ("star-bush") frequent 
poor country where there is an abundance of gypsum, as around Pernatty 

The most interesting feature of the saltbush association on the tableland is 
the frequent occurrence of samphire (chiefly Arthrocnemmn leiostachyum and 
Pachycornia tenuis) among the saltbush (pi. iv., fig. 1). In other arid and semi- 
arid regions of South Australia samphire is confined to areas round swamps and 
marshes, chiefly of a salty nature. Here it occurs exposed on the open table- 
land far from any swamp or lagoon, though it is frequent, with other species, 
round both fresh- and salt-water swamps and lagoons ; it is also prominent on top 
of dry, stony, flat -topped hills such as South Oakden Hill, and is particularly 
abundant in places where drought or over-stocking has deplenished the saltbush. 
It will be clear from Table 4 that the soils of much of the tableland and flat-topped 
hills have a very high percentage of total salts and sodium chloride, which evi- 
dently accounts for the presence of these very halophytic plants away from their 
usual habitat, and also points to the high tolerance of salts in the saltbush. It is 
probably for this reason that the bluebush (Kochia sedifolia), although considered 
more xerophytic than saltbush (1), does not occur frequently on the main table- 
land. Moreover, the ^tableland, with its mantle of gibbers acting as a mulch to 
protect the soil, is really a less xerophytic habitat than the porous, unprotected 
soil of the open Nullarbor Plain where the bluebush is dominant; and so it favours 
the establishment of the dominant salt-tolerant saltbush, except in cases where 
the natural balance of the vegetation has been upset or where local edaphic condi- 
tions favour the bluebush. 

(b) Succession and Regeneration. 

The climax association of the gibber tableland as indicated by the saltbush 
is of a sjtable nature, and under natural conditions is able to withstand severe 
drought conditions; while it may actually benefit from the effects of controlled 
grazing, continuous grazing over long periods disturbs the proportion of the salt- 
bush and paves the way for subdominant species such as samphire, bluebush, and 
bindyi. The occurrence of a drought aggravates these conditions, and as samphire 
is even more xerophytic than saltbush the latter is to some extent choked out. 
Another danger of over-stocking is that not only is the established saltbush eaten 
out, trampled down and prevented from fruiting, but the intense insolation and 
great radiation of heat from the exposed gibbers hinders the growth of seedlings 
which would normally thrive in the meagre shade of the saltbush and other low 
shrubby plants, and those that do survive are immediately eaten off, so that the 
natural process of regeneration is cut off at its source. On the gibber tableland 
there is not the same danger of drifting sand and the deterioration of "eaten-out" 


country by wind erosion that there is on the loam and sandy flats and sandhills; 
but it will soon revert to bare, dry, useless, stony plains unless set aside for a 
number of years for natural regeneration to take place — that is provided the 
process of depletion has not been carried too far first. 

The first colonizers of a bare, eaten-out gibber paddock are species of bindyi, 
annual saitbush, chiefly "pop saitbush" (A. spongiosum and A. halimoides), mixed 
with other annuals, according to the season; then comes the samphire; while pig- 
face and Frankenia serpillifolia occur locally. 

The next phase may be occupation by bluebush, but owing probably to the 
high percentage of salt in many places this is not of general occurrence, and 
usually appears towards the margins of the tableland, where it merges into sand- 
hills, or where it passes into loamy or sandy flats, e.g., near the edge of the table- 
land near Arcoona homestead, where most of the species of Kochia occur where 
the saitbush has been eaten away. K. sedifolia and K. pyramidata are also 
common amongst, or taking the place of, saitbush towards the southern end of 
the plateau where the country is bare and eaten out and the gibbers sparse and 
scattered between Port Augusta and Carriewerloo and the east end of Yudnapinna. 
Probably the soil is less salty here and thus favours bluebush rather than samphire, 
while the absence of a gibber mulch would make conditions more xerophytic, so 
that bluebush rather than saitbush could survive best after drought. This is rather 
like the saitbush association on the rubble flats described by Collins (5). Salt- 
bush is undoubtedly the dominant plant of the climax association on the table- 
land and, if left alone, will eventually re-establish itself. 

Where the typical saitbush association occurs on loamy or sandy flats on the 
plateau or outside its limits, as near Whittita or on the more southern stations, 
it is probably a sub-climax or sere in the myall or mulga scrub associations, in 
which it usually forms the lower stratum. 

During the winter of 1927 a series of quadrats were plotted in the paddocks 
round the woolshed at Yeltacowie, to show the effects of drought and over- 
stocking in the saitbush association and the development of the subsere following 
on its destruction. In July rain fell, after eleven months drought, freshened up 
the saitbush and induced a crop of seedlings and annuals to spring up later. 
Shearing took place in the early spring/so that for several months these paddocks 
had not been used much for grazing. Fig. 1 (Nos. 1-6) shows selected quadrats, 
each 5 metres square, taken in three adjacent paddocks. 

The woolshed paddock was surrounded by gibbers, bare except for a little 
bindyi, and then samphire; towards the middle of the paddock there was little 
saitbush left, samphire was frequent, and bindyi seedlings plentiful after the rain. 
(Nos. 1 and 2 were 150 yards apart on either side of a road through the centre 
of this paddock.) Some bluebush was found in the middle of this paddock; 
while towards the Acacia rigens creek boundary there was some pigface mixed 
with an increase of saitbush. (No. 3 was 200 yards from No. 2, and 100 yards 
from creek.) 

No. 4 was taken 100 yards from the other side of this creek and in the second 
paddock, which was not so depleted as the woolshed paddock, but showed a fairly 
high percentage of samphire, which was replaced towards the centre and other 
side by saitbush. (No. 5 was 350 yards from No. 4.) There were numbers of 
seedlings but no pigface or bluebush. 

For comparison No. 6 was plotted in the third paddock, about 500 yards from 
the fence dividing it from the second paddock. Here the saitbush was typically 
and uniformly good, mixed with a very little samphire. There were numerous 
saitbush seedlings, but few other plants or seedlings. 



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(c) Vegetation of the Creeks of the Tableland. 
There are a number of other plants occurring only in crab-holes or dongas, 
along the banks and in beds of creeks on the tableland and down gullies in its rocky 
sides. Thirty-five per cent, of the species collected on the tableland were either 
confined to the creek beds, etc., or, if also found on the tableland, were most 
common in the former localities ; this refers very noticeably to the larger shrubs 
and trees, 71% of which were mainly confined to the creek beds; while 30% of 
the nanophanaerophytes, chaemophytes hemicryptophytes and theophytes were 
most common in such places. 

7 i. The / ° nly trees at aI1 fre( l uentl y f ound on the open tableland were Eremophila 
glabra ( tar-bush"), Acacia tetragonophylla ("dead finish") and Casuarma 
leptdopMma ( black oak"). The latter may occur isolated on the tableland, or 
more often m societies or clans dependent upon its method of reproduction by 
adventitious root buds. It is more often found in depressions or up steep sides 
and gullies, where water relations are slightly better than upon the open table- 
land; and it also frequently lines the creek beds, either in clans or societies mixed 
with various acacias and other shrubs such as "nigger-bush," Rhagodia sphicscens 
Prostanthera striahfolia, Eremophila spp., etc. 

On South Gap, Pernatty, and Yeltacowie stations, 'a feature of the land- 
scape is the number of small creeks outlined by the tableland "myall " Acacia 
rigens which is quite distinct from the myall of the flats (A. Sowdeniij Water 
only flows m these creeks after heavy rains. The "grey mistletoe" (Loranthus 
quandang) is a common parasite on A. rigens. Other shrubs often found along 
these creeks are:— A. tetragonophylla, Cassia Sturtii, C. phyllodinea, Heteroden- 
dron oleifohum, hxocarpus aphylla, Eremophila glabra 'and others, Kochid 
aphylla, K. pyramidata ("nigger-bush"), Zygophyllum fruticulosum, Abutilon 
leucopetalum, Sida pctrophila, Solanum ellipticum, Dodonaea lobidata Pitto- 
sporum phillyreoides, Muehlenbeckia Cimninghamii, the "paddy" and "bastard 
melons" (Cucumis myriocarpus and Citrullus vulgaris), and many others Other 
creeks are dominated by different small trees such as Acacia Victorieae associated 
with tantalum lanceolatum, Eucarya acuminata, Eremophila lonnifolia and other 
shrubs. ' 

The largeg creeks, such as the Elizabeth, Pernatty, Whittita, and Yeltacowie 
creeks are bordered by Eucalyptus rostrata ("red gum"), the only common large 
tree on the plateau, and remarkably drought resistant. After the" breaking up of 
the last long drought, gum trees, which had been apparently dead for six years 
revived at South Gap. In good seasons these creeks often retain water in more or 
less permanent water-holes at many places. In and along the gum creeks are 
sometimes found A. rigens and most of the small shrubs and trees found along 
the myall creeks, as well as many others such as:— Acacia Oswaldii, Mvoforum 
montanum, Eremophila Lalrobci, Pimelea microccphala (rare), Solanum petro- 
philum Irichodcsma Bclamcum, Phyllanthus lacunarius, Euphorbia eremophila, 
(typical form), h. Drummondii, Tribulus terrestris, Hermannia Gilesii and 
numerous grasses and therophytes. Acacia salicina ("native willow") supposed 
to indicate fresh water occurs rarely. ^' SU ^ U5CU 

Small depressions in the tableland, where a greater depth of soil accumulates 
and moisture collects, may harbour a more varied flora than on the main tableland'- 
they vary m size from crab-holes, chiefly populated by annuals and grasses, to 
small dongas, when such shrubs as Eremophila glabra, E. Duttonii F oi>Positi- 
foha Pittosporum phillyreoides, Cassia Sturtii, A. tetragonophylla, K. IphWa 
h pyramidata may occur in them. These small communities represent ffi 
climax induced by the slightly better edaphic and climatic conditions in small bcal 
areas than pertain on the open tableland, where the climax is reached in the salt"- 
bush steppe. c &cLiL 


(2) Vegetation of the Sandhills. 
This differs markedly from that of the tableland; there is not so great a 
variety of species, but although no large trees are to be found there is an increase 
of small trees and shrubs. Micro- and nanopanaerophytes form 42" 5% of the 
flora; 9% are chaemophytes ; therophytes (31%) and hemicryptophytes (12%) 
are only to be found after a rainy season. 

(a) Colonisation of the Psamnioserc. 

There is a marked transition belt or ecotone between the vegetation of the 
tableland and that of the sandhills. This may be seen behind the homestead at 
Yeltacowie, as the margin of the tableland is approached saltbush and samphire 
are replaced by bluebush (Kochia sedifolla), which is superseded by K. pyra- 
midata ("pyramid bluebush" or "nigger-bush") as it becomes more sandy; while 
on the slopes of the more established sandhills mulga (Acacia aneura and 
A. brachystachya) are associated with the bluebush. 

Sandhills throughout the district vary from bare drifting sand, through 
various stages of colonization, to the more or less stabilized dunes covered with 
the stable but open association of the mulga scrub. Where the sandhills are 
exposed, bare and unstable, the "rattle-pod" (Crotalaria dissitiflora) forms pure 
colonies of considerable size; colonies are also found among the sparsely scattered 
mulga, when that is able to establish itself. "Roly-poly" or "buckbush" (Salsola 
Kali and S. Kali, var. strobilifera) also forms pure colonies on the bare sides or 
in depressions in the sandhills, and surrounding rattle-pod colonies, mulga 
Acacia ligulata ("umbrella bush") and other shrubs; even the dead buckbushes 
help to stabilize the sand in a dry season. 

Then may follow socies of A. ligulata, Dodonaea attenuata ("hop") . 
Heicrodcndron oleifolium ("bullock bush") forms small colonies on drifting sand, 
and occasionally Hakea leucoptera ("needle-bush") is found. Lycium australe 
("the Australian boxthorn") may also be found as isolated bushes or in small 
colonies, often at the transition zone between sandhills and tableland or flats; and 
Splnifcx paradoxus ("sandhill cane-grass") occurs in similar places. Then the 
mulga and bluebush become increasingly frequent, and gradually #ith the aid of 
smaller shrubs and annuals a more or less stable dune is built up. 

Collins (5) described stages in the colonization of sandhills and mulga scrub 
association on the rocky hills and slopes of the Barrier Region, New South Wales, 
which have many features in common with the colonization of the sandhills and 
mulga scrub association developed in this region, 

(b) Midga Scrub Association. 

The "Character plant" of the climax association on the sandhills is the mulga 
(chiefly A. aneura). Besides the shrubs already mentioned others occurring 
more or less throughout the mulga scrub are:- Cassia Sturtii, Cwemophda, var. 
platypoda, Myoporum descrii, Eremophila Latrobci, E. Duttonii, and E. glabra, 
Eucarya Murrayana ("bitter peach"), E. spicata ("commercial sandalwood"), and 
E.vocarpus aphylla are usually found growing near a mulga, all being root para- 
sites. The last shrub greatly resembles Templetonia egena ("broom bush"), which 
may also be found on the sandhills. 

Another common and interesting shrub is Pimelea micro cephala, which is 
usually found in a green, flourishing condition with its main stem leaning against 
or twisted round some other tree, usually a mulga or umbrella bush; in many 
cases the supporting trees, though apparently more xerophytic than the Pimelea, 
were dying or dead. Either the latter is extremely hardy and deep-rooted or the 
possibility of root-parasitism presents itself. 


The most common undershrub in the mulga scrub association is the bluebush. 
chiefly K pyramidata, but also K. sedifolia on the more stable slopes, and 
occasLally K. aphvlla. Various species of saltbush occur on the well-colonized 
SI Tnduding Atriplex vesicarium, A. stipitatum ("sandhill saltbush which is 
no liked bv sheep) A. velutinellum and A. Ihnbatum; also several species of 
Sindyi Tnclud nglwa ventricosa and B. parallelicnspis., Rhagodra GaudicMu- 
atS'ilcylaenl tornentosa ("ruby saltbush") and Gummopsrs gjgjg* < «£ 
bush") are fairly common, often forming tufts on small hillocks of sand. 
GlSine sericea is often found trailing over rattle-pods, and Tnchodesma zelamcum 
occurs round bullock-bush and in "blow-outs." . , • &, 

Although it at first appears that bluebush (Kochia, spp.) 19 dominant in the 
lower shrubby stratum it is more probable that this represents a sub-climax, and 
hrtnie chmax "attained when the dune is sufficiently stabilized to pennt -the 
establishment of the saltbush, which may frequency be mixed with bluebush or 
if undisturbed, gradually displaces it. However here, as m ^*&*£-™ 
bluebush appears to be more xerophytic than saltbush and to teel the effects ot 

dl '° U The lowest stratum or ground vegetation of the mulga scrub association is 
largely dependent on the season in which rain falls, as it consists mainly of annuals 
(therophytes) and grasses, During June and July, 192/, after a long period of 
drought/there was little therophytic ground covering among the shrubs and trees 
on the sandhills at Yeltacowie with the exception of buckbush, annual saltbush 
and some grasses. Rain fell during July and raised up an appreciable growth of 
seedlings; but the main annual flora developed by these rains was studied at 
Arcoona in September. The sandhills on this station are covered with ™ g™b 
similar to that on Yeltacowie and Pernatty, but are, on the whole, more stable and 
consolidated. The ground stratum, consisting largely of therophytes, was well 

deV " l Emi h luTa^Prick\y Jack"), Goodenia cycloptera and Phyllanthus 
Fucmrokrii being among the first colonizers of the bare sandy hillsides (psam- 
mosere) These formed pure colonies or were associated with each other, and 
were also frequent on the more consolidated parts under mulga and other shrubs, 
where they were mixed with a varied flora. Seasonal aspects are very noticeable 
among these lower stratum societies, the following species dominating in ; turn :— 
annual saltbush (A. velutinellum, A. Ihnbatum, A. spongiosum) ;Podolepts capil- 
lar* and Blennodia canescens ("wild stock"); Zygophylum HowUtu , Z tes- 
quorum Z. amnwphilum; Swamsona phacoides ( wild violet ) ; Erodmm 
cynnorum ("blue geranium"— an excellent fodder plant common with the last 
species on the flats) ; composites such as Calotis cymbycantha, Hehpterum jion-, 
bundum H moschatum, Helichrysmn semifertile, H. apiculatum, Mynocephalns 
Stuartn Craspedia pleiocephala, Senecio brachyglossus, and occasionally S . lautis; 
Sidacorrugata, S. intricate, S. mrgata, and Abutilon leucopetahim; Shpamttda, 
Trisetum pumilum, and other grasses. Other species commonly occurring are 
Tetraqonia expansa ("wild spinach") and T. eremaea, Tnchmium alpecurwideum, 
Lappula concam; Nicotiana suaevolens, Plantago varia, and Goodenia argentea, 
though that is more common on the flats, and G. cycloptera. on the sandy parts. 
Parakeelya (Calandrina remota and C. volubilis), a splendid fodder plant on 
which sheep can thrive for months without water, forms prominent societies 
round the mulgas in a good season ; although not as common as on the sandhills, 
parakeelya is also found on the flats, particularly round the bases of trees. 

In April 1930, there was little ground covering on the sandhills on South 
Gap Pernatty, and Oakden Hills. After a prolonged drought ram fell in the 
preceding December-January, and was productive chiefly of grasses such as 
4risiida arenaria ("mulga grass"), Triraphis mollis, Paspahdium jubiflorum, 


P. gracile, Digitaria Brownii, Panicum decompositum, etc. Trichinium alpecurioi- 
deum was also found. 

From the mixed mulga scrub described one must distinguish the type with 
A. aneura and A. Burkittii ("sandhill mulga" or "needle-bush acacia") dominant. 
This is common between Yeltacowie and Oakden Hills, along the East-West 
Railway Line between Bookaloo and Hesso, and on the sand-ridges that intersect 
the flats just outside the limits of the plateau. Under the spreading A. Burkittii 
there can be little or no undergrowth, but in between the bushes and the other 
mulgas may be found saltbush or bluebush and the usual annuals in season. 
A. Btirkittii may also occur as isolated shrubs in the mixed mulga scrub 
association. ° 

Quite another type of vegetation is sometimes met with in the sandhill 
country; mulga scrub on the fiats and slopes will graduallly merge into "native 
pine" forest (Callitris glauca). On the fringe pine and mulga will be mixed, 
but on the ridges almost pure pine association will occur. Under the pines is little 
or no undergrowth, except grasses. These pine forests were once much more 
extensive than they are now, but they have been largely cut down; they may be 
seen at The Pines on Arcoona, and between Yeltacowie and Pernatty. Occasionally 
isolated pines or small groups may be found in the mulga scrub association of 
more rarely on the flats. 

On Arcoona, and elsewhere, one occasionally meets with white sandhills or 
ridges.^ The poor salty nature of this white sand is indicated by Melaleuca paupcri- 
foha ("tea-tree"), the main tree growing on it. (This is also found on the edge 
of salt creeks on the tableland.) There is little or no undergrowth, though 
Enchylama tomentosa, Rhagodia nutans, and Zygophyllum ammophilum were not 
uncommon with "pop-saltbush," "nigger-bush," Myriocephalus Stuartii, Swainsona 
phacoides, and Emex australia among the more sparsely scattered trees. 

(3.) Vegetation of the Flats. 
Flats of varying extent are found between the sandhills on the plateau, as 
near Yeltacowie and Arcoona homesteads; also covering large tracts of 'the 
surrounding country (Recent to Pleistocene), which is sometimes more or less 
undulating and interspersed with sand-ridges as is much of the country round 
Island Lagoon and on Oakden Hills and Yudnapinna stations. The soil varies 
from being sandy or a light red sandy loam to firm, fine clav particles almost 
merging into a claypan. Though the vegetation of the sandy loam flats has 
features in common with that of the sandhill- and there are transitional stage* 
between the two, the general aspect differs greatly. There is a greater variety 
and abundance of species, particularly on the well-colonized flats than on the 
sandhills, but the proportions of the life-forms are similar; small shrubs and 
trees (37*5%) are dominant on the flats, while there are also 11-5% chacmophytes 
31 % therophytes and 14"5% hemicryptophytes. 

(a) Myall Association on the Loam Flats. 
The dominant or character tree throughout large areas of the flats is the 
myall (Acacia Sowdenii), which is extremely drought-resistant, more so than even 
the mulga, but unlike the latter is of little use as a fodder plant. On the hot bare 
plains its dense needle-like foliage provides a welcome if not very dense shade 
and so must have an influence on the growth of shrubs and ground vegetation' 
Several species such as Encylaena tomentosa, Rhagodia Gaudichaudiana, and the 
parasitic Exocarpus aphylla are usually found growing round the bases of mvall 
trees. "' J 

The dominant species in the shrub stratum is usually the bluebush. Kochia 
sedifoha and K. pyramidata may be associated with each other or form separate 


consociations, K. sedifoha is perhaps more common in ^fflSttSffllS 
associations, where it may be associated with or replaced by the saltbush Atripiex 
3« and A. sUpitatum. K. pyramidata is more frequent on. |»^£**£ 
and slopes, round the edge of claypans and in subseres where the vegetation has 
been disturbed by fire, drought or over-stocking. 

The other common shrubs found in the myall association of the loam hats 
^e-^Mxoporum deserti, Eremophila Paisleyi, E. Duttonu, h. longifoha E. oppo- 
sitifolia/E. maculata, E. Latrobei, Dodonaea lobidata, Pittosporum P^yreoides 
Cassia eremophila var. platypoda, Eucarya acuminata and E spicata Heteroden- 
dron oleifolhim, Templeionia egena ("broom bush," used for thatching), Ere- 
mophila glabra and Cassia SturtU ("blood bush") occur frequently either as single 
species in the myall association or as dominant species of societies which may 
exclude the association dominant. Several distinct strains of C. Start* were 
found on the flats. 

Mvoporum phtiy carp urn, so-called "sandalwood" by bushmen, often a fairly 
lar-e tree from 5-10 metres high, occurs frequently on the larger more established 
flat" where the soil is deeper ; while mulga and A. Burkittk appear on sandy patches 
and on the rises. , . r , 

The -round vegetation and succession of aspect societies after winter and 
spring rains resemble those of the sandhills; some species prefer one habitat to 
the other, Podolepis capiUaris, wild violet, geranium, and some grasses being more 
common on the myall flats. Hclipterum polygalifohum, Senecio Gregory Zygo- 
phxllum prismatothecum, Z, fruticulosum, Pappophorum avenaceum, and P nigri- 
cans are found on the flats, while H. floribundum, Hehchrysiim apiculalum, 
Z Hsquorum Z apiculatum, and Senecio Zowtw prefer the sandhills. On the mulga 
flats spinach and Myriocephalus Stuartii are most common. Bassia obhquiaispis, 
Siipa nitida, and other grasses came after summer rams, while in winter after a 
drought, there was little on the bare ground but Salsola Kali, Babbagia, and bmdy,. 

(b) Colonisation and Succession on the Flats. 

Claypans may represent the prisere stage in the colonizations of the flats 
but for the most part they are quite devoid of vegetation (the larger ones being 
bare except for occasional colonies of Nicotiana glauca and Spmifex paradoxus, 
which form large tussocks on mounds of sand). In others where water some- 
times lies Kochia brevifolia is the first colonizer of the hard-baked, cracking clay 
this is also found near salinas. Then follow Babbagia samphire on mounds, with 
some scattered saltbush. surrounded by bluebush, starbush, bmdyi, and Rhagodia. 

The smaller flats among the sandhills on Yeltacowie and Arcoona were 
colonized by bluebush, Babbagia, bindyi, samphire (round the edges usually), 
buckbush and Crimtm pedmiculatum ("36-hour or Murray hhes ). Kochia sedi- 
folia becomes dominant with K. pyramidata, which may rep ace it on the slopes, 
sand patches or at the edge of a claypan, where Phyllanthus Fuemrohru also 

° CCU As the soil develops K. aphylla ("cotton-bush"), star-bush, hop, Acacia 
lianlata and, occasionally, boxthorn come in, particularly round the edges, hor 
the most part these are the only plants, but grasses such as Supa mhda and annuals 
occur in season. Pure bluebush flats are not uncommon, but occasionally 
K Georgei may be mixed with the K. sedifolia, especially where the loam is deeper. 
Then the myall establishes itself and a typical myall-bluebush (K. sedifoha- 
K pyramidata) associes develops. At first there are perhaps just those three 
species with the annual ground covering in season, then come in the shrubs and 
undersnrubs already described for this association. As the soil becomes more 
loamy and deeper mulga and saltbush, until patches ot pure mulga-saltbush 


may result, particularly on the sandy parts, for in this region mulga is nearly 
always an indicator of sand (pi. iv., fig. 2). 

On most parts of Arcoona and Yeltacowie an association built up of these 
two consociations represents the climax, whether it be an edaphic climax due to the 
limited size of the flats or a climatic climax limited by the slightly lower rainfall 
which excludes the frequent occurrence of Myoporam platycarpum. This tree is 
very infrequent on the plateau, occurring very rarely below the 6-inch isohyet is 
scarce and scattered between that and the 7-inch isohyet, while between the 7- and 
8-mch isohyets, as on the extensive flats outside the plateau, on Carriewerloo 
ludnapmna, and parts of Oakden Hills it is very common, mixed with the myall' 
and m some places being the dominant species in abundance as well as size 
(pi. iv. , fig. 3). Towards the southern and western boundaries of these stations 
one crosses the 8-mch isohyet, and immediately mallee is found, at first mingling 
with the myall, mulga, and M. platycarpum, then gradually replacing them as 
more typical mallee scrub is developed. Thus M. platycarpum may be an 
indicator of slight rainfall variation between the 6-8-inch isohyets. It also appears 
to need a certain depth of soil and a sandy mulch. 

Under normal conditions it would thus seem that the myall-bluebush asso- 
ciation is a sub-climax on the rather hard, bare clay or loamy flats, and the mulga- 
saltbush association a sub-chmax on the more sandy parts. Only on the larger 
loamy flats, where the soil is deeper, can the true climax association develop with 
myall trees of considerable size as the most frequent tree, but with tall M platy- 
carpum giving height and character to the scrub, and with mulga also frequent 
either mixed with the myall or forming locally dominant consociations on the *andy 
parts. In this climax association saltbush, where not killed by drought or eaten 
out by stock, is dominant in the lower stratum, though K. sedifolia is also frequent 
and may take the place of the saltbush should the stability of the latter species 
be disturbed. K. pyramidata is the most hardy of the three and will thrive where 
little else will grow, and will choke out the other two species provided that adverse 
conditions give it a chance to establish itself. 

(c) Regeneration. 
After the exceptionally heavy rains of 1920-1921 there was such an abundance 
of grasses and annuals on the flats that when, in the following year a bush-fire 
started m the dry feed it spread throughout the district, destroying much of the 
myall-mulga (M. platycarpum) scrub on parts of Oakden Hills, Yudnapinna and 
Carriewerloo stations. As the annual rainfall gradually fell during the following 
years to culminate in the drought of 1928-1930, regeneration has necessarilv been 
retarded— if, indeed, complete regeneration be possible on bad patches that are 
already deteriorating with drifting sands. When viewed in March 1930 after 
the summer rams, this burnt country was still very barren; the "nieecr-bush" 
(K. pyramidata) being the only shrub which had survived to any extent this plant 
is remarkably hardy, and also thrives on country which has been *eatto-fliit" or 
drought-stricken. The common bluebush (K. sedifolia) was also found, but less 
frequently The bullock-bush (Heterodendron oleifoliam) , another extremely 
hardy shrub or small tree, often survived, either in isolated cases, or more often in 
small colonies which were spreading. In many cases these shrubs were sprouting 
again and growing quite vigorously, after having, apparently, been dead for some 

This scrub, like saltbush and "nigger-bush," may actually benefit from judicious 
Pining; mulga, Cassia and M. platycarpum will also stand a considerable amount • 
while other shrubs that are too harshly cut may never recover. Thus where scrub ' 
cutting is necessary, as in a bad drought, it is advisable that it should be done with 
restraint and discrimination, having due regard to the recuperative powers of the 


various shrubs; it will often not be found practical to keep a few hundreds of 
sheep alive at the cost of destroying the natural fodder resources of the country 

for all time. . 

Stiff* nitida was the most common grass on the burnt flats at this time most 
of it having dried off by March; while Bassia paradoxa was another colonist of this 
burnt subsere. Miles of dead bushes of myall, bluebush, mulga, and saltbush 
were all that remained of good scrub country. Here and there a myall or two had 
escaped but for the most part the plains were bare, except of scattered mgger- 
bush," odd sprouting bluebush, colonies of bullock-bush, and very occasionally 
Templetonla egcna; with, at times, Lycktm australe in small patches where water 

had collected. 

(4) Salinas and Fresh-water Swamps. 

The saltmarsh association around the salinas and salt-lakes that are so 
numerous west of Lake Torrens resembles that found in similar places near the 
sea-coast and in similar places inland. Samphires are the dominant species. 
Arthrocnemum halocnemoides, var. fergranulatum, was found round the edge of 
Lake Torrens, near Sandy Point, while Kochia tomentosa, var. appressa, was 
growing in sand a few feet from the damp surface of the lake, with starbush 
and saltbush slightly higher up the banks. 

The three most common types of fresh-water swamp associations were 
dominated, respectively, by "cane-grass" (Glyceria ramigera), "cotton-bush" 
(K. aphylla) and "lignum" (Muehlenbeckia Cunninghamii). In them a varied 
ground vegetation is often developed, including samphire, nardoo (Marstlea 
Dritmmondii) and Cressa cretica. 


In Prescott's Vegetation Map of South Australia (20) the whole region 
dealt with in this paper is marked as dominated by mulga and its allies, and also 
as lying within the limits of distribution of saltbush, bluebush and ootton-bush. 
Generally speaking this is correct, as such mulga associations have been shown to 
represent the climatic climax of the district. However, owing to edaphic limita- 
tions, the greater part of the Lake Torrens plateau can never support mulga scrub 
or mulga and myall consociations ; the "gibber tableland" consists almost entirely 
of saltbush steppes, with an almost complete absence of trees, except in the creek- 
beds. 4 

On page 90 is reproduced a vegetation map of the Lake Torrens plateau and 
its surroundings which gives the distribution of the three main associations dealt 
with in this paper, i.e., saltbush on the gibber tableland and stony hills, myall on 
the fiats, and mulga on the sandhills. In the case of the last two, it must_ be 
remembered that small flats with myall occur between the extensive sandhills, 
while the more definitely loam-flat country is often more or less undulating and 
intersected by sand-ridges with mulga. 

The geological outlines of the plateau and its outliers are taken from Ward's 
Geological Map of South Australia (24), where they are marked as "Ordovician?" 
The distribution of the vegetation is based on the author's own observations and, 
also, especiallv in the part not described in this paper, from detailed survey plans 
kindly lent by the Surveyor-General, Mr. J. H. McNamara, and his predecessor, 

Mr. T. E. Day. 


The Lake Torrens plateau lies to the west of Lake Torrens, and consists of 
flat-topped hills and stony or gibber tablelands with patches of sandhills and clay 
or loam flats. It is surrounded by extensive loam plains intersected by sand- 
ridges, salt-water lagoons and fresh-water swamps. The part described in this 


paper extends to Island Lagoon. The whole area lies between the 5- and 8-inch 
isohyets, and is part of Tate's Eremian Region. 

Out of a total of 387 species, of which 31 are endemics and a small percentage 
of Northern or Central Australian origin, the flora is composed largely of migrants, 
almost equally divided between the Eastern and Western centres of distribution, 
as is the case also in the Gulf Region of this State, although the actual composi- 
tion of the two floras is very different, only 43 being shared, the Lake Torrens 
Region having more in common with the drier parts of West Australia, New 
South Wales, and Northern Victoria. 

Most of the species found are fairly Widely distributed throughout South 
Australia, only seven being endemics confined to the plateau; most (81%) are 
shared with the Far North of this State, while 44% are found on the adjacent 
Flinders Range. Other floristical statistics are given. 

The various geographic, climatic and edaphic factors influencing the ecology 
of the vegetation are described ; an analysis of the life-forms is given in the spectra 
of the region and various habitats; and several compound species such as Atriplex 
vesicarmni are discussed. 

It would appear that the climatic climax for the whole region is an open 
scrub formation of the my 'dl\-mu\ga~Myoporimi platycarpitm type, with a saltbush- 
bluebush lower stratum among the various societies of larger shrubs that grow 
among the three main dominants. This climax can only be attained when optimum 
soil conditions prevail, i.e., a certain depth of soil with a sufficient sandy mulch, 
such as is chiefly found on the plains surrounding the plateau ; it may also be some- 
what influenced by the rainfall. Hence different edaphic or sub-climaxes are 
developed on the three main habitats : — saltbush steppes on the gibber tableland ; 
muiga scrub with bluebush or saltbush, according to the state of consolidation, on 
the sandhills; and myall-bluebush association on the hard loam flats with fine 
particles and Arm clay soils, with mulga-saltbush on the sandy flats. These 
associations are described in detail with notes on succession, regeneration, etc. 

The most interesting feature of the district is the widespread occurrence of 
samphire (chiefly Arthrocncmmn leiostachyum and Pachycomia tenuis), which 
were not only found round the swampy areas but were of frequent occurrence 
and widespread distribution on the rather saline soils of the tableland and flat- 
topped hills, associated with the saltbush. 

A vegetation map of the district is given. No authority is given for the 
specific names, but the nomenclature throughout is that given by Black. 


The author wishes to thank Mr. and Mrs. G. P. Blackmore, late of Yfclta- 
cowie, whose hospitality made this paper possible in the first instance; also the 
Trustees of the Commonwealth Science and Industry Endowment Fund, for a 
grant which enabled her to complete it; and Mr. J. M. Black, for identifying and 
checking many of the more difficult specimens. She is also indebted to Mr. and 
Mrs. C. Martin, late of Arcoona, and the managers of other stations visited; to 
Mr. j. G. Wood, of the Botany Department of the University of Adelaide, for 
his helpful advice, loan of apparatus, etc., and to Messrs. Tom Kidman' and 
A. Wellby, of Oakden Hills, for specimens. 

Literature Cited. 

1. Adamson, R. 5* 5 and Osborn, T. G. B.— "On the Ecology of the Ooldea 

District." Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xlvi. (1922), p. 539 

2. Black, J. M.— "Flora of South Australia." Adelaide, 1922-1929 


3. Cannon, W. A. — "Plant Habits and Habitats in the Arid Portion of South 

Australia." Cam. Inst., Wash., pub. No. 308, 1921. 

4. Cleland, J. B. — "Notes on the Flora North-West of Port Augusta, between 

Lake Torrens and Tarcoola." Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. liv. 
(1930), p. 140. 

5. Collins, M. I. — "Studies in the Vegetation of Arid and Semi-arid New 

South Wales. Part I." Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., vol. xlviii., pt. iii., 
1923, p. 229. 

6. Tenner, C — "Adelaide, South Australia: A Study in Human Geography. " 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. li. (1927), p. 193. 

7. Fenner, C — "The Major Structural and Physiographical Features of South 

Australia." Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. liv. (1930), p. 1. 

8. Glinka, C D. — "The Great Soil Groups of the World and their Develop- 

ment." London, 1927. 

9. Glinka, C. D. — "Differents types d'apres lesquels se forment les sols et la 

Classification des ces derniers." Memoirs sur la Nomenclature et la 
Classification des sols, p. 271. Helsingsfors, 1927. 

10. Gregory, J. W.— "The Dead Heart of Australia." 1906. 

11. Griffith Taylor — "The Australian Environment." Adv. Counc. Sci. Ind., 

Mem. No. 1, Melbourne, 1918. 

12. Howchin, W. — "The Building of Australia and the Succession of Life." 

Adelaide, 1925-1930. 

13. Howchin, W. — "An Introduction to Geology from the Australian Stand- 

point." Adelaide, 1918. 

14. Howchin, W-, and Gregory, J. W. — "The Geography of. South Australia." 


15. Hunt, H. A., Griffith Taylor, and Quale, E. T. — "The Climate and 

Weather of Australia." Melbourne, 1913. 

16. Hunt, H. A. — "Results of Rainfall Observations made in South Australia 

and the Northern Territory." Melbourne, 1918. 

17. Jack, R. L. — "Geological Structure and other Factors in Relation to Under- 

ground Water Supply in Portions of South Australia." Geol. Survey of 
S. Austr., Bull. No. 114, Adelaide, 1930. 

18. Madigan, C. T. — "An Aerial Reconnaissance into the South-Eastern Por- 

tion of Central Australia." Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc. of Austr (SA 
Branch), vol. xxix. (1928-1929), p. 1. 

19. Mueller, F. von— "Report on the Plants collected during Mr. Babbage's 

Expedition into the North-Western Interior of South Australia in 1858." 
Victoria, 1859. 

20. Prescott, J. A. — "The Vegetation Map of South Australia." Trans. Roy 

Soc. S. Austr., vol. liii. (1929), p. 7. 

21. Richardson, N. A. — "The Pioneers of the North-West of South Australia, 

1856-1914." Adelaide, 1925. 

22. Tate, R. — "On the Influence of Physiographic Changes in the Distribution 

of Life in Australia." Austr. Ass. Adv. Sci., Rep. 1st Meeting, p 312 
Sydney, 1887. 

23. Threadgill, B. — "South Australian Land Exploration," 1856-1880 

Adelaide, 1922. 


24. Ward, L. K.— "Geological Map of South Australia/' Adelaide, 1928. 

25. Ward, L. K. — "The Plan of the Earth and its Origin." Proc. Roy. Geogr. 

Soc. of Austr. (S.A. Branch), vol. xxviii. (1926-1927), p. 171. 

26. Wood, J. G.— "Floristics and Ecology of the Mallec." Trans. Roy. Soc. 

S. Austr., vol. liii. (1929), p. 359. 

27 . Wood, J. G. — "An Analysis of the Vegetation of Kangaroo Island and the 

Adjacent Peninsulas." Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. liv. (1930), 
p. 105. 


Fig. 1. Gibber tableland, South Gap, showing samphire (Arthrocncmum Iciostachyum) 
with a little saltbush (Atriple.x vesicarhtm) in right foreground. 

Fig. 2. General view of myall (Acacia Sowdenii) and bhiebush (Kochia scdifolia) flat 
between sandhills, Arcoona. Alulga (A. ancitra) colony at left and on distant sandhills. 
Salsola Kali and K. pyramidata on slope in foreground. 

Fig. 3. Loam flat near Bookaloo. Tall trees are Myoporum platycarpum with myall in 
the background; ground covering chiefly A. vesicarhtm mixed with A. stipitatum and K. scdi- 
folia; Eucarya spicata (commercial sandalwood) is the dark shrub in centre, left of tallest 


by Professor Walter Howchin, F.G.S. 


At the Melbourne meeting of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science, held in 
1913, the present writer gave a Presidential Address before Section "C" on "The Evolution of the 
Physiographical Features of South Australia." In that address special attention was directed to the 
revolutionary geological changes that occurred in Central and South-Central portions of Australia 
during the Pleistocene Period. In these earth movements a new coastal watershed was developed, 
with a correlative sag to the northward, which brought the Lake Eyre country below sea-level, and 
resulted in a general deformation of the hydrographic systems within the region concerned. 



By Professor Walter Howchin, F.G.S. 
[Read September 10, 1931.] 
Plate V. 


I. A Senescent Watershed — The MacDonnell Ranges 

(1) The Rivers 

(2) Geological History 

(3) Physiographic Features 
II. Development of a New Water-parting 

Evidences : — 

(1) Geological Structure of the Area .. 

(2) A Topographical Incongruity 

(3) Physiographical Outlines of the Country 

(4) Discordance of the Existing River Channels 

(5) Relatively Juvenile Stage of the Existing Rivers 

(6) Blind River Channels 

(7) Deep Alluvial Deposits 

(8) Secondary Silicification 

(9) Evidence of Far Transport of Material 
III. The Betrunkkd River Finke 

( 1 ) Lake Eyre 

(2) Lake Torrens 

(3) Period of Great Fluvial Action 
IV. The Extinct Ardrossan River 

V. The Ancient Northern Flinders And Willochra Creek Channel 

(1) Western Plain of the Northern Flinders 

(2) Melrose-Willochra Plain 

(3) Booleroo Plain 

(4) Mount Remarkable . . . . 

(The Old Willochra Channel on the Southern side of the Water-parting, 

(5) Rocky River 

(6) Pine Creek Tributary 

(7) Appila Creek Tributary 

(8) Lau-ra 

(9) Gladstone 

VI. North-westerly Tributary of the Ancient Willochra Channel 

(1) Plain on the Western Side of the Southern Flinders Ranges 

(2) Port Pirie 

(3) Crystal Brook .. 

(4) Narridy 

(5) River Broughton 

(6) Koolunga 

(7) Snowtown and Bumbunga Plain 

(8) Port Wakefield 

(9) Port Moonta 

VII. Ancient River Channel by Lake Fro me and Orroroo 

(1) South-western Queensland Drainage 

(2) Siccus River Plain . . 

(3) Walloway Creek 

(4) Lower Pekina Creek and Orroroo 

(5) Caltowie 

(6) Yackamoorundie Creek and Hundred of Yangya 

(7) Georgetown 

(8) Gulnare and Yacka 

(9) Rochester and Magpie Creek 


















































At the Melbourne meeting of the Australasian Association for the 
Advancement of Science, held in 1913, the present writer gave a Presidential 
Address before Section "C" on "The Evolution of the Physiographical 
Features of South Australia. " In that address special attention was directed 
to the revolutionary geological changes that occurred in Central and South- 
Central portions of Australia during the Pleistocene Period. In these earth 
movements a new coastal watershed was developed, with a correlative sag to 
the northward, which brought the Lake Eyre country below sea-level, and 
resulted in a general deformation of the hydrographic systems within the 
region concerned. 

The present paper is devoted' to a consideration of the same subject in 
greater detail, including some features of the older continental watershed that 
is now in a state of decline ; the development of a new water-parting, parallel 
with the coast; and also the delineation, as far as possible, of such ancient 
river channels, now mostly obsolete, that formed the western portion of the 
antecedent hydrographic system; leaving to a later paper the consideration 
of those defunct rivers that formed the eastern portion. 


There can be little doubt that the MacDonnell Ranges have through long 
ages formed the main central watershed of the country with a discharge of 
its waters to the sea at the southern coast, and, possibly, to the north as well. 
In their present condition they show an extensive Pre-Cambrian massif, 
reduced to a plateau of only moderate elevation, that originally formed the 
core and roots of mountain ranges that were of Alpine magnitude. The base 
of these now greatly-reduced ranges was laved by the waves of the sea in 
Cambrian times, and, later, by those of the Ordovician; and it is highly 
probable that the glaciers of the Finkc, during the Permo-Carboniferous 
Period, had their source on the snow-fields of their summits; while, still later, 
they shared the scene with the palm-margined, fresh water lakes that made 
a characteristic feature during the Triassic and Jurassic Periods; and finally 
the sea returned during the Cretaceous Age, filling with its sediments the 
extensive basin caused by the slowly sinking land of the central region. 

The marine and fresh-water sediments that were laid down during the 
successive geological periods must have been largely obtained from the waste 
of these ancient highlands reduced now almost to a common level. The 
general effects produced by such varied conditions of denudation and recon- 
struction have repeatedly changed the face of Nature throughout this vast 
region, and there is left the difficult task of disentangling and assigning their 
proper place to the residual land forms that have followed from such diver- 
sified phenomena. Some of the physiographical features date back to remote 
times, and may be anachronistic in relation to other surface forms with which 
they are immediately associated. 

(1) It is to the rivers that we must look to obtain a clue to the events 
that more immediately preceded the existing order of things. The main lines 
of relief that prevail throughout these central highlands are remarkably 
simple and persistent. The strike is almost uniformly east and west. Ridges 
of rock form lines of outcrop that are continuous for many miles, and these 
prominent features are separated from each other by intervening valleys or 
plains, varied sometimes by minor swellings or by sandy flats smoothed over 
by wind-borne sands carried from the drier regions. 

The rivers of the central highlands show some remarkable features. The 
river channels are commonly at right angles to the ranges, and are of a con- 


sequent type. They originated in a former epeirogenic uplift of the region 
with low grades, in their initial stages, which led in many instances to a very 
serpentine course. The present features are those of a dissected plateau, with 
the rivers deeply incising and intersecting the hard ridges, forming numerous 
narrow gaps that mark the inlets and outlets of the river courses as the 
streams enter and leave the low intervening valleys. 

The characteristic weathering of the region forms a striking illustration 
of weak atmospheric action incidental to a dry region, while the predominant 
solar control is seen in the nearly vertical walls of the gorges (rising fre- 
quently to several hundreds of feet), dislocated masses, that encumber the 
river beds, and river erosion, limited to intermittent floods which find their 
way through water-gaps that are often only a few feet in width. The gorges 
are as distinctive a feature in the smaller contributory streams as in the main 
water-ways, forming a region of entrenched meanders. The absence of water- 
falls throughout this extensive region of highlands in Central Australia is a 
remarkable feature. 

(2) The geological history of this somewhat complex region includes 
several periods of peneplanation, together with successive geological systems 
distributed over the Pre-Cambrian, Palaeozoic, Mesozoic, and Tertiary ages, 
with a central complex of great extent that probably has not been below sea- 
level from Pre-Cambrian times. 

The material that has been removed from these primitive highlands by 
denudation has reduced their former height by many thousands of feet. That 
river action (and probably ice action as well) have been energetic agents in 
the transportation of this material is evidenced by the extensive deposits of 
alluvial sediments that occur throughout the central regions. 

At the present time most of the drainage from the main watershed has a 
southerly direction. The chief rivers are The Palmer, The Hale, The Todd, 
The Hugh, and The Finke. The last named ultimately captures the others, 
forming a main or trunk stream. Some of the rivers, the Finke particularly, 
follow a very serpentine course, noted by all travellers, compelling the latter 
to leave the bed of the river, in many places, and for considerable distances 
travel parallel with the stream but on higher ground. [See Map in "Horn 
Expedition" and S. A. White's Map, Roy. Soc, S. Aus., xxxviii., 1914, p. 407.] 

(3) In the physiographic features of the river systems there is a curious 
combination of mature and jiivenile aspects. The reduction of grade in the 
river courses, absence of waterfalls, and intersection of wide valleys on a 
common grade with the hills, point to a mature condition; while the deeply- 
cut and narrow r gorges are equally suggestive of a juvenile type. This blend- 
ing of contrasted physiographic features can be explained by the. peculiar 
climatic conditions under which the facial sculpture has been effected, viz., a 
limited rainfall and dry atmosphere affording only weak weathering effects, 
together with occasional floods and powerful stream erosion, The meander- 
ing of a great river, like that of The Finke, must have been initiated during a 
peneplanation stage that had reached a local base-level with low grade, fol- 
lowed by an epeirogenic uplift that led to the deep incisions of the river 

A marked feature of Central Australian geology is the enormous develop- 
ment of conglomerates of various ages, monoliths of which are seen in 
Ayers Rock, Mount Olga, and Mount Currie [Chewings], that indicate 
important rivers, of strong grades, and with adequate powers of transport. 
Such a vast and powerful hydrographic system must have had its outlet at 
the southern coast in former times. 


The earth movements that produced the sag and lake basins across the 
main line of southerly drainage, until its central region sank below sea-level, 
had the effect of integrating the drainage both on its eastern and western 
sides. The western affluents of the River Murray were captured on the one 
side, and those draining from the Musgrave Ranges on the other. If Lake 
Eyre was brought up to the level of Lake Torrens (a difference of about 
100 feet) the Cooper and other affluents that now find their way into the 
eastern side of Lake Eyre would have to find an outlet further to the east. 
Prior to the east-west uplift, with its concomitant sag to the north, these 
streams probably united with the Darling, or took a course through the gap 
that occurs between Cockburn and Broken Hill and united with the Murray; 
or, possibly, following a course more to the westward, found an outlet in the 
direction of Lake Frome. Cockburn is at present nearly 700 feet above sea- 
level, but this presents no difficulty, as it is included within the limits of the 
raised area, which has a value much exceeding that height. 

It is generally accepted that during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene 
periods there was an extensive movement of plateau elevation in southern 
Australia. In South Australia the uplift took the form of a broad and gentle 
geanticline parallel to the coast, the summit of which, in a line with the 
Northern railway, is situated at an average distance of about 150 miles from 
the seaboard. The limbs of the anticline extend, respectively, from near 
Adelaide, in the south, to Marree, northward, where the beds dip under 
the Cretaceous clays of the Lake Eyre basin. The summit of the fold is 
marked by the dividing of the drainage, in gravitating, either to the north- 
ward or the southward. By reference to fig. 1 it will be seen that this water- 
parting follows a very serpentine course. This outspreading is occasioned 
by the relative flatness of the summit and the influence of small differences in 
level in determining the direction of the streams. 

If such a deformation has occurred in South Australia within so recent 
a time, as is believed to have been the case, it must have had a revolutionary 
effect on the river systems as well as on the climatic conditions of the country. 
The evidences that support this view may be briefly stated. 

(1) The Geological Structure of the Area.— The fold takes the form of a 
simple corrugation (or geanticline), as already stated, in which the strata, 
rising from sea-level near Adelaide, carry rocks of the same geological hori- 
zon (although much faulted and distorted) over a bend, exceeding 2,000 feet 
in height, to sea-level on the northern side in a distance of 500 miles 
[See fig. 2.] 

(2) A Topographical Incongruity, Avhere a central and ancient continental 
river system is blocked by a transverse land barrier in its discharge to the 
ocean, giving rise to an extensive development of inland lakes on the northern 
side of the barrier and a comparative absence of rivers on the southern. 

(3) The Physiographical Outlines of the Country show that the main 
features of physical relief have had an origin antecedent to the present 
geographical cycle. 

(4) The Discordance of the Existing River Channels in relation to the main 
features of the physical relief — the modern rivers often intersecting the ante- 
cedent river channels at various angles with a westerly tendency. This 
westerly direction (as opposed to a southerly one) has been caused by the 
great meridional fault of South Australia by which the country has received 
a tilt to the westward. 


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( 5 ) The Relatively Juvenile Stage of the 
Existing Rivers in their erosive effects. 

(6) Blind River Channels, now mostly dry, 
that occur on the raised barrier and that have no 
definite relation lo the existing drainage. 

(7) Deep Alluvial Deposits occupy these 
deserted river beds and, by absorption of the local 
drainage cause short stream-lengths, as laterals, 
that have an intermittent existence. 

(8) Secondary Silicificalion often occurs in 
the older river deposits by which the silt, sands, 
and gravels are converted into extremely hard 
rocks that simulate rocks of much greater age 
and are often broken for road metal or are too 
tough for this purpose. Mostly situated at high 

(9) Evidences of Far Transport of Material. 
— When the sediments have been preserved in 
their original loose condition the pebbles are seen 
to be very highly water-worn. Some of these, 
consisting^ of quartz and as large as cricket balls, 
are often worn perfectly round, giving evidence 
of stream attrition having been carried on over 
long distances. Silicifled wood is also not un- 
frequently found in these ancient gravels. 


(1) Lake Ewe. — Many rivers converge at the 
northern end of Lake Eyre, the chief of which 
are The Diamantina, The Warburton, The 
Alberga, The Macumba, and The Nealcs. The 
Finked in flood, may mix its waters with those of 
the Macumba, but is mostly lost by absorption 
before reaching Lake Eyre. As forming the chief 
water system of the MacDonnell Ranges it may 
be taken to represent the trunk river or chief 
channel of discharge to the Southern Ocean in 
the preceding geographical cycle of the region. 

There is relatively low ground between the 
southern end of Lake Eyre and Lake, Torrens 
with a slight gradient to the former. In this 
depression bordered by rises of over 500 feet, 
Chambers', or Stuart's, Creek flows northward 
into the southern end of Lake Eyre. In view of 
the development of the new water-parting we 
must assume that Chambers' Creek occupies the 
former channel of The Finke in its southward 
flow but, by earth movements, has been reversed 
in its direction. Prof. J. W. Gregory, in writing 
of Lake Eyre, says: ".Its western rim is formed 
by the eastern slope of the apparently eternal 
platform of Western Australia. A detached 
fragment of its floor now lies at the northern end 


of Lake Torrens and links the Lake Eyre basin to the Great Valley of South 
Australia." ["Dead Heart of Aus.," p. 146.] 

(2) Lake Torrens. — Lake Torrens occurs in a wide plain bordered by the 
Flinders Ranges on the east and a plateau of moderate elevation on the west. 
The lake lies in a shallow depression near the highest part of the ridge 
between Port Augusta and Lake Eyre, a height variously estimated at a little 
more than 100 feet above sea-level. Port Augusta is about 40 miles distant 
from the southern end of Lake Torrens, following a down grade of about 
two and a half inches in the mile, scarcely sufficient to maintain a current, and 
is marked throughout by a succession of shallow claypans and swamps 
divided by several recognized "crossings" for traffic, Ln times of heavy floods 
Lake Torrens is reported to overflow and carries its fresh water down to the 
sea, causing the waters at the head of the Gulf to be muddy. Others consider 
that an overflow of Lake Torrens is improbable, and that the muddiness at 
Port Augusta is entirely caused by local flood waters. Taking into considera- 
tion the physical structure of the country and recent earth movements, with a 
fairly defined channel of drainage — northward to Lake Eyre and southward 
to Port Augusta — it seems highly probable that prior to the tectonic move- 
ments The Finke followed the direct and depressed channel to the sea, via 
the present, now elevated, channel of Lake Torrens. 

(3) Period of Great Fluvial Action. — There are many indications that in the 
geographical cycle that preceded the present order Central Australia was 
blessed with a more abundant rainfall and more permanent rivers than exist 
today. We may assume that these more favourable pluvial conditions syn- 
chronized with the existence of the permanent ice-fields that occurred in 
south-eastern Australia and in Tasmania during the Pleistocene Period, 
accompanied by a lowering of the mean temperature throughout southern 
Australia, of which we have some evidence in the retreats to warmer latitudes 
of some molluscs formerly abundant in South Australian w r aters. In evidence 
of the former existence of permanent fresh-water rivers in Central Australia 
in excess of the present, teeth, scutes, and portions of skulls of crocodiles 
have been obtained from the eastern side of Lake Eyre as well as at Port 
Augusta; also teeth of Neoceratochts from the Lake Eyre basin. [See Howchin : 
"Building of Australia and Succession of Life," pp, 659, 661. Government 
Printer, Adelaide.] 

At the time when the rivers of the central region came through to the 
southern coast the existing seaboard was probably at a higher elevation than 
at present, and Spencer Gulf was either non-existent or on a much smaller 
scale. Many of the islands at the entrance to the gulf are covered by dune 
sand. Wedge Island, one of the Gambier group, has a base of older rocks at 
about sea-level, on which rests a pyramidal mass of dune sand which, at its 
south-eastern angle, rises in an almost perpendicular cliff to a height of 
660 feet, capped by travertine limestone. It is self-evident that such an 
accumulation of blown sand could not form on an island 20 miles from land. 
The inference is that within comparatively recent times Spencer Gulf either 
had no existence or was greatly narrowed in its limits — possibly to that of 
a delta of The Finke. 

[For remarks on an ancient alluvial deposit at Port Moonta, see forward 
Section VI., No. 9.] 


The remains of an important river occur near Ardrossan and for some 

distance southward, bordering the western side of Gulf St. Vincent. The 

most northerly position for these remains was noted in Section 77, Hundred 

of Cunningham. On the southern side of Ardrossan the alluvial beds form a 


coastal scarp parallel with the coast and at an average distance of one mile 
from the latter. The beds which are consolidated and highly siliceous are 
very massive and strongly exposed. On the northern side of the district road 
that passes inland from Parara Head Station the beds form three terraces, 
resting on Cambrian limestone, in a vertical height of 100 feet, and 300 feet 
above" sea-level. In their northern extension they rest on fossiliferous 
Miocene making a complete local occurrence three miles in length. 

Similar consolidated alluvia form "Rocky Point, situated 12 miles to the 
southward of Ardrossan. Rocky Point is 80 feet in height and carries diversified 
sediments, including petrified wood. 

On the southern side of the jetty at Ardrossan are high cliffs that give 
interesting sections. The basal portion consists of indurated mottled clays of 
Pleistocene age. The upper surface of these clays shows subaerial erosion 
with Recent clays resting unconformably on the latter. There is thus in this 
neighbourhood three distinct sets of beds which are post Miocene and of dis- 
cordant ages. (1) The high-level siliceous alluvia resting on a Cambrian 
floor, which is probably of Older Pleistocene age. (2) An indurated mottled 
clay series of Newer Pleistocene age. (3) And a Recent clay-bed of consider- 
able thickness that occupies eroded valleys in the Newer Pleistocene. 
[See Howchin: "The Geology of Ardrossan and Neighbourhood," Trans. 
Roy. Soc. S. Aust., xlii. (1918), pp. 185-255, pis. xix.-xxix.] 

The relationship which this now extinct river bore to the other ancient 
lines of drainage is uncertain, as it is isolated. Only the right bank of the 
river course has been preserved, the left bank having been submerged by the 
sea. The inference, based on geographical features, is that the river drained 
the plain on the western side of the Barunga and Hummocks ranges, and the 
northern portion of Yorke Peninsula, finally uniting with the trunk stream 
that flowed down the valley now drowned by the sea. 


(1) Western Plain of the Northern Flinders. — The Flinders Ranges, in both 
their northern and southern groups, show a very bold scarp, facing west- 
wards. This persistent feature is, without question, a fault-scarp with a 
downthrow to the west/ward. This sunk-land, bordering the fault-scarp, has 
a uniform feature of fluvial and porous sediments. In its northern portions, 
the plain between Lake Torrens and the Flinders Ranges, has an average 
width of about 24 miles. In this section The Parachilna, Brachina, Hookina, 
and other creeks from the Flinders Ranges debouch on the plains and, after 
continuing for some distance, according to the volume of the flood-water, are 
finally absorbed and disappear below the surface. Whether these sediments 
were built up as alluvial fans from the ranges or were laid down by a former 
north and south river, now extinct, is not quite certain, but are probably the 
result of both agencies. That such a river, at some time, received the drainage 
of the eastern ranges, and flowed southward, is highly probable. In support 
of this view there is a clearly defined valley going south, in which the Wil- 
lochra Creek, as a reversed stream, after flowing northwards for about 
75 miles, takes a sharp right-angled turn to the west, at a distance of 24 miles 
from Lake Torrens, and falls into this lake. 

As the Willochra Creek is the most important stream at the present time 
occupying the bed of the ancient river, it may be taken as the representative 
of the extinct trunk line of drainage now under consideration. 

(2) Melrose-Willochra Plain. — This plain is defined on its western side by 
the Southern Flinders Ranges, its chief heights being, Mount Brown, near 


Quorn, and Mount Remarkable, near Melrose. On its eastern side it is 
separated from the Orroroo plain by the Eurelia, Pekina, and Nanen ranges. 
The railway line passes over this dividing ridge, at the following heights. At 
Orroroo, the railway station is 1,380 feet above sea-level; the line reaching 
its maximum height of 1,733 feet at Eurelia; descending on the other side to 
1,510 feet at Carrieton; 1,386 feet at Moochra ; 1,036 feet at Hammond; and 
then reaches the Willochra level at 783 feet at Bruce. 

A well was sunk by Mr. G. H. Lehmann, four miles to the westward of 
Bruce [about half-way between Carrieton and Quorn], particulars of which 
were kindly supplied to me by his brother, Mr. F. H. Lehmann, as follow:— 
Clay and boulders, 115 feet; pure clay, 30 feet; white sand, 20 feet; then 
alternating clay bands and white sand to a depth of 199 feet, when the sinking 
was stopped without reaching bed-rock. 

(3) Booleroo Plain, — Twenty-four miles to the southward of Bruce the 
Booleroo plain carries many evidences of extinct river action. Remains of the 
older and consolidated alluvia are frequently seen. Those portions of the 
fluvial sediments that have not undergone silicification have been subjected 
to denudation, while the silicified portions are, usually, more or less in relief 
and cover extensive areas. , 

The Booleroo plain extends into the western portion of the adjoining 
Pekina Hundred. On. Mr. Brooks' farm [Sec. 253, Hd. Pekina] and other 
paddocks in the neighbourhood, remains of the older sediments are very 
common. Travelling westward on the main road between Orroroo and 
Melrose silicified gravels occur on the southern side of the road a mile to the 
eastward of Booleroo Centre, also on the northern side of the road about two 
and a half miles to the westward of the same township. Both coarse and fine 
material have been cemented, taking the form of more or less spheroidal 
masses or large sheets of solid stone, which, if examined apart from its sur- 
roundings, might be mistaken for geologically-ancient quartzites. The surface 
of these stones and sheets is usually smooth (sometimes glazed) or irregu- 
larly mammillated, a feature that easily distinguishes this class of rock from 
other forms of alluvia, while the quartz grains retain their rounded form and 
have no crystalline continuity with the introduced silica which is of a colloid 
nature. As these consolidated masses occur scattered over the fields the 
farmers have much trouble with them. Some are gathered into heaps on the 
field or dragged to the boundary, but where the rock is ,in sheets and compact 
masses the only means of getting rid of it is either by blasting or the cheaper 
method of lighting a fire on the top to cause it to split. 

I was informed that, in the south-west corner of the adjoining Hundred 
of Willowie, Mr. Chas. Fuller sank a well near his house, and at a depth of 
20 feet entered sand, and that this was generally the case in the valley. 

The bed-rock, when met with, is usually a decomposed kaolinized slate, 
as generally happens when slate occupies the bed of these ancient rivers. Mr. 
Brooks informed me that he put down a well in which he passed through 
200 feet of pipeclay. At White Cliffs [Sec. 64 Hundred of Booleroo] a knoll 
has been worked back to a cliff 20 feet in height, consisting of kaolinized slate 
very white and apparently pure. It has been quarried and sent to Port Pirie 
for making retorts. 

(4) Mount Remarkable. — Mount Remarkable, as already stated, forms a 
part of the western boundary of the Willochra plain. Saddle Hill, situated 
opposite to the township of Melrose, takes its name from the saddle-like shape 
of its summit, and is one of a series of foothills that surround the mount on 
its south-eastern and southern sides. The hill is roughly guessed as being 
200 feet in height. The lower part, facing the Mount Remarkable Creek, 
consists of slates and thinnish beds of quartzite, more or less rotten. Resting 


on this old shelf of rock are high-level gravels exposed on the side of the 
hill facing the mount where a gully has been cut out. These old gravels are 
capped by scree material. The Saddle Hill is connected with a still higher 
foothill behind it, estimated at 300 feet above the creek (which flows at the base 
of the mount), and the old conglomerate passes up the sides of this higher foothill 
which, latter, forms a ridge parallel with the mount. From this point 
a fine panoramic view is obtained of the Willochra plain, across to the eastern 
heights, which has all the appearance of having been at one time a great 
waterway. It does not seem at all likely that these high-level conglomerates 
had a local origin and are probably remnants of the older river system. 

The Willochra Creek drains the highlands on either side of the plain, and 
takes its rise near the crest of the east-west fold, receiving numerous head- 
waters from the Bangor, Murray Town, and Booleroo districts. 

(The Old Willochra Channel on the Southern side of the Water-parting) 
Near the crest of the water-parting the drainage is much disjointed and, 
m many places, uncertain. Some residents in that region say that they are 
not sure in what direction the water ultimately flows, whether north or south. 
The direction changes from time to time, and is often regulated by the posi- 
tion in which the heaviest rain falls at different times. Townships situated 
near the summit, such as Peterborough, Yongala, Jamestown, Caltowie, 
Laura, Gladstone and Georgetown, are subject to flooding. 

The extensive Willochra plain, as a physiographical feature, is continued 
across the water-parting where it is bounded on the eastward by the Narien 
Range, and on the westward by the highlands of the Wirrabara district. The 
respective lateral ranges feed numerous streams which follow the southern 
slopes of the transverse fold. Many of these unite. The three principal 
channels are the Rocky River, Pine Creek, and the Appila Creek; the two 
latter ultimately combine with the Rockv River, which finds its outlet by the 
River Broughton into Spencer Gulf. 

(5) Rocky River. — Murray Town [Hundred of Wongyarra] is situated on 
the water-parting, with the Willochra Creek on the northern side and the Rocky 
River on the southern. At about a mile eastward from Murray Town is Pine 
Creek.^> On the right bank of this stream, and at a height of about 50 feet 
above the water level, is a considerable deposit of siliceous and jaspery sand- 
stone, sometimes changing to a coarse conglomerate having the features of 
the older river system. 

The Rocky River, strengthened by tributaries, takes its rise in the high 
ground to the north-west of Wirrabara and, for a few miles, pursues a northerly 
course till, near the crest, it takes a sudden turn to the south-east, passing through 
Wirrabara and on the western side of Laura. The Rocky River answers to its 
name only in its upper reaches as, from Wirrabara, southward, the most of its 
bed h-iu the soft sediments of the older river channels. Near Wirrabara the river 
occupies a flood plain, meanders, and has incised its older bed, exposing black 
clay in its banks, the remains of a former swampy basin. Ajlittle further to the 
southward, between the 151 and 152 mile posts on the railway ! (about two miles 
north of Stone Hut), there are considerable deposits of the consolidated and 
siliceous gravels. 

(6) Pine Creek Tributary. — Booleroo Centre, like Murray Town, is on the 
crest of the fold, at a height of 1,300 feet above sea-level. The country on the 
southern side of the above township has a very broken drainage for a few miles. 

C 1 ) This creek flows into the Wild Dog Creek, the most southerly head-water of the 
Willochra Creek, and is quite distinct from a creek of the same name that takes its rise a little 
to the southward of Booleroo Centre, which will be referred to later. [See same page.] 


The most persistent stream is Pine Creek which, with its origin in the Hundred 
of Booleroo, flows in a wide valley, southwards, through the Hundred of Appila 
and northern portions of the Hundred of Booyoolie, joining the Rocky River 
at Laura, 

(7) Appila Creek Tributary.— This is the third important creek that, at the 
present day, crosses the wide valley lying between the Wirrabara hills on the west 
and the Narien Range on the east, forming part of the southern slopes of the 
transverse fold. Its head-waters are near the Hogshead Hill, Hundred of Pekma, 
and is the principal outlet for the drainage from the western side of the Narien 
Range. It passes through the Hundred of Tarcowie, and is there noted for a 
fine section of the Sturtian Tillite, half a mile in length, forming the most westerly 
gorge of the stream. [Howchin, W., "Glacial Beds of Cambrian Age in South 
AusL," QJ.G.S., lxiv., 1907, pp. 234-258,] At the mouth of the gorge a massive 
and nearly vertical quartzitc underlies the tillite, rising like a huge rampart through 
which the creek is at present eroding its bed in rapids and waterfalls. On emerg- 
ing from the gorge the creek enters the ancient valley and immediately loses its 
energy and fails to incise its bed, and, in places, overspreads the public road. At 
Yarrowie it is lost in swampy ground, but in flood times sometimes reaches 
Pine Creek. 

(8) Laura.— The valley at Laura is bounded on its western side by the 
White Cliff Range, which forms the eastern boundary of the Wirrabara Forest 
Reserve. The Rocky River flows through the alluvial flats on the eastern side of 
the range mentioned and passes within half a mile of the township of Laura. 
The river is sluggish and has a pebbly bottom between waterholes. At a bend 
of the river, near Laura, the section shows sandy clay interspersed with beds of 
small gravel. The banks reach a height up to 20 feet. Laura is, unfortunately, 
situated with the Appila Creek and Pine Creek converging on the township, 
which occasions flooding and has necessitated the erection of mud banks to protect 
the township. Pine Creek comes in from the north-east with alluvial banks which, 
in places, are 20 feet in height, and, in others, flows across the main road at water- 
level in the form of several branches. The flow of water \'m the creek has been 
intermittent. It is supposed that, at times, the water finds an outlet through other 
channels. Near the Laura Railway Station a quarry has been worked in a gritty, 
mottled red and white sand-rock, having a visible thickness of 15 feet without the 
floor being exposed. The bed forms a terrace which was probably laid down by 
alluviation during the older river system. 

(9) Gladstone.— Aiter passing Laura, the valley of the Rocky River con- 
tinues in the same direction to near Gladstone, a distance of seven miles, with a 
fall in altitude from 813 feet at Laura, to 740 feet at Gladstone. The railway 
from the south, after following a moderate plateau, passes down into the Rocky 
River valley, which is a striking feature. The valley is a flood-built one, two 
miles wide — a well-defined flat — and carries heavy timber, Gladstone is above the 
flood level of the Rocky River, but is subject to inundation from the plateau 
streams which come in from the Caltowie country, on the north, including the 
Pinery Creek and the Yangya Creek, which unite to form the Pisant Creek, 
against which Gladstone has had to be protected by a drain. The Rocky River 
valley, near Gladstone, is separated from the Yackamoorundie Creek, on the east- 
ward, which belongs to another main line of ancient drainage, by a low ridge. 
Near Gladstone the Rocky River faces the Mount Herbert ridge, and is deflected 
thereby to the south-west, following a serpentine course between the townships 
of Crystal Brook and Narridy, and, after taking a new direction to the north-west, 
unites with the River Broughton on the coastal plains. By this north-westerly 
bend the Rocky River intersects a former tributary of the main northerly stream 
that follows the Willochra channel. This extinct tributary came down from the 


north-west and united with the main river somewhere in the neighbourhood of 
Crystal Brook or Narridy, to which our attention must now be directed, 


(1) Plain on the Western side of the Southern Flinders Ranges. — At the time 
when the drainage from Central Australia came through to the southern coast 
the two gulfs were, practically, non-existent, and the areas they now cover formed 
extensive gum-plains at a greater elevation above sea-level than at present. The 
Finke River, in its southern extension, probably followed somewhere near the 
central portion of the present Spencer Gulf. There would thus be a trunk line of 
drainage on the eastern side of the Southern Flinders Ranges [the Willochra 
channel], and another through Spencer Gulf. As the latter has a trend in a south- 
westerly direction, there would be a very extensive plain between the extended 
Finke River and the western scarp of the Southern Flinders. Within this latter 
area there appears to have been a tributary stream which took a south-easterly 
course and united with the trunk river which, in the line of the present Willochra 
Creek, followed the eastern side of the ranges, the two streams meeting in the 
neighbourhood of Crystal Brook or a little further to the southward. 

^ At the present time the coastal plain from Port Augusta, southwards, to Fort 
Pirie, has an average width of ten miles. Numerous small streams drain the 
Southern Flinders Ranges on to the plain, but of these only one or two are able 
to maintain their course to the gulf, being absorbed by a great thickness of 
alluvium. Mr. Henry Williams, of Telowie [Port Germein Plain], informed me 
that he had sunk several wells in this neighbourhood to a depth of 130 feet and 
passed through alternating beds of clay and gravel without reaching bed-rock. 
The same informant stated that the deepest well in the neighbourhood, up to that 
time [1904], was sunk by Capt. Kingcombe, to a depth of 180 feet, without touch- 
ing bottom. Alluvial fans form aprons at the outlets of the small streams from 
the Flinders Ranges, but it is doubtful if they can account for. the enormous 
deposits of alluvial sediments that extend over so wide a plain and to such 
unknown depths. 

(2) Port Pirie. — A Government boring, carried out at Port Pirie, in 1898, 
reached a depth of 641 feet, the material from which was critically examined by 
the late Prof. R. Tate, who summarized the results as follow: — "Passing upwards 
from the Cambrian bed-rock [proved at 574 feet] there are 314 feet< 2 > of 
unfossiliferous beds, more or less carbonaceous. These indicate a land accumula- 
tion. . . . The succeeding 182 feet of sandy and clayey beds, though unfossi- 
liferous, have so much the character of the overlying strata with marine shells 
that they may be reasonably regarded as forming part of the same series. The 
chief fossilifcrous beds range between 90 and 150 feet, but in the midst of them, 
at about 130 feet, is a band of calcareous silt charged with Pleeoirema ciliatitm, 
in an excellent state of preservation. This pulminiferous mollusc is living at 
extreme high tide-mark in the marine marshes abutting on the Port Creek, whilst 
the fine calcareous silt is analogous to the shell-travertine which delimits the margin 
of an upraised Pleistocene sea-bed ex tending from Glenelg, via Dry Creek, to 

C 2 ) Tate's figures in this paragraph show discrepancies with those contained in his table 
of strata, which arc as follow, with the classification modernized : — 

Recent: Surface clay and 2 marine horizons separated by a 

terrestrial zone 
Pleistocene: Sand-rock, mottled clays, etc. (?) .. 

„ Sand-rock, clays, bituminous clays, etc. . . 

Bed-rock at 574 feet 







beyond Virginia. This ancient silt is indicative of an actual depression of 130 feet 
below high water-mark, . » . The total amount of depression is a few feet 
less than 150 feet below high water-mark." [Tate, Roy. Soc. S. Aust., xxii., 
pp. 68-71.] 

This boring has several interesting features. It proves the bed-rock of the 
Adelaide Series at Port Pirie, in Spencer Gulf, as over 1,600 feet nearer the 
surface than in the Croydon Bore, near Adelaide. In the latter bore fossiliferous 
Miocene, as well as Older and Newer Pliocene beds, are represented, but are 
absent at Port Pirie. In the latter only two (other than the bed-rock) distinctive 
formations occur: — (a) a lower alluvial series with a thickness of 424 feet; and 
(b) 150 feet of fossiliferous silts of Recent age, including a zone of dry land con- 
ditions. The fossiliferous beds can be definitely referred to the raised (as well as 
sunken) estuarine beds of the Port Adelaide flats, but, what of the 424 feet of 
underlying alluvium? It is possible that it may represent, in this case, the fresh- 
water series that underlie the fossiliferous Miocene in many places, with the 
marine beds wanting; but the surroundings seem to suggest a more recent origin. 
The amount of land-wash carried into Spencer Gulf from either side, at the 
present time, is a negligible quantity. It seems more likely that the sands and 
carbonaceous clays of these beds represent the sediments of the older river system, 
when the drainage from the interior of the continent found its outlet to the south 
and before the sea had penetrated so far up the alluvial valley as the site of the 
present township of Port Pirie, [See below, Port Moonta, this Section, No. 9.] 

From Port Pirie the valley goes in a south-easterly direction, now occupied 
by the River Broughton, which, from following a southerly direction, becomes 
reversed to a north-easterly one, passing the townships of Koolunga and Red Hill 
on its way to the sea. 

In the Hundreds of Crystal Brook and Narridy there are extensive deposits 
of ancient river alluvia. 

(3) Crystal Brook. — The stream, from which the township takes its name, 
flows through a rocky gorge until about half-a-mile from the latter, but, below 
that point, it has cut its way through clay and other alluvia, with banks up to 
15 feet in height. On the rise of the hill at the back of the township, joined on 
to the parklands and situated behind Mr. Chas. Nailson's house, there_ is an 
ancient river flat margined by consolidated alluvium, having a fine grain and 
highly siliceous. The formation begins near the entrance to a large quarry worked 
for kaolin for the Port Pirie smelting works. The kaolin rock is really the 
Tapley's Hill slate rock that formed the bed of the ancient river, and was probably 
acted upon by the water of the stream causing its alteration to a very white and 
pure kaolin. The solidified alluvial beds, just described, after following a north- 
westerly trend, make an angle at the curve of the hill and strike north-easterly. 
The rock has the usual reddish stain and is developed in large tabular and rounded 

(4) Narridy. — The Hundred of Narridy adjoins that of Crystal Brook. In 
Section 220, close to the border of the Hundred of Crystal Brook, on Mr. W. F. 
Nicholls' land, on the northern side of the Rocky River, an ancient river flat 
caps a relatively high ground and the consolidated alluvium follows the curve of 
the ridge. Several exposures follow a north and south direction, the largest is 
300 yards long by 60 yards in its greatest breadth. There are similar deposits on 
the ridge situated on the opposite side of the road, in Section 221, and at about 
the same elevation as the one just described. One of the most extensive deposits 
of this class of rock that the writer has met with occurs near the township of 
Narridy, situated about three miles in a south-easterly direction from those just 
described. The formation rests chiefly on the higher levels of the Narridy Creek, 
on its left banks, commencing on the parklands of the township and occurs at 


intervals for about a mile in a direction westerly from the township. One solid 
mass covers about half an acre of ground, near the township. The exposed rock, 
facing the valley, has been undermined to some extent and large masses have 
fallen over, leaving a sheer wall of solid siliceous rock 12 feet in height. The 
scarp face of the rock appears to preserve the same level, as far as could be seen 
from the Narridy end, throughout its extent. 

Mr. W. F. Nicholls informs me that the same class of rock occurs on either 
side of the main road to Narridy, about two miles out from Crystal Brook, in 
Sections 756w and 757 [Hundred of Crystal Brook]. This exposure is about mid- 
way between that at Crystal Brook and that on Mr. Nicholls' land, described 
above, so that the four exposures, being in a line, there is almost a continuous 
deposit between the townships of Crystal Brook and Narridy, a distance of about 
nine miles. 

The valley is continued southerly to the township of Red Hill [otherwise 
Broughton], which takes its name from a prominent hill or ridge in its neighbour- 
hood consisting of a reddish quartzite belonging to the Purple Slate and Quartzite 
Series of Cambrian age. The hill affords a good view of the plain, with the 
tortuous River Broughton sunk in the alluvium below surface level, and can only 
be recognized from the hill by the trees growing within its limits. 

5. River Broughton. — The River Broughton takes its rise in a number of 
head-water streams, variously named, among the ranges to the westward of the 
Burra. While these tributaries pursue courses mainly longitudinal to the grain 
of the country, The Broughton, as the main stream, runs transversely to the ranges. 
From Yacka [Hundred of Yackamoorundie] the river has cut its bed through a 
country of subdued relief until, at about the dividing line between the Hundreds 
of Yackamoorundie and Koolunga, the river emerges from its gorge and enters 
on the wide alluvial plain of the older river system. From this point its course is a 
strongly characteristic meandering stream of canyon type, with steep banks about 
15 feet to 20 feet above the normal level of the stream. Near the adjacent boun- 
daries of the Hundreds mentioned the river has some interesting features. It has 
recently [observations made in 1911] cut its floor deeply into a black, tenacious clay 
that formed a prehistoric marsh or swamp. The stream is here divided, one portion 
flowing over a gravelly terrace [its original bed] at a high level, and the other 
flowing over the side into a black-mud-ditch six feet below. From the yielding 
nature of the material this difference of level has probably long since been 
adjusted. Near to the above feature the bed of the stream consists of a firmly 
cemented, coarse conglomerate with a scoured surface. In this hard bed the river 
has cut a trough four feet deep with steep walls and is cutting back by a water- 
fall. This indurated bed probably belongs to the older alluvium which occurs 
plentifully over this plain. 

In the neighbourhood of the black-mud deposit several large pieces of a 
fossiliferous mudstone were found among the boulders, in the bed of the river, 
containing many fresh-water shells. Examples of this bed were also found, 
m situ in the banks, about 15 feet above the present level of the stream. In 
approaching the higher ground, near the boundary of the Hundreds, four or five 
river terraces can be recognized as marking former levels of the river. The 
Broughton is evidently a juvenile stream, and from the yielding nature of the 
material within its bed is undergoing rapid change. The river is apparently super - 
imposd on the older system, the sediments of which it has eroded and, in places, 
laid down thick sediments within such eroded areas. 

(6) Koolunga. — The Koolunga township is situated at the most southerly 
bend of the River Broughton, on a wide flood-plain consisting of fine silt with 
sandy patches. The secondary drainage of the plain is of a fragmentary kind 
confined to temporary streams that seldom reach the centre of drainage. Red Hill 


is 300 feet above sea-level, and Koolunga cannot be much higher. From this 
position there is a gradual slope of the ground southwards to sea-level at the head 
of Gulf St. Vincent. I was locally informed that in flood times the river some- 
times overflows its banks, especially between Koolunga and Red Hill, flooding 
both sides, but especially the southern side, where its inundation covers the land 
to a width of half a mile and fills up the shallow depressions between the river 
and Snowtown. This was, no doubt, the older line of main drainage, and at one 
section of the river course, where flooding takes place, the latter has built up 
levees by its sediments, so that the river appears to follow higher ground than the 
land on either side. 

A special feature of the district is the occurrence of large rounded or 
irregularly-shaped masses of very siliceous rocks, caused by the infiltration 
of colloid silica and a consequent consolidation of the sand grains into a 
chalcedonized rock. The thickness of these siliceous layers varies from a 
foot or two up to six feet, probably more. The rock has a good choncoidal 
fracture which has been utilized by aborigines for the manufacture of their 
implements. These consolidated beds are not confined to the neighbourhood 
of the river but pass inland and occupy the tops of low knolls in paddocks 
that can be traced for miles. Mr. Jones, of Koolunga, informed the author 
that where they occur in paddocks, in a size too large to move and too hard to 
break, the farmers here, as noted elsewhere, light fires on and around the 
masses, when they split into pieces. 

(7) Snowtown and Bumbunga Plain. — The two important rivers that have 
just been sketched; one that followed the southerly extension of the channel 
now occupied, in part, by the Willochra Creek; and, the other, a tributary 
that came in from the north-west, formed a junction on an extensive plain 
between Crystal Brook and Koolunga. On this plain the present Rocky 
River, Yackamoorundie Creek, and River Broughton converged in finding 
their way to Spencer Gulf. Had it not been for the downthrow to the 
west, by the great meridional fault, all these streams would have followed the 
plain southwards in the line of the great trunk drainage that came in from 
the north. 

From Koolunga the plain widens out to the head of Gulf St. Vincent. 
From Brinkworth on the east, to Snowtown, on the west, it has a breadth 
of ten miles. From Blyth, on the east, to the western side of the Bumbunga 
Lake, it has a breadth of 19 miles. The plain is margined on the western side 
by the Hummock and Barunga ranges, and on the eastern by low ranges of 
the Adelaide Series. The southern portion of the plain is divided longitudin- 
ally by a low central ridge of the older rocks which probably divided two 
waterways in former times. The ancient line of drainage on the western side 
of the plain is marked by a large number of, so called, salt lagoons, the largest 
of which is the Bumbunga Lake, that is six miles in length and yields much 
commercial salt. The plain is continued southwards, where it is known as the 
Gawler and Adelaide plains; and on its western side has suffered drowning 
by the waters of the Gulf. The railway between Balaklava and Brinkworth, 
a distance of 37 miles, follows the base of the eastern ranges, the small creeks 
from which have cut deep canyon-like courses through the alluvial clays. Towards 
the centre of the plain sand-ridges occur which, in places, are affected by wind- 

(8) Port Wakefield. — In 1879, the Public Works Department put down a 
bore near this township, in search of water, to a depth of 765 feet. [See Rutt, W-, 
Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., iv., 1880-1882, p. 41.] The upper 66 feet of the boring 
passed through two marine beds of Recent age, separated by a series of fresh- 
water alluvial beds. From the 66-f eet level down to 302 feet, the section showed 


various coloured clays, quicksands, sandstones, ironstones, and fragments of 
decayed wood, presumably of Pleistocene age. Bed-rock was proved from 
302 feet to 765 feet, in blue shale. The section is closely analogous with that passed 
through on the verge of Spencer Gulf, near Port Pirie [see p. 124], The two 
marine horizons, represented in each, being the upper and lower Recent fossili- 
ferous beds commonly present at about sea-level near Adelaide. The freshwater 
alluvium, of 236 feet, underlying the Recent beds at Port Wakefield, corresponds 
to the 214 [or 424] feet of similar beds in the Port Pirie bore. As the latter 
probably marks the southern extension of a former northern river coming down 
from the western side of the Southern Flinders, so the boring at Port Wakefield 
probably penetrated the alluvial sediments associated with a similar river, now 
extinct, which came down the Snowtown plain into the former terrestrial flats 
now occupied by Gulf St. Vincent. 

(9) Port Moonta, — Pleistocene terrestrial beds occur in the cliffs and on 
the beach at the jetty, Port Moonta. The geological face shows three very distinct 
formations. The lowest is a consolidated alluvium, which, on account of the 
infiltration of iron oxide and silica, possesses very diversified features. The sedi- 
mentary element varies from very fine silt up to gravel, changed by the introduc- 
tion of colloid silica (as an interstitional cement) into a very compact rock. In' 
the finest grade of sediment it takes the form of a translucent flint in -irregular 1 
layers, the iron oxide showing as reddish streaks. The bed is not fully exposed 
but in the cliff-face has a height of 10 feet. It occupies the whole of the beach 
to low-water level, in a length of 200 yards. On the northern side of the jetty 
there are immense blocks which have been left, in situ, at about half-tides, which 
the sea has failed to break up in its encroachment on the land. Resting on this 
lowest bed is a highly-coloured, gritty, ferro-laterite, 10 feet in thickness, and on 
this latter is a light-coloured calcareous marl, in a thickness of 20 feet. At about 
the middle of this bed is a bed of rather large nodules of travertine, 18 inches in 
thickness, and near the top of the cliff, another bed of smaller concretionary 
nodules. The whole section is unusual. It can possibly be correlated with the 
alluvial beds present in the Port Pirie bore. The difference in the respective 
lithological features may be accounted for, partly, from their different positions. 
The beds at Moonta are situated 66 miles to the southward of those at Port Pirie, 
and 26 miles more to the westward; and while the Port Pirie beds are at a depth of 
150 feet, and protected by a thick covering, the Moonta beds, at or near the sur- 
face, have been subjected to conditions favourable for coilodial silicification. It 
may be that the Moonta occurrences form an isolated fragment of a tributary 
stream which, taking its rise on the higher ground to the eastward, went westerly 
and united with the main trunk river that flowed down the valley of the present 


(1) South-Western Queensland Drainage. — The sag in the earth's crust, 
which gave rise to the Lake Eyre Basin, revolutionized the hydrographic 
system of Western Queensland and directed to the westward many streams 
that formerly had a more direct course to the southward. The Barcoo, or 
Cooper's Creek, during heavy floods spreads itself over the plain and is many 
miles wide. Near Innamincka, the flood waters divide ; one branch ( The 
Cooper) goes westerly to Lake Eyre, another (the Strzelecki Creek), goes 
southward and fills up the group of lakes that form a semi-circle around the 
head of the Flinders Ranges, terminating to the southward, in Lake Frome, 
which forms a secondary basin, receiving its supplies from all sides. The 
most important tributary at the southern end is the Pasmore River, or 
Wilpena Creek, which takes its rise in the Flinders Ranges. The Siccus 


River, discovered and named by Eyre (meaning dry), takes its rise a few 
miles to the northward of Carrieton, and as a wide flood stream flows into the 
Pasmore River, another example of a reversed stream incidental to the earth 

(2) Siccus River Plain. — Between Lake Frome and Orroroo is a valley, 
or plain, several miles in width, having a gentle slope to the north, drained 
at its northern end, as described above, by the Siccus River. That this 
clearly-defined plain has been formerly the course of a great river is beyond 
doubt. The streams that drain into it from either side are soon lost by 
absorption in thick sediments of sand and gravel that have built up the plain. 

(3) Walloway Creek. — The Walloway Creek takes its rise on the water- 
parting between the Orroroo and Willochra valleys, at a height of about 
400 feet above the plains in the neighbourhood of Eurelia. After flowing for 
about ten miles in a south-easterly direction it takes a curve to the eastward 
and is quickly lost in the alluvium of the Walloway plain, which forms a 
part of the Orroroo plain. From the Walloway railway station the creek 
has cut a deep gorge through the rocks of the Adelaide Series and, towards 
the plain, the creek bed and sides exhibit a great mass of very siliceous con- 
solidated gravels and sands that have no relation to the present deposits of 
the creek, which seem to rest unconformably on the older series. The thick- 
ness of the latter is not revealed, but they descend below the present level of 
the creek. They show regular bedding in vertical cliffs up to 20 feet, and 
extend along the creek in a continuous outcrop for more than a quarter of a 
mile, after w r hich they become obscured by the recent sands and clays of the 
plains. [See pi. v., fig. 1.] 

(4) Lower Pekina Creek and Orroroo. — The important Peki'na Creek, 
situated on the northern side of the Orroroo township, is a roaring torrent in 
flood time, but never reaches further than two miles on the flat before it 
becomes absorbed. Near the place where the creek ends a Government bore, 
put down in 1907, reached a depth of nearly 600 feet, and was abandoned 
before reaching bed-rock. 

The following are particulars of this bore. Height above sea-level about 
1,315 feet. 










. 37 


White Sand .... 




Gravel and Clay 

. 40 


Fine White Sand 




Sand and Limestone ... 

. 1 



White Clay .... 




Yellow Clay 

. 10 


White Sand .... 








Clay, White and 





. 68 


Quartz Sand .... 




Sandy Clay 

. 5 


White Clay .... 




Various Coloured Clays. 

. 168 


Quartz Sand .... 




Pipe Clay 

. 20 


Sand and Pebbles 




Sand and Clay .... 

. 27 


Sand, Lignite and 




Clay .... " 

. 3 


Qtt&rtz Sand and 




Soft White Sandstone ... 

. 14 


Sandy Clay 

Total proved 




The great thickness of fluviatile sediments, as proved in the above bore, 
without reaching their total depth, cannot be accounted for by the present 
discharge of alluvia from existing streams that find their way to the plain. 
There is also evidence that the present surface of the plain is being lowered 
rather than raised, as noted below. 


The significance of so great a thickness of sediment having been laid 
down in this unusual situation is apparent. Orroroo is not much below the 
crest of the watershed. A water-parting is necessarily under the conditions 
of denudation and waste and is incapable of conserving such waste. The thick 
alluviation of the plain at Orroroo is proof that such sediments antedated the 
development of the newer water-parting. In the elevation of the transverse 
ridge the tilting of the ground (passing from a southward to a northern 
direction) would be gradual, and at one particular stage in this process of 
reversal the grade would become horizontal, forming a local base-level and 
rapid silting. This may explain the presence of thick sediments in the 
present Orroroo plain that accumulated under former conditions and at a later 
stage were elevated to a position near the summit of the ridge. 

As the Pekina Range comes close up to the plain on its western side it 
is seen that the lateral drainage has been truncated by the lowering of the 
plain. Behind Mr. judell's [now Mr. James Chrystall's] house, in Winowie 
Creek, near Orroroo, a fine section of the old gravels is seen resting on 
kaolinizcd shale. The cliffs, in places, are 40 feet high, and the undermining 
of the latter by the stream, operating on the soft underlying shales, has 
brought down great masses of the indurated gravel beds. The remains of an 
extinct lake in connection with the Pekina Creek, near Orroroo, consisting of a 
fresh-water limestone [Chara] and fresh-water molluscs in clay, reveal the presence 
of an ancient back-water from the river that once flowed southward along 
the adjoining plain. These lacustrine remains form a scarp and are now about 
150 feet above the plain [See Howchin Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., xxxiii. 
1909, pp. 253-261, pis. xvh.-xviii. Also Howchin's "Geol. of s' Aust " 
(2nd ed.), figs. 145 (1-2) and 146.] 

At Orroroo the valley-plain is about seven miles wide. At about two- 
thirds of the distance across, towards the Peaked Hill, there are low knolls 
of rotten slate much kaolinized. On these slates, Yadena Creek, fed by 
springs, occupies a shallow bed. The water in the creek is very 'salt and 
continues, more or less, for four miles, but has practically no current. The 
springs are evidently artesian. 

On the eastern side of the plain between the low ridges of slates men- 
tioned above and the main range of the Peaked Hill, there are terraces of 
gravel and indurated sands. The fields are very stony. The alluvial terraces 
fringe the range and pass through the gap between the Peaked Hill and the 
Black Rock, marking a line of tributary drainage coming in from the north- 
east The mam plain was followed by the writer for 16 miles in a northerly 
direction, through the Hundred of Yalpara, the alluvial features being- con- 
tinued the whole of the way. 

The central portions of the plain consist of very fine silt, or loess but 
towards the margin, on either side, as already stated, the drainage lines are at 
discordant levels with the plain by truncation. This lowering of the level 
of the plain has been caused chiefly by wind action. The soft loose soil in 
a bared condition during the summer, is in constant motion by the wind at 
that season of the yean Mr. Bradley, who was resident engineer during the 
construction of the Pekina Creek reservoir, informed me that when surveying 
on the adjacent plain he sometimes counted as many as 26 whirlwinds in 
operation at the same tmie.< 8 > The Orroroo plains are a fruitful source of the 
high-level duststorms that obscure the sky in Adelaide during the summer 

Between Orroroo and Mannanarie, a distance of 20 miles the valley is 
bounded on^ the western side by the Pekina and Narien ranges, and on the 

<»> In the paper referred to above it is stated that the 26 wi : Orlw^droc^rTed hTone 
day. This was subsequently corrected by Mr. Bradley to 26 at one and the same time 


eastern by the Black Rock and Peterborough ranges. The rise of the ground 
to the southward causes the flood waters coming from the Mannanarie and 
Yatina districts to sweep in a broad sheet over the paddocks, crossing the 
railway a little to the southward of the Black Rock railway station, the line 
passing over a lengthy wooden viaduct under which the water finds a passage and 
spreads itself till absorbed in the light, sandy soil. At Yatina the public 
school teacher sunk a well in alluvial deposits to a depth of 60 feet without 
reaching bed-rock. Near the depth mentioned a fossil bone was found but 
not identified. 

(5) Caltowie. — The valley from Orroroo is continued through the south- 
eastern portions of the Hundred of Tarcowie, into the Hundred of Caltowie, 
where it assumes wide dimensions that take in most of the Hundred with 
a low plateau in the centre, Caltowie Hill being the highest point. On the 
western side of the township there are some remarkable remains of the older 
river deposits, situated on the higher ground. In Section 152 [Hd. Caltowie], 
on the western side of the north and south road, there are large patches in 
cultivated ground. Some exposed blocks weigh several tons, and others have 
been dragged to the edge of the paddock, near the road. [See pi. v., fig. 2.] 
The stone is a light coloured (sometimes tinged with red), massive, very 
tough, fine-grained, siliceous rock, too tough to be used as road metal. A 
terrace of a similar kind occurs in the same paddock at a higher level. In 
Section 154 S, about half a mile from the preceding, in a south-easterly direc- 
tion, is another* capping of a like kind, but coarser in its texture. 

(6) Y ackamoorundie Creek and Hundred of Yangya. — The Yackamoorundie 
Creek takes its rise a little to the northward of Caltowie, and flows southward 
through the Hundreds of Yangya, Bundaleer, Narridy, and Crystal Brook, becom- 
ing outspread and marshy in the latter, overflowing into the Rocky River, and 
finally, by a junction with the River Broughton, reaches the sea. Throughout its 
course it is a juvenile stream, confined by mud banks that have been eroded in 
the sediments of the ancient Lake Frome-Orroroo valley as far as Georgetown ; 
then, taking a westward direction, it intersects the more westerly parallel trunk 
line of drainage which represents the dead end of the Willochra channel, indicated, 
broadly, by the Rocky River valley. Of these two important ancient waterways, 
the more eastward has the greater elevation and is separated from that more to the 
westward by a broad plateau of moderate altitude. 

In the Hundred of Yangya some important terraces of the ancient river 
deposits occur on the higher ground, about three and a half miles to the north- 
eastward of Gladstone, in a line with similar deposits in the Caltowie Hundred 
mentioned in the preceding paragraph. One of these forms the top of a rise, in 
Section 157, situated on the western side of the railway, and consists of a coarse 
conglomerate, strongly cemented, containing rounded pebbles, some of which had 
a length of five inches. A still more striking platform of these rocks occurs on 
the opposite side of the railway, in Section 160, capping a hill with large blocks 
that can be easily seen from the train, and which, on examination, proved to be 
a coarse conglomerate, composed almost entirely of white-quartz pebbles which, 
on breaking, fractured evenly with the matrix. 

(7) Georgetown.— The productive and extensive valley, already noticed as 
passing through the Hundred of Yangya, maintains its features throughout the 
Hundred of Bundaleer, with the Campbell and Never Never ranges forming its 
eastern boundary. Georgetown is situated at the north-western angle of the 
Hundred, 896 feet above sea-level, .which is 156 feet higher than Gladstone, on 
the western side, in the Rocky River valley. Georgetown is built within the flood 
areas of the Yackamoorundie Creek, a defect that has given much trouble to the 
residents of the township. The creek mentioned spreads out into an ill-defined 


swampy channel, but in a westerly turn it becomes more denned and ultimately 
enters the Rocky River as already described. This ultimate westerly tendency 
in the existing river system is very marked, 

(8) Gulnare and Yacka. — South of Georgetown the valley takes the name 
of the Gulnare Plain, margined by a continuation of the Bundalecr hills on its 
eastward side and the less prominent Mount Herbert ridge on the westward. 
The railway, going south, follows the valley. A little to the southward of Gulnare 
railway station, on the western side of the railway, a patch of consolidated 
alluvia occurs in ploughed land. A little further to the southward, on the eastern 
side of the railway, similar consolidated beds form an ancient river terrace. There 
is also a succession of such deposits following the banks of a small creek. Still 
further, on the western side, in grass land, there are several more exposures, near 
a farmhouse, including a hill showing extensive faces of the alluvial sediments. 

The surface shows a gradual slope from Georgetown [896 feet] down to 
Yacka [563 feet], situated on the banks of the River Broughton. This river takes 
its rise in the Bald Hill Range, north-west of the Burra, and cuts its way trans- 
versely through, first, the Camel's Hump and Brown's Hill ranges, and then 
through the Bundaleer and Mount Gregory ranges in a rocky gorge to Yacka, from 
which, in subdued physical features, it flows westerly to Koolunga and Red Hill, 
and enters Spencer Gulf a few miles to the southward of Port Pirie. Between 
the respective ranges, just mentioned, is a subsidiary valley that carries three 
important tributary streams that have a north and south direction, and meet the 
Broughton in a knot near Spalding. These are the Freshwater 'Creek, coming 
in from the northward, and the Hut and Hill rivers, following parallel courses, 
come in from the southward. These will be referred to again in a further paper 
on this subject. 

There are some remarkable deposits of gravels, both loose and cemented, in 
the neighbourhood of Yacka. In Section 96 [Hundred of Yackamoorundie] , 
about a mile on the northern side of the township, there is a strong craggy hill 
capped by cemented gravels, 120 feet above the present level of The Broughton, 
held together in a siliceous and ferruginous matrix. Just south of Yacka railway 
station there are several railway cuttings in gravel, about 70 feet above the present 
level of the river. These beds are unconsolidated and have been greatly used in 
ballasting the line, and may be younger than the siliceous beds on the northern 
side of the river. In Section 160, on the southern side of Yacka, there is another 
very craggy hill, the cemented alluvia resting on older quartzites. These con- 
solidated gravels have a north and south extension of about three miles, and from 
appearance (with less conspicuous gravelly character) continue nearly to the top 
of the saddle on the railway passing over to Brinkworth. Sandy Creek, which 
flows into the River Broughton on the southern side of Yacka, occupies the valley 
southwards, having its origin a little to the north-eastward of Brinkworth. In 
the Sandy Creek the following exposures of the siliceous alluvia were noted, 
Near the Yacka railway station, on the western side; at one and a half miles from 
the station, on slopes of the valley; patches at high levels on both western and 
eastern sides; two and a half miles from the station, on western side, a small hill 
is capped by these gravels, also a patch further to the southward; again, on 
ploughed ground, are numerous heaps of big stones gathered into centres on those 
in situ. 

(9) Rochester and Magpie Creek. — The Sandy Creek, flowing northerly, 
takes its rise on a low ridge in the Hundred of Hart. On the same ridge and 
within a few yards of the latter are the head-waters of the Magpie Creek with a 
flow south-westerly. The last-named, formed by the convergence of three head 
streams near the school-house at Rochester, passes to the southward of Brinkworth 
and is absorbed in the sediments of the Snowtown plain. The consolidated gravels, 


so prevalent in the valley of the Sandy Creek, pass over the water-parting into the 
Magpie Creek country, near Rochester, about four miles to the eastward of 
Brinkworth. Here are seen the most extensive and prominent displays of the 
ancient consolidated alluvia found within the State. [See fig. 3.] ^ The surface 
features are distributed over an area two miles square and make large patches 
of ground uncultivable. In Section 317 [Hundred of Hart], on the right bank 
of the more northerly of the tributaries of the Magpie Creek, exposures of these 
rocks cover half an acre. Between the northern and middle tributaries there is 
almost a continuous exposure (occurring at intervals of from three to four 
chains) for two miles, passing through Sections 317, 316, 311, 310, 304, and 305, 
m two lines, an upper and a lower one, some examples having a height of from 

Fig. 3. 

Part of Official Map of the Hundred of Hart [Scale, 2 in. to 1 mile], on which is shown the 

positions of the chief exposures of the Ancient Consolidated Alluvia in the neighbourhood of 

Rochester and head-waters of the Magpie Creek. 

eight feet to ten feet. In Section 344 there is a very imposing display of these 
rocks, resembling vast megalithic structures. The group extends over 10 
chains in length, by 6 chains wide at the eastern end, and 1£ chains 
at the western. The largest mass has a sheer face of 20 feet, and adjoining this 
are two great blocks with vertical faces to a height of 14 feet. The ground 

( 4 ) I am greatly indebted to Mr. Harold Snow, of Rochester (on whose properties 
most of these exposures occur) for kindly piloting me over the area and also noting on the 
map the respective positions of the principal occurrences. 


Fig. 4. Map of part of South Australia on which is shown, in red, the probahle direction 
of some of the main -river courses [the Western Group] before they were truncated. 


covered by this patch of great stones is unploughable for 16 chains in one direction 
by an average width of 4 chains. At a mile eastward from the group just 
described [in Section 522] are several exposures. The three principal ones 
measure in circumference, respectively, 6 chains, 8 chains, and 10 chains. 

Another somewhat isolated occurrence is seen in Section 454 [not included 
in the accompanying map], on the Michel Bros, land, about 1^ miles north of the 
most northerly exposures of those shown in fig. 3, situated directly on the crest 
of the water-parting between Sandy Creek and Magpie Creek, and, therefore, 
forms a link between the occurrences found in these respective valleys. 

This great field of ancient consolidated alluvia is unique. The local streams 
are small and at a juvenile stage. One has a small permanent spring, the others 
are mostly dry. The consolidated sediments vary in structure from fine sand up 
to coarse gravel, and are often current-bedded. The lower portion of Magpie 
Creek is cut in deep argillaceous alluvium of Recent age. So extensive an area 
of water-borne heavy material is suggestive of very strong transporting currents. 
From Yacka, southwards, there are indications of a great river, now extinct, that 
can be associated with the ancient Lake Frome and Orroroo trunk- waterway that 
drained portions of western Queensland, and found its discharge by union with 
another trunk line that came down the wide Koolunga and Snowtown plain to the 
southern coast. 

As an indication of the thick alluvial that exists in the Snowtown plain the 
following quotation may be given:— "In August, 1886, I observed the flood waters 
of the River Wakefield coming down after a long continuance of dry weather, and 
the progress in its channel across the plain near Balaklava was only at about the 
rate of half a mile in 24 hours, and frequently the head of the flood remained 
stationary for half an hour whilst it poured into one of the many large fissures in 
the river bed."— Thos. Parker, C.E., "The Underground Waters of S Aust " 
Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., vol. x., p. 84, 1888. 


Fig. 1. View of Ancient Consolidated Alluvia now undergoing erosion by the Walloway 

Fig. 2. Ancient river terrace of Consolidated Alluvia exfoliating into large siliceous masses. 
Another terrace, at a greater elevation, can be seen in the distance. Hundred of Caltowie. 


by J. M. Black, A.L.S. 


Eragrostis japonica (Thunb.) Trin. in Mem. Acad. Petersb. ser. 6:1:450 (1830) instead of E. 
tenella, Bentli. Fl. Aust. 7:643 (1878) non Beauv. Or E. interrupta, Stapf non Beauv. var 
tenuissima, Stapf in Fl. Brit. Ind. 7: 316 (1897) ; Black in Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. 48: 253 (1924) ; 
Poa japonica, Thunb. Fl. jap. 51 (1784). Miss C. D. Niles and Mrs. Agnes Chase in "A 
Bibliographic Study of Beauvois' Agrostographie," published in Contrib. U.S. Nat. Herb. 24:6:135- 
214 (1925) show that E. interrupta, Beauv. Agrost. 71 (1812) was based on Poa interrupta, R. Br. 
Prodr. 180 (1810), which is classed by Bentharn as var. interrupta of E. Brownii, Nees, and cannot 
therefore be applied to the minute-glumed species which extends from Australia to Japan. Besides, 
Poa interrupta, R. Br., is invalidated by the earlier name Poa interrupta, Lamk. Tabl. Encycl. 1:185 
(1791), which is perhaps the same as the still earlier Poa japonica. (Fig. I.). 



No. 29. 

By J. M. Black, A.L.S. 

[Read October 8, 1931.] 

Plate VI. 


Eragrostis japonica (Thunb.) Trin. in Mem. Acad. Petersb. ser. 6: 1:450 
(1830) instead of E. tenella, Benth. Fl. Aust. 7:643 (1878) non Beauv. or 
is, interrupta, Stapf non Beauv. var tenuissima, Stapf in Fl. Brit. Ind. 7:316 
(1897) ; Black in Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. 48: 253 (1924) ; Poa japonica, Thunb. 
Ft. jap. 51 (1784). Miss C. D. Niles and Mrs. Agnes Chase in "A Bibliographic 
Study of Beauvois' Agrostographie," published in Contrib. U.S. Nat. Herb. 24: 6: 
135-214 (1925) show that E. interrupta, Beauv. Agrost. 71 (1812) was based on 
Poa interrupta, R. Br. Prodr. 180 (1810), which is classed by Bentham as var. 
interrupta of E. Broivnii, Nees, and cannot therefore be applied to the minute- 
glumed species which extends from Australia to Japan. Besides, Poa interrupta, 
R. Br., is invalidated by the earlier name Poa interrupta, Lamk. Tabl. Encycl. 1 : 185 
(1791), which is perhaps the same as the still earlier Poa japonica, (Fig. 1.) 

Eragrostis confertiflora, n. comb, instead of E. interrupta, "Beauv." var. 
densiflora, J. M. Black in Trans. Roy. S. Aust. 48:253 (1924); Fl. S. Aust. 
674 (1929). In raising this variety to specific rank it became necessary to change 
the varietal name, because of the existence of E. densiftora, Rendle, Cat. Welw. 
Afr. pi. 2:244 (1899) a species of tropical Africa. (Fig. 2.) Gramen gracile 
glabrum, 20-40 cm. altum, culmo binodi ; foliorum laminae 3-6 cm. longae 
1-3 mm. latae, vaginis longiores; ligula brevissima, truncata, ciliolata; panicula 
erecta, spiciformis, 6-11 cm. longa, 5-8 mm. diarn., basin versus interrupta, ramis 
erectis, revera solitariis sed interdum glomcratim approximatis, 5-20 mm. longis, 
usque ad basin dense vestitis ; spiculae subsessiles, conf ertae, 2-3 mm. longae, 
4-5-florae; glumae acutae, exteriores unincrves, prima § mm., secunda f mm. 
longa, fiorifera 3-nervis, 1 mm. longa, palea omnino glabra; stamina saepius 2; 
caryopsis ovoidea, brunnea, nitens, § mm. longa. 

Eragrostis Kennedyae, F. Turner in Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 19: 535 (1894). 
Wirraminna, between Lakes Gairdner and Hart; May, 1931 ; 'coll. Hon. G. F. 
Jenkins. A slender grass, with narrow and spike-like panicle, or the branches 
sometimes spreading slightly, and minute purplish 3-5-flowered hyaline spikelets, 
the flowers almost globular and only £ mm. long; the outer glumes 1-nerved, 
obtuse, ciliate on the nerve and at apex, the lower one | mm. long, the upper one 
| mm. long. The terminal flower is very small, apparently always barren, and 
falls off early. The type came from Wonnaminta, near Broken Hill, and specimens 
have been collected on the River Darling and in the Murchison district, W.A. The 
species has, therefore, a wide distribution, although it has not been previously 
recorded in South Australia. The only difference perceptible in the West Aus- 
tralian specimen (which is in the Sydney Herbarium), is that there are some long 
hairs at the orifice of the leaf -sheath and the blades are rather flatter. (Fig. 3.) 


The relative position of these three species may be explained by the follow- 
ing key : — . , „ „ 
Rhachilla fragile, disarticulating between the flowering glumes, which fall off 
w h thetfpaleas and ripe grain; panicle-branches mostly solitary, divided 
and clothed with spikelets to base; glumes and gram minute, the latter 
brown, shining, barely 4 mm. long; palea-keels glabrous. (Section 

PaSTra&er loose; spikelets 4-12-flcwered, 2-3 mm. long; flowers 

oblong; outer glumes subcqual; stamens usually 2 •- ■• •■ a. japontca 
Panicle usually dense, spike-like; spikelets densely crowded, outer 

PanTdeXlys'dense, 5-8 mm. diam.; ligule short, ciliolate; spikelets 

4-5-flowered, about 2 mm. long ; flowers oblong ; flowering glumes fc*-^ 

twice as long as adjacent outer glumes; stamens usually 2 .. E. confertrfica 
Panicle 3-5 mm. diam., or sometimes broader, owing to the slightly 
spreading branches ; ligule a minute rim of hairs ; spikelets 
3-5-flowered, 1-li mm. long ; flowers almost globular ; flowering 
glumes not or scarcely exceeding the adjacent outer glumes; Kemed 

stamens usually 3 
Eragrostis infecunda, n. sp. Gramen perenne, stoloniferum; culmi ascen- 
dentes, rigidi, longi, glabri, 6-20-nodes, ad basin bulbosi ; .foliorum laminae involuto- 
SStae 8 inira glabrae, erectae, 3-8 cm. longae, vagims glabns «^gj^ 
inferiores planiusculae, 2-3 mm. latae; folia infima ad vaginas rigidas albas 
reducta; ligula ex annulo brevium pilorum constans ; pamcula coarctata, 3-10 cm. 
longa 1-2 cm. diam., ramis solitariis, fere simplicibus, puberuhs ; pedicelh 
subnulli vel usque ad 2 mm. longi; spiculae paucae in quoque ramo, 3-8-florae 
7-12 mm. longae, circ. 1§ mm. latae, floribus saepe (^stantibus m rhachilla plus 
minus flexuosa; glumae exteriores hyalinae, uninerves, in carina scaberulae, prima 
circ 3 mm. longa, secunda % mm. longa ; glumae rlorentes f uscae, glabrae, ovatae, 
U mm longae? 3-nerves, nervo mediano percurrente vel brevissime excurrente, 
lateralibus dimidio brevioribus ; palea fere aequilonga non persistans, carims 
glabris; antherae 3, lineares, vix 2 mm. longae; styh ad basin coahti ; caryopsis 
adhuc non inventa. 

Along the Gilbert and Wakefield Rivers near Riverton, and apparently 
propagating itself by the long rooting surface runners rather than by gram, lhe 
collector Mr Worsley Johnston, after careful search during March and April of 
this year, was unable to find any fruits. Until ripe fruits are discovered, it is 
difficult to say how the rhachilla breaks up, although it is apparently not per- 
sistent. In its straggling, wiry stems, and its rather loose spikelets, this grass 
bears some resemblance to a slender form of Glycena ramigera, but in the latter 
species the midnerve of the flowering glume ends at some distance below the 
summit, while in Eragrostis infecunda it is always percurrent. (big. 4.) 

Agrostis limitanea, n. sp. Gramen caespitosum, perenne, 30-45 cm. altum ; 
culmi graciles, rigiduli, erecti, 2-4-nodes ; foliorum laminae erectae superne 
involuto-subulatae, 4-12 cm. longae, subtus minute scaberulae vagims plerumque 
duolo longiores, summa basin paniculae amplectans ; ligula lanceolate, 4-6 mm. 
longa; panicula diffusa, 8-20 cm. longa, ramis capillaribus, verticillatis, divisis, 
scaberulis, pedicellis, 3-6 mm. longis, distantibus ; glumae exteriores maequales, 
acutae, divergentes, secus carinam scaberulae, prima 3 mm. longa, secunda 2* mm. 
lonea: gluma florens 1| mm. longa, glabra, truncata, apice denticulata, 4-5-nervis, 
mutica- palea paululo brevior; rhachilla in setam glabram vel parce pilosam 
dimidio vel minus quam palea breviorem producta, ceteroqui nuda; caryopsis 
conico-oblonga, 1-|- mm. longa. 

Near Riverton, March, 1931. According to the collector, Mr. Worsley John- 
ston it grows in tussocks inside the railway fence. This might suggest an intro- 
duced alien, but the railway reserves also serve as sanctuaries for native plants. 


Although this species has the rhachilla produced in a small bristle behind the palea 
it seems, from the absence of hairs at the base of the flowering glume to be better 
placed m AgrosUs thw m Calamagrostis. It differs from C. aequata in the follow- 
ing characters : stiff stems and involute, not flat leaves, outer glumes abou wile 

£ baTe ^rt W" ** "T^ glUmC ' which haS n0 tuft of hai " 5 
ts base, hrom the Mediterranean AgrosUs marihma, Lamk. it differs in the lone 

S^det'it^E Pe (Fl S 5 P ) alea SCarCdy Sh ° rter than thC ****** glUme and 

(Loefi?c^\^ batU % ( u^ JllC \ Hort Linn - 13 ( 191 3) instead of $. calycinus 
ttnlhL^TLlflmg" THe name FeStUm barbata ' L - (1756 ^ is tW ° y™ s *** 
*Sphenopus divarkatus. Bute ; previously recorded from Port Adelaide 
Eragrostis Brownii, Nees. William Creek and Irrapatana (Far North); 
coll. J B Cleland. These northern specimens have the spikelets at first green 
or purplish, finally straw-coloured, 5-10 mm. long by 2 mm. broad, 10-20-flowered 
rarely more. They resemble E setifolia, but the spikelets are sessile or almost so 
and the base of the stem is neither bulbous nor woolly. 

Deschampsia caespitosaJL.) Beauv. var. macrantha, Hackel. On wet rocks 
beside waterfall on Upper Hmdmarsh River; coll. J. B. Cleland. Hitherto only 
recorded (in South Australia) from the South-East. Differs from the SS 
European form by the mvolute-subulate, not flat leaves, and by the longer outer 
gl urn es-^-5 mm mstead of 3 mm. long. These characters seem tor 
in the East-Australian and New Zealand plant, and justify the varieta name which 
Cheeseman states was given to it by Hackel. 

In the Fl Cap. 7: 587 (1900) Dr. Stapf says that Sporobolus elongatus, R Br 
p, indicus, R. Br. var. elongatus, Bailey) is a diandrous species distinct from 
S. «tod extending from Australia to Japan. In a specimen from the FinS 
River CA, with panicles to 25 cm. long and much interrupted, I found however 

S U wi?h rstfmenScr 1111116 '' 10 fl ° Wei " S ** 3 ^^ 2 ™ th 2 S&£?3 

P^rt EHr r TJfi u 3 ^ S "in Established on light sandy land at Cockatoo Valley 
Barossa Goldfields; Aug. 1931 ; per A. J. Warren, Department of Agriculture' 
Native of South Africa. Like all Ehrhartas, a good fodder grass. ^ gnCUltUre - 


Cladium Cmnii, Hook. f. was found in 1930 by Prof. J. B Cleland at 
Cleland's Gully, Square Waterhole. 4 w *" BO al 

T n S rlilT % S -T^)' M ' ^ ack - Back Valle y- near Encounter Bay; coll 
J. B. Cleland. Hitherto only recorded from the South-East. 


Soc. N.S.W 55: 5:494 (1930) considers that this should be retained as a distinct 
species, instead of being united to A. elachophyllum, F. v M (1869^ An 
examination of the type of the latter species shows that there are almost always 
3 small protuberances or tooth-like appendages on one or both faces of the fruit 
mg bracteoles. These teeth are lacking in A. crassipes. A. elachophyllZl 
A. vanmn, Ewart et Davies (1917) from Central Australia 

tnrJ^f^ 1 "*:' R - H - And ^ on > Lc - 50 °- A new species created for the 
form of A. leptocarpum var. acmnmatum, which I described in Fl S Aust as 
having 2 small hard dorsal tubercles at the base of the fruiting bracteoks "- 
Murray Hats; Ooldea; Hughes. s cU ' u - uieb - 


*Roemeria hybrida (L.) DC. Growing wild near Riverton; coll. Worsley C. 
Johnston. Mediterranean region. Not hitherto recorded. 


Cardamine tenuifolia, Hook. Nonning, E.P. ; coll. R. H. Pulleine. An 
entirely new district for this species, hitherto found only in the South-East. 

Hutchinsia eremaea, J. M, Black. Wangianna, north of Marree, Aug., 1931, 
coll J B Cleland. These are much better specimens than those on which the 
species was founded in these Trans. 47:369 (1923). Stems ascending, about 
25 cm. high ; leaves 1 J-3 cm. long, including the petiole into which they taper ; 
sepals about 3 mm. long; petals 5-6 mm. long, with a bright yellow, almost orbicu- 
lar, lamina; stamens 6, with anthers 1£ mm. long; pods from almost orbicular to 
ovate and sometimes only 5 mm. long; style exserted beyond the pod to a length of 
1£ mm. ; cotyledons strictly incumbent. 

^Sisymbrium Irio, L. "London Rocket." Near railway station of Owen, 
Oct., 1931, coll. Worsley C. Johnston. First record for South Australia. 

Pultenaea quadricolor, n. sp. Fruticulus erectus, gracilis, ramosus, 
20-30 cm. altus, ramis pubescentibus ; folia alterna, oblanceolata vel superiora 
lineari-lanceolata, uninervia, 6-14 mm. longa, l£-2 mm. lata, infra pubcrula, supra 
glabra et marginibus incurvis concava, apice in mucronem recurvum desinentia; 
stipulae subulatae, 2 mm. longae, petiolum brevissimum superantes ; flores axillares, 
solitarii; pedicelli filiformes, 6-7 mm. longi sed foliis breviores ; bracteolae 
herbaceae, lineares, basi duobus lobulis stipuliformibus instructae, sub imo calyce 
insertae, calycem aequantes vel paulo superantes; calyx 4-5 mm. longus, parce 
puberulus, lobis lanceolatis tubo paulo longioribus, duobus superioribus breviter 
coalitis; vexillum calyce duplo longius, flavutn, in medio rubrum, alas fiavas 
carinamque coccineam paulo superans ; ovarium pubescens, biovulatum; legumen 

Back Valley, near Encounter Bay; coll. J. B. Cleland, Nov., 1930. The 
specific name refers to the green of the leaves, the red and yellow of the standard, 
the yellow of the wings and the crimson of the keel. Section Coelophyllum. 
Differs from P. elliptica, Sm. in the broader leaves, flowers all axillary and 
bracteoles much longer; from P. villifera, Sieb. var. glabrescens and P. trinervis 
in the fewer and less conspicuous nerves of the leaves and in the flowers on rather 
long pedicels, not almost sessile. (Fig. 8.) 

*Alhagi cameloritm, Fisch. "Camel Thorn." This spiny, deep-rooted 
perennial was sent from cultivated land near Jamestown to the Agricultural 
Department. Said to occur also in water-channels at Berri. Recorded from 
Rutherglen, Victoria, in 1919. Its native country extends from Southern Russia 
to North-western India. 

*Trifolium lappaceum, L. Echunga. — Mediterranean region. 


Specimens of Zygophyllum ammophilum, from between Coward Springs and 
Edward Creek, have the capsule only 3 mm. long, with 1 seed in each cell, 
4 stamens and petals minute and obovate. 


Phebalium brachyphylhtm, Benth. Sherlock (Pinnaroo railway) and 
Warooka, Y.P, 1930. This dwarf shrub had remained undetected since the 
original specimens were collected at Encounter Bay and Coffin Bay over 
70 years ago. J 


*Chrozophora Hnctoria (L.) Juss. A weed at Appila. An annual of the 
Mediterranean region, sometimes cultivated for the blue dye which it yields. 


Frankenia annua, Summerh. in Journ. Linn. Soc. 48:379 t 17 (1930) var 
orthotrtcha, n. var. Variat pilis patentibus, interdum leviter curvis sed nunquam 
uncmatis, cauhbus pilosionbus et petalis paulo latioribus (4-5 mm latis) 

Diamantina River, S.A., May, 1931 ; coll. L. Reese. 

Eryngium supinum (F. v. M.) n. comb. Caules prostrati, rigidi, costati, 
hstulati, simplices vel parce ramosi ; foliorum laminae flaccidae, cuneatae com- 
plicate acute tnlobae, 1-2 cm. longae, 3-6 mm. latae, reticulato-nervosae ; 
petiolus 3-6 cm. longus, fistulatus et parce septatus, basi dilatatus ; capitula axillaria 
et radicaha, brevissime pedunculata, adulta oblongo-cylindrata, 12-17 mm longa 
8 mm. diam.; mvolucri bracteae 5-8, lineari-lanceolata, 7-8 mm. longa fere 
pungentia; petalorum apex inflexus, nmbriatus ; receptaculi squamae conico- 
acummatae; mencarpium apud commissuram rotundatum; vittae 5, duae com- 
missurales approximatae.— E. plant agineum, F. v. M. var. supinum F v M in 

t, S- lT Aust -— Diam antina River, coll. Dr. Morgan; near Innamincka, coll 
K, Cockburn. 

Qld.— Wills Creek. Dr. Murray, of Howitt's Expedition. 

Differs from E. rostratum and E, plantagineum in its prostrate habit and very 
short peduncles; from E. vesiculosum in its rigid stems, 3-lobed, not many-toothed 
leaves, and shorter peduncles, the radical heads being practically sessile. (Fig. 6.) 

It has been stated, apparently in all Australian floras (my own of South 
Australia included), that our species of Eryngium have no vittas. All our local 
species have 5 vittas. The mericarps of Australian Eryngia are orbicular in trans- 
verse section and have a narrow commissure, so that the two commissural vittas 
arc close together; in European species the mericarp, when cut across, is almost 
triangular, with a very broad commissure, so that the two commissural vittas are 
tar apart. 

*Bupleurum subovatmn, Link (1818) has appeared at the Grange near 
Adelaide; a new. record.— Mediterranean region. More usually known as B pro 
tractum, Hoffmannsegg et Link (1820). " 

"Erica arborea, L. Roadside, near Aldgate. Flowering Oct 1931- coll 
J. B. Cleland. This is the "White Heath" or "Tree Heath" of gardeners the 
bruyere arborescente" of the French, from whose root "briar pipes" are made 
Mediterranean region. Recorded as an escape in Victoria. 


Leucopogon collinus (Labill.) R. Br. Bangham Forest Reserve, near 
Frances; 1930; coll. J. B. Cleland. 



Embadium, n. gen. 

(From Greek embadion, a little slipper, to which the nutlets bear some resemblance.) 
Calyx 5-sectus; corolla 5-loba, inappendiculata ; stamina 5, inclusa; stylus 
inter 4 lobos ovarii insertus, stigmate capitato ; nuculae 4, suberectae, ovatae yel 
fere triangulares, superne liberae et stylum multo superantes, dorso margine 
tumido inflexo crenulato circumdatae, cum parva gibba. oblonga tumida mediana 
semen tegente ; nuculae interne convexae, pilis minutis uncinatis conspersae, areola 
mediana ad gynobasin pyramidalem affixae, ab areola usque ad apicem partis 
seminiferae carinatae. Herba annua; pedicelli fructiferi recurvi. 

Embadium stagnen&e, n. sp. Herba annua, pilis appressis e tuberculis 
ortis scabrida; caules rigiduli, ascendentes, 5-12 cm. longi, parce ramosa; folia 
radicalia rosulata, 1-2 cm. longa, longe petiolata, caulina rigidula, sessilia, dis- 
tantia, oblonga vel lanceolato-ovata, 5-15 mm. longa, in bracteas florales 
transeuntia; pedicelli fructiferi valde recurvi, 4-8 mm. longi ; calycis segmenta 
lanceolato-ovata, 2 mm. longa, sub fructu patentia; corolla 2| mm. longa, sine 
squamis in faucibus, lobis tubo brevioribus; nuculae paululo infra medium parva 
areola ad gynobasin affixae. 

On recently flooded land at Arcoona, west of Lake Torrens, Sept., 1927; 
coll. Miss Beatrice Murray. (Fig. 7.) Mr. Ivan M. Johnston, of the Gray 
Herbarium, Harvard University, and a specialist on Borraginaceae, considers that 
although this little plant approaches Eritrichium in the attachment of the nutlets 
to the' receptacle or gynobase, it has other peculiarities which necessitate the 
creation of a new genus. After examining a specimen which was forwarded to 
him, he writes: — "The tumid margin combined with the medial crest of the 
nutlets is unique in the family. Such excessive developments of nutlet margins are 
usually found in the Cynoglosseae. The uncinate pubescence on the fruit is quite 
characteristic of that tribe also. In fact, I might say that in every positive* 
character, except nutlet attachment, it fits into that tribe best, and close to 
Omphalodes. I have, on various occasions stated that I believe that the strict 
and sole use of nutlet attachments in defining the tribes of the Borages leads to 
unnaturalness in classification. I am inclined to believe that your plant is a case 
in point, and that although its technical characters may place it near Hackelia and 
Eritrichium, in all probability its nearest relationships are in Omphalodes. 
If this is the case, your plant is a curious Australian development of the Cyno- 
glosseae springing from the same immediate stock as has Omphalodes, but which, 
although developing curious marginal structures, has persisted in a primitive 
attachment of its nutlets." 


Limosella Curdieana, F. v. M. Beresford (between Marree and Oodnadatta). 
Flowering and fruiting Aug., 1931; coll. J. B. Cleland. A much more northerly 

site than any yet recorded. 

Lab i at ae. 

Prostanthera aspalathoides, A. Cunn. Nonning, E.P. ; coll. R. H. Pulleine. 
A new district for this species. Leaves 4-14 mm. long; calyx 12 mm. long, purplish. 

"Salvia lanigera, Poir. (1817). Netherton, near Tailem Bend. An almost 
woolly weed not hitherto recorded. Southern Italy, Spain, North Africa, Syria. 
A synonym is S. controversa, Ten. (1830). 


Myriocephalus rhizocephalus (DC.) Benth. var. pluriflorns, J. M. Black. 
Beresford (between Marree and Oodnadatta) ; coll. J. B. Cleland. A more 


northerly site than any previously recorded. The uppermost leaves are sometimes 
no longer than the general involucre. 

^Matricaria multiftora (Thunb.) Fenzl. First record of this rather showy 
South African annual, which has established itself over a considerable area near 
Calomba, a railway station about 7 miles north-west of Mallala. It has numerous 
small bright-yellow homogamous-discoid heads arranged in dense corymbs. 

Minuria rigida. Leaves sometimes nearly all opposite, and the plant may be 
not more than 8 cm. high. Diamantina River, S.A. ; coll. A. M. Morgan. 


Fig. 1. Eragrostis japonica: a, spikelet; b, flowering glume and palea; c, grain. 

Fig. 2. E. confertiflora: d, leaf and liguie; e, spikelet; /, flowering glume and palea; 
g, grain. 

Fig. 3. E. Kenncdyae: h, spikelet; i, flowering glume and palea; j, grain. 
Fig. 4. E. infecunda: k, spikelet ; I, pistil ; m, base of stem. 

Fig. 5. Agrostis limit anea: n, spikelet; o, flowering glume and palea; p, abaxial face of 
grain, showing small embryo ; q, adaxial face, showing longitudinal groove. 

Fig, 6. Eryngium supinum: r, flower; s, petal; t, cross section of ripe mcricarp; u blade 
of leaf. 

Fig. 7. Embadium stagnense: v, outer or dorsal face of nutlet; w, inner or ventral face; 
x, tubercle-seated hair. 

Fig. 8. Pultenaea quadrtcolor: y, flower; s, leaf. 


byR. S. Rogers, M.A., M.D., F.L.S. 


It is a singular fact, that although considerable attention has been directed to the pollination of 
Australian orchids, very few observations have been recorded in regard to the large and 
conspicuous Caladenia. 

By far the most important paper that has yet appeared is that of Oswald H. Sargent ( x ) on the 
"Pollination of C. Babarossae," Rehb. f., a Western Australian plant, in 1907. 



By R. S. Rogers, M.A., M.D., F.L.S. 
[Read October 8, 1931.] 

It is a singular fact, that although considerable attention has been directed to 
the pollination of Australian orchids, very few observations have been recorded 
in regard to the large and conspicuous genus Caladenia. 

By far the most important paper that has yet appeared is that of Oswald 
H. Sargent (t) on the "Pollination of C. Barbarossae" Rehb. £., a Western Aus- 
tralian plant, in 1907. 

In his great and well-known work, (2) Fitzgerald makes three brief and rather 
unconvincing contributions to the subject. 

In the first of these, when describing C. dimorpha, he states: "This is the 
only species of orchid I have known, when placed in a room, to b'e fertilized by 
insects. A house-fly, lighting on the lip, was carried by its spring against the 
column and, becoming entangled in the gluten of the stigma, and struggling to 
escape, removed the pollen in its masses from the anther and smeared them on 
the stigma. Such rather large insects arc, I believe, the principal agents of fer- 
tilization in the genus, the species of which without such agency, never produce 

His next reference is to C. tesselata, Fitzg. : "On examination of the plant as 
it grew, the pollen was found to be drawn out of the anther and attached to the 
centre of the stigma by a little group of chaffy scales of some plant, which helped 
to form a cocoon. This cocoon belonged to a dipterous insect, and the flower 
must have been fertilized by the efforts of the inmate to get rid of its covering. 
A method of fertilization that may frequently occur, as the dorsal sepal presents 
a suitable shelter for an insect about to undergo a change, but a method that 
would hardly be conjectured if not observed." 

His third observation is as follows : "On one occasion I had the pleasure of 
seeing C. alba actually fertilized by an insect. A flower was observed to tremble 
and, on examination, it was found that a fly had alighted upon its labellum, and 
was by its spring carried against the stigma and, adhering to it, .struggled violently 
to escape, and thereby withdrew the pollen-masses from. the anther and smeared 
them on the stigma. This instance, in my opinion, goes far to show that though 
the pollinia in this and many other species may, without fertilizing the flower, be 
easily removed by touching the discs, the operation is not by any means so neatly 
performed by an entrapped insect, and the consequence is that the flowers are 
impregnated by their own pollen." 

While admitting that pollination may possibly have been effected in the 
manner described, it is suggested that such instances are of a fortuitous or acci- 
dental nature and lack the purposive character which usually marks the act of 
pollination in orchids under normal conditions. This act is often intricate and, 
as far as our experience goes, never clumsily performed. The mechanism 
involved is beautifully adapted for its intended purpose, and wherever success- 
fully investigated has proved to be unencumbered by superfluous or unessential 
parts. It frequently happens that some minute structural detail, apparently too 
trivial to claim the attention of the observer, ultimately proved an important factor 
in the process. 

( x ) "Journ. Nat. Hist. Soc. of W.A.," No. 4 (1907), p. 6. 
C 2 ) "Australian Orchids." 


More or less complicated structures are present in the three species of orchid 
to which Fitzgerald refers. That they perform some definite function in the 
normal pollination of the plant there can be no doubt — a function which remains 
unexplained and valueless in the instances recorded by him. 

The patient and careful observations of Sargent form a much more valuable 
contribution to the literature of the subject. They are confined to the investigation 
of a single species endemic to his State, and they extended over a period of two or 
three years. He furnishes satisfactory evidence that this orchid, which is remark- 
ably distinctive in structure, is pollinated by an unidentified wasp. Whether this 
is the sole agent is, of course, uncertain. 

Mrs. Edith Coleman (3) recently reported that on two occasions she had seen 
this particular orchid visited by a small bee resembling Halictus, sp. No pollen 
was removed on either occasion, but the movements of the insect led her to suspect 
that it might be an active agent in the fertilization of the plant. 

Early in August, of the present year, Mr. Harold Goldsack, of Coromandel 
Valley, informed me that he had seen a small native bee crawling on the labellum 
of Caladenia deformis, an orchid well represented in this locality. As the bee 
had several pollinia adhering to its back, he collected it, as well as the plant, and 
took them home for further observation. The following morning, on opening 
the box in which it was confined, he found the insect wedged tightly in the tubular 
space formed between the column and labellum of the orchid. When disturbed 
it hurriedly backed out on to the free extremity of the lip. During this move- 
ment the pollinia were rubbed hard against the stigma, but no further masses 
were removed from the anther. Later it returned to "its repast," and it was 
possible to follow its subsequent movements more carefully. It was able, without 
any exertion, to penetrate the space referred to, until a point was reached when 
the mesothorax was on a level with the stigma. Then, in its effort to reach the 
calli at the base of the labellum, it pushed the latter away from the column, at 
the same time exerting strong pressure with its back against this structure and 
incidentally pressing the pollen on to the stigma. This movement enabled it to 
lever the labellum further outwards, and so penetrate a little lower into the tube. 
The calli were then apparently seized with its fore-legs and the tongue of the 
insect was protruded, but further observations were, unfortunately, prevented 
owing to the structure of the flower. 

The bee was dead when the specimens reached me by post, the wings were 
raised and more or less parallel to each other. On the dorsum of the thorax, lying 
nearly transversely across the insertions of the wings, were two pollinia, and 
probably a portion of a third. Examination of the anther of the flower showed 
that the cells were intact and still contained their normal complement of pollen- 
masses, two in each cell. The stigma was thoroughly dusted with pollen, and an 
almost entire pollinium was adherent to it. The condition of the anther made it 
manifest that the masses attached to the insect were derived from another flower. 
Towards the close of August we made an inspection of many of these plants in 
the National Park. The day was dull and cloudy, and although not very cold was 
unfavourable for our investigation. I discovered a specimen of the bee in ques- 
tion crawling up the ovary of a flower. The flower was collected and the sub- 
sequent movements of the insect watched. As in the case of Mr. Goldsack's bee, 
it carried two pollen lamellae attached exactly in the same manner to the dorsum 
of its thorax. It crawled on to the recurved tip of the labellum and then on to 
the dense, shaggy calli, where it found a firm footing. It purposively pursued its 
way into the tube formed by the column and labellum, with its back to the former. 
It was able to enter this space without coming into contact with the anther or 

( 3 ) "Vict. Nat./' xlvi., 1930, p. 204. " ~~ 


pollinia, and penetrated the space deeply until only the tip of its abdomen was 
visible at the orifice. It then exerted hard and persistent pressure with its feet 
against the labellum, as though endeavouring to push the latter away from it. 
The results of this pressure were plainly visible to us in the movements of the 
labellum causing a widening of the "space" and pressure of the thorax of the 
insect against the stigma. It was not possible to observe exactly what took place 
at the base of the column. After a short interval the insect emerged by backing 
out, and was captured. It still had a couple of pollen lamellae attached to its 
thorax, but apparently not the same ones, as two masses had been removed from 
the anther of the flower and pollinia had been successfully deposited on the 

A little later in the day my wife discovered another bee with pollinia adherent 
as an previous cases. Unfortunately, a capture was not effected in this instance. 

On September 2 my wife and I again visited the Park. The day was again 
unsuitable for our quest, rather cold and rain threatening. Only a single Halictus 
was seen, towards the close of the afternoon. Lamellae were adherent in the 
usual manner. As the light was beginning to fade, the insect was captured 
and placed in a container with the flower on which it was found. The following 
morning it was found within the flower. It liberated itself as previous bees had 
done, but emerged without pollinia on its body. Again the flower was pollinated, 
but the contents of the anther were intact. Possibly the flower was no longer fresh 
and, in consequence, removal of the masses had not been accomplished. 

Another flower, stripped of its perianth, was introduced into the bottle, but 
a successful entry was not made. 

Caladenia deformis is a very common orchid and is distributed throughout 
the entire breadth of Southern Australia. It also extends north along the east 
coast as far as latitude 33°. 

It this State it is the first Caladenia to appear during the season. A few 
isolated specimens may be seen during the last few days of July, but it becomes 
fairly prolific during the early part of August. 

The flowers are solitary, deep blue in colour, but occasionally an albino may 
be seen. The segments of the perianth are spreading, with the exception of the 
dorsal sepal which is usually more or less hoodlike behind the column. The 
labellum is not attached by the usual mobile claw, but is rather rigidly erect against 
the column, the sides of which it clasps, thus forming a tube; the apical part is 
triangular with fimbriated or dentate margins, and recurved so that its tip is in 
contact with the anterior surface of the vertical portion, thus facilitating access of 
the pollinating agent to the tube. Except for a small nude glandular area at the 
extreme tip, the recurved portion is covered with dense, shaggy calli arranged in 
six rows; behind these and within the mouth of the tube the calli are smaller, less 
crowded and reduced to four rows, while towards the base of the lamina there is 
an area of densely packed, large, colourless, glandular-looking calli covered with 
stellate hairs. When the labellum is in its normal position these large calli are in 
close contact with the anterior surface of the lower half of the column, thus 
preventing further ingress of an insect, unless force is exerted by the latter to 
displace the labellum outwards. These basal calli are apparently the tissues sought 
by the bee, and it is during its efforts to reach them that its thorax is pressed 
against the stigma and pollination is thus effected. 

The column is about 1*3 cm. long, erect in its lower part and rather abruptly 
incurved near the apex. It is winged throughout, the wings being much wider 
on either side of the stigma, thus limiting lateral movement of the agent and 
ensuring direct contact with the stigmatic surface. It is blue or purplish in tint 
with darker dots or transverse markings, especially on the wings. 


The anther is attached almost horizontally to the summit, its mucrone being 
rather long and acute. It is bilocular, each cell being subdivided by a vertical 
dissepiment and containing a pair of free pollinia. Each pollinium consists of a 
fiat, rather bluntly falcate lamella composed of dry, mealy pollen. It is wider at 
the base than at the apex, and has a convex anterior margin. As the anther 
matures, its valves slightly retract by curling backwards, thus exposing the convex 
margins of the pollinia a little above the rudimentary rostellum, the_ surface of 
which is very viscid. The pollinia are devoid of caudicles and viscid disc. 

Immediately below the anther is the funnel-shaped stigma, which like the 
rostellum is extremely viscid. The pollinia are easily withdrawn when any of this 
sticky material is brought in contact with their exposed edges. 

No nectar is secreted by the flower. The base of the labellum and its adjacent 
parts are quite dry, and no injury to any of these parts can be detected after the 
act of pollination. The actual source of attraction to the insect is not apparent. 
It is noticeable, however, that a positive glucose reaction is yielded by the column 
and to a lesser extent by the labellum. 

The bee was subsequently identified as Halictus siibinclinans, Ckll., by Mr. 
Tarlton Rayment, the well-known expert in this group. It is smaller than a 
house-fly and is admirably adapted, both in shape and size, to perform the service 
which it renders to this particular Caladenia. 

In his letter to our Museum staff, Mr. Rayment briefly outlines its life-history, 
which is of extreme interest and forms one of the romances of science. 

Inter alia he states that the first females emerge early in August, but he has 
never been able to secure any males. He has reason to suppose that the males 
only appear in the late autumn. 

Their homes are in well-drained sandy banks, the shafts have a diameter of 
two or three millimetres and go down almost vertically. 



by Nelly Hooper Woods, MA. 


The shells of which those cited in this paper farm a part were collected by Sir Joseph Verco after 
the sinking of the Abattoirs Bore in 1919. Unfortunately, the material had been heaped beside the 
bore before any opportunity could be gained of ascertaining the depth from which the various 
fossils were obtained. It is impossible, therefore, to assign new species to any definite horizon; one 
can only remark that the fossils were taken from a depth between 400 and 500 feet, and are 
probably of Janjukian to Werrikooian age. 



By Nelly Hooper Woods, M.A. 

[Read October 8, 1931.] 

Plates VII. and VIII. 

The shells of which those cited in this paper form a part were collected by 
Sir Joseph Verco after the sinking of the Abattoirs Bore in 1919. Unfortunately, 
the material had been heaped beside the bore before any opportunity could be 
gained of ascertaining the depth from which the various fossils were obtained. 
It is impossible, therefore, to assign new species to any definite horizon ; one can 
only remark that the fossils were taken from a depth between 400 and 500 feet, 
and are probably of Janjukian to Werrikooian age. 

It has been interesting to compare many of the fossil species with the recent 
shells, and to observe in some cases gradations between the fossil and the recent. 
This is so in the case of Nuculana crebrecostata T. Woods and Nuculana vercoms 
Verco; specimens intermediate between the two were found. In the case of 
Limopsis bcaumariensis Chapman, the juvenile shells bear a marked resemblance 
to Limopsis eucosmus Verco. 

Many thanks are due to Mr. F. Chapman for his assistance with difficult and 
new species. 

Nucula venusta, n. sp. 

(PL vii., figs. 1 and 2.) 
Solid, ventricose, inequilateral, ovate ; umbo very prominent, inclined 
markedly to posterior ; posterior margin short, curved evenly from dorsal to ventral 
border; anterior margin longer than posterior, curving evenly though slightly 
more sharply from dorsal to ventral border. 

Interior of shell smooth, nacreous, ventral margin flattened, without denti- 
culations ; surface smooth, shining, with fine concentric growth-lines of varying 

Cardinal line with 17 teeth anteriorly, slightly uncinate, and 6 posteriorly; 
teeth strong, high. 

Length, 5*6 mm.; height, 4*8 mm. 

Observations. — Unfortunately there are only two right valves of this beautiful 
little shell, which, though resembling it in some respects, differs markedly from 
N. obliqua Lamarck. The shell is much more tumid, especially in the umbonal 
region ; it is more produced anteriorly, and has fewer teeth. The junction between 
the anterior and posterior row is worn in both specimens, making it impossible 
to tell the nature of the resilifer. 

Rochefortia macer, n. sp. 
(PI, viU fiff. 3.) 

Thin, white, medium, somewhat flattened, inequilateral, posterior side longer 
than anterior and more sharply produced; anterior margin roundly curving to 
ventral border ; interior of shell smooth, ventral border without denticulations ; 
surface smooth, shining, with fine concentric striae of varying prominence. Hinge 


with one strong cardinal tooth inclined posteriorly and one small, more depressed 
tooth inclined anteriorly. 

Length, 11 -1 mm.; height, 9'3 mm. 

Rochefortia tellinoides, n. sp. 
(PI. vii., fig. 4.) 
Small, thin, moderately convex, inequilateral; posterior margin slightly more 
sharply curving than anterior; umbones small, situated anteriorly. Hinge line 
without dentition, consisting of two small plates on either side of the umbo, leav- 
ing a space beneath the umbo. 

Shell longer than high; interior smooth; adductor impressions and pallia! 
line distinct ; surface ornamented with fine concentric striae. 
Length, 5'7 mm. ; height, 3 '6 mm. 

Dosinia grandis, n. sp. 
(PI. vii., figs. 5 and 6.) 

Large, thick, solid, several thick layers being revealed when the shell is 
broken; area inside pallial line thicker than that outside (this may possibly be 
due to weathering of specimens) ; outline of shell indefinite, as the shells have 
been broken in taking them from the bore; hinge plate very heavy, bearing m the 
right valve two strong, high cardinal teeth and a deep depression for the insertion 
of a large tooth of the left valve, and from the umbd to the posterior edge a sub- 
triangular depressed area followed by a triangular area for the ligament and a 
deep and narrow sulcus; lunule deeply situated; adductor impressions deep and 
clear. Sculpture consists of numerous thin, fine concentric striae. 

Measurements cannot be accurately determined owing to fragmentary nature 
of specimens, but approximate to : — 

Length, 70 mm. ; height, 70 mm. 

Gafrarium perornatum, n. sp. 
(PI. vii., figs. 7 and 8.) 

Medium to small, solid, ovate, longer than high, posterior side produced 
somewhat; umbones high, acute, situated in front of the middle axis of the shell; 
both posterior and anterior borders roundly curving to the ventral margin. 

Interior smooth, pallial sinus distinct. Surface of shell ornamented with 
numerous regular radial striae which, on certain umbo-ventral lines, are crossed 
by short oblique striae making V-shaped patterns, pointing both ventrally and 
dorsally. Also occasional and varying concentric striae of growth. 

Type : Length, 9'6 mm. ; height, 7*5 mm. 

Larger specimen: Length, 13*5 mm.; height, 10*8 mm. 

Antigona pernitida, n. sp. 

(PI. viii., figs. 1 and 2.) 

Small to medium, sub-ovate, lengthened anterior-posteriorly ; umbones 
prominent and acute, situated to the anterior side of the central axis; anterior 
margin roundly curving to the ventral border; posterior margin longer than 
anterior, curving sharply to ventral edge. 

Shell moderately inflated, interior finely crenulate; surface closely ornamented 
with regular growth lines, the interspaces of which are crossed by fine radial 

The type is a small, neat shell which seems to differ from A. dennanti Chap, 
and Crespin in the greater number and prominence of its concentric growth lines, 
and the greater length of the valve in relation to its height. 


A fragment of a larger shell of the same species also came up from the bore, 
dimensions being about twice those of the type. 
Length, 12*3 mm.; height, 9"4 mm. 

Pseudoarcopagia detrita, n. sp. 

(PL vii., fig. 9.) 

Small, solid, trigonal, moderately convex, particularly in the umbonal area; 
anterior side slightly longer and more rounded than posterior. 

_ Interior of shell smooth, ventral border without crenulations ; pallial line 
indistinct owing to the weathering of specimens. In right valve two cardinal 
teeth, and onelamellar tooth on anterior side — deep socket on posterior; in left 
valve two cardinal teeth fitting into corresponding sockets of right valve ; one large 
posterior lateral tooth and two anterior laterals fitting into sockets of right valve. 

Exterior of shell sculptured with numerous fine radial striae bifurcating 
towards the ventral border. 

Length, 4*8 mm. ; height, 4*2 mm. 

Diplodonta solitaria, n. sp. 
(PI. viii., fig. 3.) 
Holotype — one rather worn specimen only of left valve. 

Orbicular, subequilateral, moderately convex; ligament groove long, narrow; 
umbo subcentral, slightly incurved ; lunule lanceolate, slightly sunken. Valve with 
three cardinal teeth, one b.:fid; pallial line punctate marked; ventral margin 
rounded, smooth. Sculpture — fine concentric lines of growth with occasional 
broader lines. 

Length, 22*8 mm. ; height, 21 7 mm. 

Codakia salebrosa, n. sp. 
(PI. viii., figs. 4 and 5.) 
Very thick, rude, interior inside pallial line covered frequently with thick 
concretions; inequilateral, equivalve, sharply curving on anterior margin, semi- 
circular on posterior side. Ligament pit internal, long, deepening from umbo to 
top oi posterior border; umbones acuminate, teeth embryonic or obsolete. Ventral 
margin without crenulations. Shell surface very rough with numerous concentric 
growth lines of varying prominence, crowded near the border. 
Length, 27*5 mm. ; height, 26*7 mm. 

Cryptodon sinuatum, n. sp. 

(PI. viii., Fig. 6.) 

Medium to small, thin, triangular-ovate.' inequilateral, very swollen, par- 
ticularly in the dorsal region; umbones prominent, high, placed a little in front 
of the central axis. Anterior border curved, lower half coming almost at fight 
angles to the ventral margin, posterior part of shell with deep fold. Interior of 
valve smooth; ventral margin sharp, without crenulations; surface of shell with 
fine concentric striae of growth in varying prominence. 

Holotype: One left valve only. Length, 8'1 mm. ; height, 8*2 mm. 

Solecurtus subrectangularis, n. sp. 

(PI. viii., Fig. 7.) 

Small, thin, inequilateral, posterior side longer and broader than anterior 

oblong, very slightly gaping at both ends; posterior side about f of the whole 

length; posterior dorsal line straight, nearly parallel with ventral margin; anterior 

dorsal margin inclined to horizontal; anterior margin more rounded than 


posterior margin, which is nearly vertical. Umbo small. One strong cardinal 
tooth beneath the umbo ; two lateral sockets in front and behind. Pallial line and 
adductor impressions indistinct. 

Surface of shell rudely sculptured with concentric striae of growth crossed 
by fine bifurcating radial striae; umbonal area showing bufT colour, ventral margin 

Holotype : Left valve. Length, 7'7 mm. ; height, 4*6 mm. 

Corbula equivalvis, n. sp. 
(PI. viii., figs. 8 and 9.) 

Solid, equivalve, inequilateral, ventricose, ovately-triangular, rounded 
anteriorly, beaked posteriorly, posterior side longer than anterior. Umbones 
prominent, incurved, especially in right valve; right valve with sharp teeth 
situated in anterior ; left valve with large flattened tooth in posterior side of shell. 
Surface of shell sculptured with many fine concentric str r iae, varying in thickness 
and often discontinuous, particularly in centre of shell, where in one senile 
specimen a slight furrow is produced; posterior side carinated from umbo to 
ventral margin; sculpture behind the carina same as rest of shell. Pallial sinus 
and adductor impressions distinct. 

Type : Length, 14'2 mm. ; height, 8*4 mm. 

Larger specimen: Length, 16'8 mm.; height, 9*3 mm. 


Nucula obliqua Lamarck. 
Nucula morundiana Tate. 
Nucula venusta Hooper Woods. 

Nuculana woodsii Tenison Woods. 
Nuculana c-rebrecostata T. Woods. 
Nuculana verconis Verco. 


Cucullaea corioensis McCoy. 

Limopsis beaumaricnsis Chapman. 
Limopsis maccoyi Chapman. 
Limopsis affinitalis Chapman. 

Family ARCIDAE. 
Lissarca rubncata Tate. 
Area navicularis Tate. 
Area (Barbatia) pistachia Lamarck. 
Glycimeris convexa Tate. 
Glycimeris tenuicostata Reeve. 

Pinctada crassicardia Tate. 

Ostrea hyotidoidea Tate. 

Neotrigonia acuticostata McCoy. 


Pecten consobrinus Tate. 
Chlamys peroni Tate. 
Chlamys antiaustralis Tate. 
Amusium hochstetteri Zittel. 
Hinnites corioensis McCoy, 

Spondylus arenicola Tate. 

Family LIMIDAE. 
Austrolima bassi T. Woods (Lima bassi) 

Monia ione Grey. 


Trichomya hirsuta Lamarck (Brachyodon 
tes hirsutus). 

Thraciopsis clongata May. 

Myodora ovata Reeve. 
Myodora tenuilkata Tate. 
Myodora corrugata Tate. 

Humphreyia strangei Adams and Angas. 

Cuspidaria subrostrata Tate. 




Crassitellites oblonga T. Woods, 
Cuna polita Tate. 

Cardita compta Tate. 
Cardita preissi Minke. 
Venericardia spinulosa Tate. 
Venericardia pecten Tate. 
Venericardia subcompacta Chapman and 
C res pin. 

Chama lamellifera T. Woods, 


Lucina leucomorpha Tate. 

Lucina affinis Tate. 

Lucina projecta Tate. 

Lucina nuciformis Tate. 

Lucina fabuloides Tate. 

Loripes icterica Reeve. 

Codakia salebrosa H. Woods. 

Divaricella quadrisulcata D'Orbigny. 

Diplodonta solitaria H. Woods. 

Cryptodon sinuatum H. Woods. 


Lcpton trigonale Tate. 
Lepton crassum Tate. 
Erycina micans Tate. 
Montacuta sericia Tate. 
Rochefortia anomala Angas. 
Rochefortia donaciformis Angas. 
Rochefortia ovalis Tate. 
Rochefortia macer H. Woods. 
Rochefortia tellinoides H. Woods. 

Sportella jubata Hedley. 

Cardium cygnorum Deshayes. 
Cardium hemimeris Tate. 

Dosinia johnstoni Tate. 
Dosinia grandis H. Woods. 
Gafrarium perornatum H. Woods. 
Macrocallista submultistriata Tate. 
Antigona propinqua Tate. 
Antigona striatissima Tate. 
Antigona dimorphylla Tate. 
Antigona pernitida H, Woods. 
Clausinella subroborata Tate. 
Bassina allporti T. Woods. 
Callanaitis cainozoica T. Woods. 
Paphia fabagelloides Tate. 

Psammobia hamiltonensis Tate. 
Psammobia equalis Tate. 
Tellina masoni Tate. 
Pseudoarcopagia detrita H. Woods. 

Semele vesiculosa Tate. 

Solecurtus dennanti Tate. 
Solecurtus subrectangularis H. Woods. 

Mactra howchiniana Tate. 
Zenatiopsis angustata Tate. 

Corbula ephamilla Tate. 
Corbula equivalvis H. Woods. 

Saxicava australis Lamarck. 
Saxicava subalata Gatliff and Gabriel. 




















Plate VII. 

Nucula venusta, n. sp. X8. 
N. venusta, n. sp. X8. 
Rochefortia macer, n. sp. X4. 
R. tellinoides, n. sp. X8. 
Dosinia grandis (left valve), n. sp. 

& natural size. 
D. grandis ( right valve ) , n. sp. 

Nearly natural size. 
Gafrarium perornatum, n. sp. X5. 
G. perornatum, n. sp. XS. 
Pseudoarcopagia detrita, n. sp. X9. 



















Plate VIII. 
Antigona pernitida, n. sp. X4. 
A. pernitida, n. sp. X4, 
Diplodonta solitaria, n. sp. X2. 
Codakia salebrosa, n. sp. X*/ 2 . 
C. salebrosa, n. sp. X 3 /a. 
Cryptodon sinuatum, n. sp. X5. 
Solecurtus subrectangularis, n. sp. 

Corbula equivalvis, n. sp. X3. 
C. equivalvis, n. sp. X3. 


by J. Burton Cleland, M.D. 


The last paper of this series, No. 7, appeared in these Transactions and Proceedings, vol. lii., 1928, 
pp. 217-222. In the present paper, a number of new species of Agarics and Clavarias are described. 
Colour tints when specifically noted in capital letters are based, unless otherwise stated, on 
Ridgway's "Colour Standards and Colour Nomenclature," 1912 edition, references to the plates 
therein being given. 



By J. Burton Cleland, M.D. 
[Read October 8, 1931.] 

The last paper of this series, No. 7, appeared in these Transactions and Pro- 
ceedings, vol. Hi., 1928, pp. 217-222. In the present paper, a number of new 
species of Agarics and Clavarias are described. Colour tints when specifically 
noted in capital letters are based, unless otherwise stated, on Ridgway's " Colour 
Standards and Colour Nomenclature," 1912 edition, references to the plates 
therein being given. K . 

I am much indebted to Miss E. M. Wakefield, of the Royal Botanic Gardens, 
Kew, England, for kindly examining a number of specimens and water-colour 
drawings of Australian Clavarias forwarded to the Director, and for comparing 
these critically with the world-wide collections there and for expressing opinions 
on these species. Extracts from her report are appended to the descriptions of the 
species concerned. 

499. Amanita subalbida, n. sp.— Pileus I| in. (4*4 cm.) in diameter, irre- 
gularly convex, then nearly plane with the centre somewhat depressed, mealy with 
the remains of the universal veil, pallid brownish to nearly white. Gills just 
adnexed, close, rather narrow, white. Stem 1 in. (2*5 cm.) high, elongating 
from the bulbous base to If ins. (4*4 cm.), rather short, § in. (10 mm.) thick, 
submealy, nearly equal when expanded, solid, white. Ring superior, when young 
well marked, membranous, marked above with gill-lines, tending to disappear. 
Volva disappearing, as a slight friable rim-like edge to the bulb. Spores white, 
obliquely elliptical, 9'5 X 5'5 ^. Half -buried in sandy soil. S.A.— Kmchina, 
June 8, 1925. 

500. Amanita conico-bulbosa, n. sp. — When young 2 ms. (5 cm.) in diameter, 
plano-convex with a deep rounded border and edge turned in, slightly viscid 
when moist, finely villose, greyish white; base of the stem very bulbous (li in., 
3-7 cm. thick), the root conical and 2\ ins. (5-6 cm.) deep. When adult, pileus 
2 to 4 ins. (5 to 10 cm.) in diameter, slightly convex to a little upturned or convex 
with the centre depressed, slightly viscid when moist, in places smooth and shin- 
ing, in others subvillose, with scattered warty patches often villose at the base, 
or the whole surface dull with no flakes, cuticle peels, white with a slight biscuity 
tint or chalky white, occasionally with a greyish-brown tint. Gills just reaching the 
stem, attenuated towards it, close, % to \ in. (6 to 12 5 mm.) deep ?> ventricose, 
short ones at the periphery, creamy white, when old with a buffy tint in some 
lights, when dry brownish. Stem up to 3 to 5 ins. (7*5 to 12"5 cm.) high, \ in. 
(2-1 cm.) thick, slightly attenuated upwards, gill-marked above, fibrillose-scaly 
to matt below, solid, white or whitish, bulb If to 1| in. (3*1 to 37 cm.) thick, 
root up to 3 ins. (7*5 cm.) long, conical downwards. Ring superior to median, 
ample, dependant marked with gill-lines above, evanescent. No obvious volva, 
or volva as a mealy-evanescent rim when young. Flesh white, moderately thick 
(J$ in., 6 mm., or more), attenuated outwards. Smell sometimes slightly fragrant, 
when cut somewhat phosphorus-like. Spores elliptical, hyaline, 9 to 1.1*5 X 5*5 
to 7 fx. Partly buried in sand or in the ground. S.A. — Kinchina, Beaumont, June, 
July, August, October, 

This species is characterized by being greyish-white when young, later white 
with a slight biscuity or greyish-brown tint, and by having, usually, scattered villose 
warty patches, no strong smell and a very long conical root. 


501. Amanitopsis sublutea, n. sp.— Pileus 1$ to ff in. (3*7 to 4*3 cm.) 
broad, convex, becoming depressed a little in the centre, sticky when moist, pale 
buff [a little deeper than Warm Buff (xv.) ]. Gills just reaching the stem, 
moderately close, becoming slightly ventricose, white. Stem up to If in. (4*3 cm.) 
high, | in. (10 mm.) thick, equal, mealy above, smooth below, white or a little 
buff-tinted below, bulb up to f in. (19 mm.) thick, spherical, the colour of the 
pileus, edge just free. Flesh of pileus rather thin, white, attenuated out- 
wards. Spores oblique, 13 to 13-5 X 7 /*. In sand. S.A. — Encounter Bay, 
August, 1929. 

502. Lepiota fidiginosa, n. sp. — Pileus up to § in. (2-2 cm.) in diameter, 
slightly convex, then plane or a little upturned, in the centre sooty-brown from 
minute fibrous scales, almost villose, the scales scantier and paler round the 
periphery, leaving a pallid, slightly sooty zone § in. (3 mm.) or more in diameter. 
Gills barely free, narrow, close, creamy white. Stem | to f in. (3 to 19 mm.) 
high, short, equal, smooth, solid, pallid whitish. Ring distant, as a narrow 
membranaceous ring, evanescent. Spores oblique with an apiculus, 5*5 X 4-5 p.. 
On the ground. S.A. — Kinchina, June 8, 1925. 

503. Lepiota nigro-cinerea, n. sp. — Pileus £ in. (1*2 cm.) in diameter, convex, 
subumbonate, dark grey from floccose scales. Gills barely reaching the stem, 
moderately close, cream-coloured. Stem f in. (16 mm.) high, slender, a little 
fibrillose below, whitish. Ring (?) evanescent. Spores very oblique, sometimes 
nearly triangular, not thick-walled, 5*5 X 3*5 /a. On the ground. S.A. — 
Encounter Bay, May 24, 1928. 

504. Lepiota cinnamonea, n. sp. — Pileus ^ to 1 in. (1*2 to 2*5 cm.) in 
diameter, at first almost campanulato-convex, then expanding to convex, often 
more or less broadly umbonate, slightly floccose to flecked with minute scales, 
Light Pinkish Cinnamon (xxix.) to Cinnamon or near Tawny (xv.), sometimes 
when dry near Apricot Buff (xiv.). Gills just free or barely reaching the stem, 
rather close to moderately distant, rather narrow, ventricose, cream. Stem 1 in. 
(2*5 cm.) high, rarely £§ in. (3-7 cm.), rather slender (5 mm. thick), slightly 
attenuated upwards, fibrillose to fibrillose-scaly up to the veil attachment which 
is superior, stuffed or slightly hollow, paler than the pileus to near Tawny, 
sometimes Cinnamon Rufous (xiv.). No definite ring. Flesh thin, whitish, in 
the stem with a cinnamon tint and white in the centre. Spores elliptical, slightly 
oblique, not thick-walled, 5*5 to 7-5 X 3'7 to 4 ft. S.A. — On the ground in a glade 
in stringy-bark forest, National Park; in Pinus radiata Don. (P. insignis Douglas) 
forest, Mount Burr (S.E.), May, 1931. 

505. Lepiota subcristata, n. sp. — Pileus 1 to l| in. (2*5 to 3*7 cm.), at first 
conico-convex, then convex to nearly plane, with an obtuse umbo, densely covered 
with small brown fibrillose scales, darker and closer at the disc. Gills free, 
moderately close, white. Stem to If in. (4'4 cm.) high, rather slender, stuffed 
tending to be hollow, shaggy with fibrils up to the veil attachment, smooth above. 
No definite ring. Spores elliptical, not thick-walled, 5*5 to 3*7 p. S.A. — In Pinus 
radiata Don. (P. insignis Douglas) forest, Mount Burr, May, 1931. 

Resembles L. cristata (A. and S.) Fr., but differs in the shaggy fibrillose 
stem without a definite ring. L, cristata grew in the same locality. 

506. Lepiota discolorata, n. sp. — Pileus H to 2 ins. (3 to 5 cm.) in diameter, 
nearly plane, a little upturned, subumbonate, covered with dense very dark 
reddish-brown scales, fewer near the periphery, sometimes slightly striate at the 
periphery. Gills just free, close, white or cream-coloured. Stem 1^ to 2-J ins, 
(3*1 to 6'2 cm,) high, slender, hollow, white above, pale brownish below or pallid 
with minute brownish flecks. Ring distant, membranaceous, evanescent. Flesh 
white stained reddish. Smell strong, radishy. The whole plant when dry Fuscous 
to Fuscous Black (xlvi). Spores elliptical, oblique, not thick-walled, 5 to 6*5 X 


3*5 /a, sometimes 7*5 to 9 X 4*5 &. On the ground. S.A. — Mount Lofty ; National 
Park; in Pinus radiata Don. (P. insignis Douglas) forest, Kalangadcto (S.E.). 
April to June. 

A moderately small species, recognised by the dark reddish-brown scales in the 
pileus and the discolouration of the whole plant on drying. 

507. Lepiota haemorrhagica, n. sp. — Pileus £ to 1^ in. (1*8 to 3*1 cm.) in 
diameter, convex, sometimes irregular, covered with reddish-brown fibrillose 
scales thicker and darker at the disc. Gills free, close, creamy-coloured turning 
reddish like a fresh bloodstain when bruised. Stem 2 ins. (5 cm.) high, rela- 
tively rather stout, attenuated upwards, slightly hollow, clothed with reddish- 
brown fibrils even above the distant definite membranous pale to reddish ring. 
Spores elliptical, slightly oblique, not thick-walled, microscopically slightly tinted, 
6 X 3*5 ft. On the ground in Eucalyptus forest. S.A. — Mount Burr (S.E.), 
May, 1931. 

508. Lepiota umbonata, n. sp. — Pileus | in. (1*2 cm.) in diameter, slightly 
convex with a broad obtuse umbo, pallid whitish with a bufTy tint. Gills just free, 
moderately close, pallid flesh-coloured. Stem \\ in. (3*1 cm.) high, slender, 
flesh-coloured. Ring distant. Whole plant when drying brownish. Spores not 
thick-walled, 5*5 X 3*5 /a. S.A. — In Pinus radiata Don. (P. insignis Douglas) 1 
forest, Kalangadoo, May. 

A small species with a whitish umbonate pileus and slender moderately 
long stem. 

509. Lepiota albo-fibrillosa } n. sp. — Pure white. Pileus | in. (3 *5 mm.) in 
diameter, convex, subumbonate, mealy, dotted with white fibrils continuous with 
the veil and clothing the stem below the attachment of the veil, no definite ring.* 
Gills free, many short, edges rather thick, white. Stem § in. (10 mm.) high, 
slender, base a little swollen. Spores elliptical, 6*2 to 7*5 X 3*75 p. On the 
ground, under a rock. S.A. — Mount Lofty, May. 

A minute white delicate short-stemmed species with white fibrils on the 
pileus and clothing the stem without a well-defined ring. 

510. Lepiota bidbosa, n. sp. — Pileus 1 in. (2*5 cm.), convex, pale earthy 
brown with scattered villose scales. Gills barely reaching the stem, close, slightly 
ventricose, creamy white. Stem | in. (18 mm.) with the bulb, slender, under 
£ in. (6 mm.) thick, bulb ^ in. (12*5 mm.) thick, white and striate from the gills 
above the median fixed definite membranous ring, slightly fibrillose and whitish 
with a brownish tint below, slightly hollow. Spores elliptical, oblique, not thick- 
walled, 9*3 to 10*5 X 5*5 to 7 /a. On the ground. S.A. — Inman Valley, Sep- 
tember 5, 1925. 

511. Clitocybe strawi-inea, n. sp. — Pileus 1 to 1^ ins. (2*5 to 3'7 cm.) in 
diameter, irregularly convex, centre usually depressed, thin, nearly semi-trans- 
lucent, pilose in the centre, fibrillose peripherally, slightly striate, edge radiately 
splitting, centre blackish-brown, the remainder smoky yellowish-brown, the 
smokiness due to fine fibrils. Gills slightly but definitely decurrent, moderately 
close, straw-coloured to pale egg-yellowish. Stem L| to 2 ins. (3*7 to 5 cm.) 
high, equal, slender, somewhat flexuous, twisted, slightly striate, mealy fibrillose 
above, less so below, hollow, the colour of the gills. Spores subspherical, 4 to 5 /a. 
Densely caespitose at the base of stumps. S.A. — Mount Lofty, March, April. 
The specific name has reference to the straw colour of the gills and stem. 

512. Clitocybe eucalyptorum, n. sp. — Pileus 6 ins. (15 cm.) or more in 
diameter, irregularly convex with the edge turned in when young, then expanding, 
the centre finally more or less depressed, repand, innately fibrillose to sub- 
tomentose with occasionally small circular patches of thickened cuticle, the edge 
slightly sulcate, Drab (xlvi.) when young to browner than Tawny Olive (xxix.). 
Gills moderately decurrent, moderately close, up to f- in. (10 mm.) deep, attenuated 
at the periphery, cream-coloured, assuming a slight fleshy tint, becoming yellowish 


round the edge when old. Stem 4 ins. (10 cm.) long, stout, up to 1 in. (2*5 cm.) 
thick, swollen below when young, marked above with lines of the gills, sub- 
nbrillose below, pallid with tints as on the pileus, with white mycelium mixed 
with earth at the base. Shed spores subspherical, pear-shaped, slightly irregular, 
hyaline, 5*5 to 6*5 X 4*5 /a. On the ground amongst leaves, etc., under Euca- 
lyptus. S.A. — National Park, July. 

513. Clitocybe campestris, n. sp.— Pileus up to 1 in. (2*5 cm.) in diameter, 
slightly convex, irregular with a depressed centre, slightly shiny, the edge turned 
in when young, pallid stone colour and slightly mottled, faintly obscured by & 
minute white pile (near Avellaneous, xl. ; Light Bull, xv.). Gills adnate, close, 
rather thick, rarely forking or with buttresses, pallid brownish white (Avellane- 
ous, xl. ; near Vinaceous Buff, xl). Stem up to f in. (1-8 cm.) high, stout, some- 
times flattened, slightly fibrous, tough, hollow, mealy, pallid, or the colour of the 
pileus. Flesh white. Smell strong. Spores 4*5 to 4*8 X 2-2 to 1*2 /x. . In grassy 
places, Beaumont Common, May, June; Eagle-on-the-Hill, June (Miss Fiveash, 
Watercolour No. 25) ; Noarlunga Hill (spores 5*5 X 3'7 j$* 

A small species somewhat resembling small specimens of Hebeloma hiemate 
Bres., characterised by its pallid buff pileus with darker tints of avellaneous and 
wood brown appearing as if under the surface, the avellaneous gills, short stem 
and occurrence in grassy places. 

514. Clitocybe pascua, n. sp.— Pileus 1 to 1| in. (2*5 to 37 cm.), nirely 
2 ins. (5 cm.) in diameter, irregularly convex, soon becoming depressed in the 
centre and sometimes infundibuliform, edge often irregular and wavy or slightly 
lobed, sometimes lacerated, smooth, when moist between Sudan Brown and 
Brussels Brown (iii.) and semi -translucent, when dry opaque whitish or buffy 
whitish. Gills slightly decurrent, rather close, moderately narrow, many 
short, greyer than Pinkish Buff (xxix.). Stem short, ^ to 1 in. (1*2 to 2*5 cm.) 
high, slender, equal or sometimes attenuated downwards, nbrillose, hollow, 
brownish w T hen moist, pallid when dry. Flesh watery brownish when moist, 
whitish when dry. Smell a little strong. Spores obliquely elliptical, 7X37^. 
Gregarious on grassy hills. S. A.— Near Noarlunga, June 25, 1927. 

515. Clitocybe australiana, n. sp. — Pileus up to 1^ to 4 ins. (3*1 to 10 cm.) 
in diameter, irregular, somewhat convex, centre depressed, edge rather irregular 
and broken up, dull, smooth, pale biscuit colour (near Pinkish Buff, xxix.), 
paler than Mikado Brown (xxix.) and near Vinaceous Cinnamon (xxix.), soapy- 
looking when moist, near Sayal Brown (xxix.) when dry, Gills adnato-decurrent 
to decurrent, narrow, moderately close, near Pinkish Buff. Stem up to H ms - 
(3'7 cm.) high, slender to stout, up to f in. (15 mm.) thick, slightly attenuated 
downwards, dull surface, solid or slightly hollow, with fluffy mycelium at the 
base, white. Flesh white, thick over the stem, attenuated outwards. Spores 
3-2 to 5*6 X 1*6 to 3*2 jla. Single or two or three together or subcacspitose in 
sandy soil under trees. S.A. — Kinchina, Monarto South, and Enfield. N.S.W. — 
Bumberry and Manildra. July, August, September, October, 

516. Collybia subdryophila, n. sp.— Pileus up to \\ in. (3*1 cm.), slightly con- 
vex, sometimes eventually a little upturned at the edge, irregular, matt, near 
Pinkish Buff (xxix.). Gills adnate to adnexed (once apparently sinuate), close, 
narrow, creamy white. Stem up to 1-J in. (3*7 cm.) high, rather slender, some- 
times flattened, sometimes slightly attenuated upwards, smooth or matt, hollow, 
flesh confluent with but heterogeneous from that of the pileus, reddish-brown 
(near Verona Brown, xxix.). Shed spores with one end more pointed, 4 to 4*2 
X 2 fji. S.A.— Mount Lofty, July, 1921, and April, 1924 (spores 5*6 X 3*75 p.) ; 
Mount Compass, October ; Kinchina, July (spores 3'2X2/); near Happy Valley, 
September; National Park; Hope Valley. 


517. Collybia deusta, n. sp. — Pileus 2 to 3 ins. (5 to 7'5 cm.) in diameter, 
irregularly plane to slightly depressed with a trace of umbonation, edge somewhat 
undulatory, surface matt to subtomentose, smoky brownish to scorched brown. 
Gills adnato-adnexed with occasionally a decurrent tooth, close, narrow (| in. +, 
6'5 mm. deep), pallid dingy greyish to pallid dingy burl. Stem l| to 2 ins. 
(3-7 to 5 cm.), rather slender (-J to f in., 6 to 9 mm., thick), fibrillose, tough, solid, 
base slightly swollen into a knob ending abruptly, dark smoky brown. Flesh of 
stem cartilaginous differing in texture from the flesh of the pileus, which is white 
and thin. Spores elliptical, 8'5 X 5*2 /a. No obvious smell. S.A.— In sand under 
Melaleuca halmaturontm F. v. M., Inman River, Victor Harbour. May. 

518. Collybia ahttacea, n. sp. — Pileus f to 1^ in, (1*8 to 3'7 cm.) in diameter, 
more or less plane becoming upturned-repand, sometimes subumbonate, smooth, 
rich salmony-buff and moist-looking, sometimes reddish-brown at the periphery, 
drying opaque matt and a paler pinkish-buff. Gills adnexed, narrow, close, creamy 
white. Stem | to 1 in. (1-8 to 2'5 cm.) high, rather short, somewhat slender, 
sometimes flattened, equal, smooth, slightly hollow, pallid with a slight or definite 
tint of the pileus. Flesh of the stem cartilaginous differing from the thin white 
flesh of the pileus which is attenuated outwards. On the ground. S.A. — Back- 
Valley, off Inman Valley. May, 1929. 

Characterised by the rich salmony-buff pileus becoming pinkish-buff, con- 
trasting with the close white gills and short pallid stem slightly tinted like the 

519. Collybia abntyracea, n. sp. — Pileus up to 4| ins. (11*8 cm.) in diameter, 
at first convex with the edge turned in, then expanding, irregular and repand and 
more or less subumbonate, at first slightly velutinate, finely somewhat shining and 
subflbriliose, when young pallid or Cream Buff (xxx.) with a smoky brown tinge, 
then pallid biscuit-coloured, sometimes with a smoky or scorched tinge, sometimes 
with the umbo approaching Saccardo's Umber (xxxix.). Gills slightly sinuate 
to adnate, close, rather dingy creamy white, becoming more biscuit-coloured. Stem 
up to 1-2 in. (3'7 cm.) high, rather slender to moderately stout, J to ^ in. (10 to 
12-5 mm.) thick, coarsely fibrillose, equal, not rooting, tough and cartilaginous but 
with the flesh not very clearly distinct from that of the pileus, solid, not stuffed, 
breaking up into tough fibrils, dark smoky brown to pallid brownish, base whitish 
when young. Spores elliptical, 7'5 to 9 X 5 to 5'5 i u. No special smell. Amongst 
grass. S.A. — Beaumont Common, Pinnaroo, Belair. June, July, August. 

520. Collybia eucalyptorum, n. sp. — Pileus | to H in. (1'6 to 3 w 7 cm.) in 
diameter, broadly conico-campanulate to nearly plane, then slightly upturned, 
smooth, with the surface dull from innate fibrils, edge slightly striate, Pale Pinkish 
Buff becoming Cinnamon Buff (xxix), or Ochraceous Buff (xv.) and darker in 
the centre, becoming pallid towards the periphery. Gills adnexed, close, narrow, 
with short ones at the periphery, creamy-white or approaching Warm Buff (xv.). 
Stem 1 to 2\ ins. (2'5 to 6'2 cm.) high, relatively slender (% in., 3*5 mm., or 
more thick), flexuous, smooth or subnbrillose, barely striate, hollow, cartilaginous, 
differing from the flesh of the pileus, reddish-brown (between Tawny, xv., and 
Russet, xv.; Mikado Brown, xxix.). Flesh thin, slightly brownish. Smell 
moderately strong. Spores pear-shaped, hyaline, 5 to 5 '5 X 3'5 fx. Caespitosc at 
the bases of old trunks of Eucalyptus or stumps. S.A. — Mount Lofty Summit, 

521. Mycena siibgalericulata, n. sp. — Pileus \ to 1 in. (1*2 to 2*5 cm.) in 
diameter, ^ to f in. (0*8 to 1-8 cm.) high, conico-campanulate, somewhat expand- 
ing, umbonate, dry, smooth, submembranaceous, somewhat striate to the umbo, 
near Olive Brown (xl.), occasionally paler (Buffy Brown, xl.), sometimes Mummy 
Brown (xv.), during drying becoming paler from above from Olive Brown to 
Buffy Brown, when young with a pallid peripheral ring. Gills adnate, sometimes 


with a slight decurrent tooth, sometimes connected by veins, whitish, sometimes 
flesh-tinted or greyish when old. Stem f to 2 ins. (1*8 to 5 cm.) high, often 
curved, smooth, polished, somewhat fragile to rather tough, base somewhat 
strigose, whitish to pallid, sometimes brownish especially below. Shed spores 
elliptical, oblique, 9 to 13 X 5 '5 to 8*5 p.. No cystidia seen. No smell. 
Caespitose on trunks. S.A. — Mount Lofty (on trunks of Eucalyptus obliqua 
L'Herit.), National Park. April, June, July, August. 

This is evidently a variable species. It differs from Rea's description of 
Mycena galericulata (Scop.) Fr. in being of smaller size, with the cap apparently 
darker, the gills sometimes becoming greyish when old, and in the stem often 
being nearly pure white. 

The characteristics of the species are the caespitose habit on trunks or stumps, 
the dark fuscous brown to pale smoky brown umbonate pileus, the gills adnate 
sometimes with a decurrent tooth and whitish becoming flesh-coloured or greyish, 
and in the whitish or pallid stem sometimes brownish below. 

522. Mycena australiana, n. sp. — Pileus £ in. (1*2 cm.) high, | in. (1*8 cm.) 
broad, broadly conico-campanulate, slightly striate, BufTy Brown to Clove 
Brown (xl,) or Wood Brown (xl.), apex darker. Gills adnate, with no decurrent 
tooth, moderately close, pure white becoming creamy. Stem about 3*7 cm. high, 
slender, polished, a little mealy at the base but without strigose hairs, apex 
whitish, BufTy Brown towards the base. Spores 8' 5 to 11 X 6 to 7*5 p. Gre- 
garious or caespitose on fallen log. S.A. — National Park, Mount Lofty. May, 
June, July. 

523. Mycena vinacea, n. sp. — Pileus f to 1-^ in. (1*8 to 3*7 cm.) in diameter, 
conicG-he"mispherical or broadly conical to convex, then expanded, sometimes with 
an acute or obtuse umbo, matt or smooth, slightly shining, striate at the periphery 
when moist, edge slightly incurved when young, Pale Vinaceous Drab to Vinaceous 
Drab (xlv.), Light' Cinnamon Drab (xlvi.), near Sorghum Brown (xxxix.) or 
yellower than Vinaceous Brown (xl.), sometimes Fuscous (xlvi,) when old, 
drying to near Pinkish BufT (xxix.), paler than Avellaneous (xl.) or between 
Avellaneous and Olive BufT (xl.). Gills adnate or slightly sinuate with a decurrent 
tooth, moderately close, ventricose, many short, edges tending to be frayed, Pale 
Vinaceous Drab, Pale Brownish Drab (xlv.), Pale Greyish Vinaceous, or 
Vinaceous Fawn to Fawn Colour (xl.). Stem 1 to 2f ins. (2*5 to 6*8 cm.) high, 
slender to a little stout, equal or slightly attenuated upwards or downwards, 
smooth, hollow, base pallid and tending to be villose, Dark Vinaceous Drab (xlv.) 
when young, Light Greyish Vinaceous (xxxix.), near pale Brownish Drab or 
Wood Brown (xl.). The pallid brownish flesh of the cartilaginous stem hetero- 
geneous from the white flesh of the pileus. Spores obliquely elliptical, 7*5 to 
13 X 4 to 8*5 /a. Caespitose or subcaespitose on fallen wood on the ground, at 
the base of stumps, or amongst fallen leaves and grass or pine needles. S.A. — 
Mount Lofty, National Park, Baker's Gully near Clarendon, Kuitpo, Kinchina, 
Kalangadoo (under Pinus), Caroline State Forest (near Mount Gambier — under 
Pinus), N.S.W. — Cambewarra Mount. May, June, July, August, 

Readily recognised by the lilacy or vinaceous tint of the whole plant and the 
caespitose habit. 

524. Mycena subalbida, n. sp. — Pileus up to \ in. (6*2 mm.) in diameter, 
usually less, conico-campanulate to convex, sometimes dimpled, sometimes gibbous 
or umbonate, ribbed, mealy or scurfy to glabrous, white with a greyish-brown or 
creamy tint. Gills adnate, attached to a collar, ascending, slightly ventricose, 
rather narrow, about 12 to 14 in number with shorter ones interposed, pallid 
greyish white. Stem 3 / 1fi to % in, (4*5 to 10 mm.) high, curved, very slender, 
mealy to smooth, white to pallid, sometimes slightly brownish below, attached by 
a minute slightly strigose disc. Spores subspherical, 9 to 11 /a, 10 X 8*4 /*; the 


cells on the edges of the gills bristling with minute processes; cystidia, 25 fx long, 
with tapering apices and ventricose bases seen in one batch of specimens. 
S.A. — On mossy bark of elms (Uknus campestris L.) 7 North Terrace, Adelaide, 
June, July; on bark of S chinas Molle L., Fullarton, July; on trunk, National Park 
(spores 9*5 X 6*5 p). 

The species seems to be related to M. coriicola Fr. and M. hiemalis (Osb.) 
Fr., but differs and belongs to the section Basipedes by having a definite though 
small disc. We cannot find a description to fit it. 

525. Leptonia jusca, n. sp. — Pileus f to 1^ in. (1-8 to 2*8 cm.) in diameter, 
slightly convex, umbilicate, radiately fibrillose, between Natal Brown and Bone 
Brown (xl.). Gills sinuately adnexed, moderately close, edges not dark, near 
Vinaceous Buff (xL). Stem \\ in. (3"1 cm.) high, slender, sometimes flattened, 
polished, brittle, hollow, cartilaginous, near Dusky Drab (xlv.), base whitish. 
Flesh very thin. Spores angular, tinted, 11 to 13 X 7*5 /a. On the ground. 
S. A.— Encounter Bay. May 24, 1931. , 

Characterised by the dark dusky brown pileus and stem, whitish base to the 
stem, vinaceous buff gills and rather large angular spores. 

526. Clitopilus prostratus, n. sp. — Pileus | to 1 in. (1*8 to 2*5 cm.) in 
diameter, very irregular, more or less convex with the centre depressed, somewhat 
rugose, somewhat fibrillose, edge sometimes crinkled, colour of dead grass. Gills 
decurrent, moderately close, relatively deep, pallid salmon-colourd. Stem short 
(1 cm.), central to excentric, slender, surface matt, whitish. Spores angular with 
a central yellowish gutta, tinted, 9*5 to 10*5 X 7*5 /a. Nearly prostrate on bare 
sandy soil in heathy scrub. S.A. — Near Mount Burr (S.E.). May, 1931. 

527. Clitopilus sub fr anient ace us, n. sp. — Pileus t§ to 4 ins. (3 to 10 cm.) in 
diameter, irregularly convex, then more expanded or with the centre depressed, 
often distorted, sometimes with a small umbo, subfibrillose, edge turned in when 
young, not shining, somewhat hygrophanous, Pinkish Cinnamon, Cinnamon, 
Sayal Brown, or Mikado Brown (xxix.) becoming paler. Gills adnate to adnate- 
decurrent, narrow, moderately close, edges sometimes irregularly serrate, rarely 
forking or anastomosing near the stem to form long narrow cells, Light Pinkish 
Cinnamon (xxix.). Stem 1^ to 2-J- ins. (3'7 to 6'2 cm.) high, stout (up to § in., 
2*2 cm, thick), base swollen (1 in., 2*5 cm. thick), sometimes a little excentric. 
somewhat mealy or fibrillose, solid, pale fawny or biscuity whitish or white. Flesh 
watery semi-translucent becoming whitish. Slight smell of radishes. Spores 
obliquely pear-shaped, rather irregular, definitely tinted, 6*5 to 8*5 X 4*2 to 6 /x. 
Densely cacspitose under trees or amongst grass. S.A. — Mount Lofty Range, 
National Park. Vict. — Ararat. April to August. 

The specific name has reference to its resemblance to Entoloma frumentaceum 
(Bull.) Berk. 

528. Clavaria vinaceo-cervina, n. sp. — Plants -% to 2 ins. (1*2 to 5 cm.) high, 
nearly vertical or slightly spreading, from a short stem-like base very irregularly 
branching, sometimes with only a few branches or prong-like divisions, sometimes 
with a number of small branches, ultimate divisions short* prong-like, mostly 
blunt, sometimes acute and thorn-like, sometimes awl-like or finger-like, often 
fastigiate, the branches often irregularly flattened and the whole plant rugose, 
usually relatively slender but in some collections stouter and more knobby, Vina- 
ceous Fawn (xl.) to Fawn Color (xl.), near a pale Vinaceous Russet (xxviii.), 
deeper than Vinaceous Buff (xl.), between Vinaceous Buff and Avellaneous (xl.), 
Vinaceous Pink (xxviii.) at the tips with the stem Vinaceous Fawn (xl.), greyer 
than Buff Pink (xxviii.), or Pinkish Cinnamon (xxix.) with a fine bloom giving 
a vinaceous pink colour tinge on the pinkish cinnamon, base of stem pallid. Spores 
subspherical 7*5 to 9 ft, 8 X 6*5 p, 9 to 10 X 8 to 8*8 \h. On the ground under 


trees amongst shrubs. S.A. — Stirling West, July 23, 1927; Mount Lofty, April, 
June (Kew No. 86), July; Belair, July; Clare, August 

Specimens of this species (Kew, No. 86) were sent to Miss E. M. Wakefield, 
who reported : "Probably new. Not European or American." ' 

529. Clavaria aitstraliana, n. sp. — Densely branched, up to 4 ins. (10 cm.) 
high and 5 ins. (12*5 cm.) broad, the branches between Vinaceous Buff (xl.) 
and Avellaneous (xl.), their tips near Vinaceous Fawn and Fawn (xl.). Con- 
tracting uniformly from above to a broad conical base of several stout compacted 
stems. The thick main branches spread somewhat and divide rather sparingly and 
very irregularly till the last f in. is reached. Here they divide frequently into 
numerous blunt irregular prongs, often at wide angles, the prongs often divided 
again and flattened. The stout main branches and the branchlets are definitely 
rugose. Spore mass slightly but definitely coloured. Spores microscopically 
slightly coloured, elongated, oblique, mummy-shaped, not striate, 13 to 16 X 4*5 
to 5-5 fx. S.A.— On the ground, Mount Lofty, July, 1927. 

530. Clavaria corallino-rosacea J n. sp. — Clubs simple, occasionally forked 
several times, up to \\ to 2\ ins. (4 to 5*6 cm.) high, prongs when present up to 
1 cm. long, slender, attenuated downwards and also sometimes upwards, some- 
times rather flattened and grooved, solid, coral red or rosy pink (when moist a 
little pinker than Morocco Red, Dauthenay, PI. 95, Ton. 1 ; when drying shades 
of Coral Red, Pale Scarlet, Salmon Pink, PL 76), often pruinose above, when 
buried under leaves base whitish. Flesh light coral red. Spores somewhat pear- 
shaped, 6 X 3 "4 to 4 jx. On the ground, sometimes under Lantana. N'.S'.W. — 
Mosman (Kew, No. 81; D.I.C., Water-colour No. 54) and Neutral Bay, Sydney, 
April and June. 

Miss E. M. Wakefield, in reporting on No. 81, says :— "Probably the same as 
the Brisbane specimen (Bailey 241) on which the Australian record of C. mtitina 
was founded. The true miltina from South America is stouter and has no distinct 
stem. Unfortunately, the type shows no spores, but it seems unlikely that the 
Australian species would be the same." 

531. Clavaria complana, n. sp. — Forming a mass 3 ins. (7*5 cm.) high and 
5 ins. (12*5 cm.) broad. From the solid base dividing repeatedly into slender 
branches which then become flattened and expanded, and then again divide into 
slender digitate processes \ in. (6 mm.) long, pale pinkish tussore, becoming 
brownish salmon, when damp staining paper pinkish salmon. Spores hyaline, 
subspherical, 5*2 to occasionally 7 fx. N.S.W. — Sydney suburb, probablv Hornsby, 
June 13, 1916 (Kew, No. 68). 

Miss Wakefield reported as follows :— "The habit is like that of C. flabellata 
Wakef. from New Caledonia, but the colour is different and the spores larger. 
It differs from most of the other large branched forms in its hyaline spores." 

532. Clavaria sinapicolor, n. sp. — Densely branched forming masses up to 
2^ X 2^ ins. and 3X3 ins. (5*6 X 5*6 cm. and 7*5 X 7*5 cm.), near Mustard 
Yellow (xvi.) or yellower, Straw Yellow (xvi.) and Colonial Buff (xxx,), Naples 
Yellow (xvi.) or dingier, or Light Orange Yellow (Hi.)* when old near 
Chamois (xxx.) but yellower towards the tips or near Cinnamon Buff (xxix.), 
the bases of the branches paler, the stem whitish. The main branches are com- 
pacted into a broad mass at the base up to 1^ in. (3*1 cm.) thick. Dividing 
upwards repeatedly by very narrow angles into closely pressed nearly vertical more 
or less rounded rather slender slightly rugose branches, at first \ in. (6*5 mm..), 
then ^ in. (3*2 mm.) and then less in diameter, the last i to ^ in. ending usually 
in numerous rather blunt prongs, some very short, often with wider angles between 
them than in the branches. Spore mass slightly but distinctly buff-tinted or old 
gold. Spores obliquely pear-shaped to elliptical, slightly tinted microscopically, 
5*5 to 8 occasionally 10-4 X 3*8 to 4*5, occasionally 5 jw. On the ground, usually 


in Eucalyptus (e.g., E. obliqita) forests. S.A. — Mount Lofty (Kew, Nos. 65, 
75, 76), Kuitpo, National Park. N.S.W.— National Park (Kew, No. 66, Miss 
Clarke, Water-colour No. 126), Kendall, Milson Island in Hawkesbury River 
(smaller, Kew, No. 67). May to August. 

Five collections, as above, were submitted to Miss E. M. Wakefield at Kew, 
who reported as follows: — "Nos. 65 and 66 are apparently the same as No. 75 
and 76. The species is not British or North American. There is no specimen of 
C. Kalchbrenneri Miiller at Kew, and the meagre description does not fit it very 
well. It would probably be better described as new. One of Cooke's determina- 
tions of l C. coralloides/ from Ovens River, seems to* be the same species. No. 67 
has spores similar to the last, but appears to have been a smaller and less branched 
plant. The material is insufficient to enable me to judge as to habit." 

533. Clavaria ockraceo-salmonicolor , n. sp. — Compact, cauliflower-like If to 
3^ ins. (4-4 to 8'7 cm.), usually about 2£ ins. (6*2 cm.) high, 2 to 3 ins. (5 to 
7*5 cm.) broad in larger specimens. From a thick pallid base up to 1 in. (2*5 cm.) 
wide, dividing into stout branches (up to f in., 10 mm. thick) and these again 
dividing three or four times to end in blunt prong-like processes capped by several 
blunt teeth a few mm. long, angles rather rounded, branches with longitudinal 
rugae. Colour Light Ochraceous Salmon (xv.), Ochraceous Salmon (xv.), Light 
Ochraceous Buff (xv.), or Apricot Buff (xv.) when drying; when young Capuchin 
Orange (iii.), the tips yellower, which yellow may be lost when older; tips some- 
times Warm Buff (xv.) or Ochraceous Buff (xv.). Spores elongated pear- 
shaped with an oblique apiculus, in the mass yellowish-brown, microscopically 
slightly tinted, 8*5 to 13 X ^7 to 5 p, usually about 9 to 10 % 4 /x. S.A.— Mount 
Lofty (Kew, No. 71), Willunga Hill, Second Valley Forest Reserve, MacDonnell 
B. (in S.E.), April, May, June, July. 

Specimens from Mount Lofty, June 16, 1917, forwarded to Kew, were 
returned by Miss Wakefield as "not matched at Kew." 



byH. H. Finlayson 


1. Since recording the presence of Thalacomys lagotis in the Musgrave Ranges (Trans. Royal Soc. 
S. Aust., 1930, p. 178)) further specimens have been obtained from localities in the centre, 
considerably further north. 

In August, 1930, Messrs. Hale and Tindale, during the stay of the Adelaide University 
Anthropological Expedition in the Centre, obtained a male and female from the blacks at 
Macdonald Downs, about 120 miles north-east of Alice Springs. And again in August of this year, 
when attached to a similar party, Mr. A. Rau, of the Museum staff, obtained a male at Cockatoo 
Creek, on the Tanami track, about 150 miles north-west of Alice Springs, in latitude 220 S., 



PART 2. 

By H. H. Finlayson. 

[Read October 8, 1931.] 

1. Since recording the presence of Thalacomys lagotis in the Musgrave 
Ranges (Trans. Royal Soc. S. Aust., 1930, p. 178), further specimens have been 
obtained from localities in the centre, considerably further north. 

In August, 1930, Messrs. Hale and Tindale, during the stay of the Adelaide 
University Anthropological Expedition in the Centre, obtained a male and female 
from the blacks at Macdonald Downs, about 120 miles north-east of Alice Springs. 
And again in August of this year, when attached to a similar party, Mr. A. Rau, of 
the Museum staff, obtained a male at Cockatoo Creek, on the Tanami track, about 
150 miles north-west of Alice Springs, in latitude 22° S., approximately. 

All three specimens present the characters of lagotis, previously noted in the 
Opparinna example. The largest male, got at Macdonald Downs (S.A. Museum, 
M2930), had the following flesh dimensions: — Head and body, 415; tail, 270; 
pes, 100; and its skull, which is massive and strongly ridged, has a basal length 
of -98 and zygomatic breadth of 54. The female, taken at the same place, has: — 
Head and body, 320; tail, 235; pes, 88; and the skull is smooth and devoid of 
crests, and has basal length 78 and zygomatic breadth 39. Both specimens are aged 
and show about the same degree of tooth wear ; the sexual differences in size and 
contours are, therefore, extraordinarily marked. The male skull weighs 
34 grammes, and the female 15 grammes. 

Mr. L. Glauert, Director of the Western Australian Museum, has recently 
examined a splendid series of 40 lagotis, culled from Western Australian localities 
and, pending completion of his work, has been good enough to inform me in 
advance of some of his findings. It would appear that even in comparatively 
restricted areas the adult size is far from constant and varies sufficiently to 
embrace all four of the Central specimens I have noted. 

Under these circumstances, I withdraw the remark that the Central lagotis 
is a dwarfed form, as being at present insufficiently founded. 

2. The disappearance of the short-nosed bandicoot, Isoodon obesulus, from 
the greater part of South Australia is a typical example of a number of similar 
f aunal declines occurring, sometimes over areas almost continental in extent ; 
sometimes, as in this case, in restricted localities, but always without adequate 
cause being apparent. 

Originally widely distributed in this State, and in some parts in great 
numbers, Isoodon remained a common and familiar animal long after the begin- 
nings of settlement, and indeed seems to have received its first serious check not 
more than 30 years ago. Since then it has dwindled to such an extent that the 
present generation of settlers has largely forgotten even its name, and when, 
rarely, one is taken, extraordinary speculations as to its identity arc heard. In 
the last 10 years nearly all specimens obtained at the Museum have come from 
localities in the South-Eastern district, adjoining Victorian territory, where it is 
much more common, and Wood Jones' record of one from Blackwood (Mammals 
of S.A., vol. ii., p. 138) has remained unique for the Adelaide district till quite 


The causes usually quoted in explanation of these disappearances are the 
prevalence of foxes and of feral cats, the occurrence of epidemic diseases, the 
laying of poison baits, competition with the rapidly breeding rabbit, and the 
burning off of large areas at frequent intervals, and no doubt all these have played 
a part. But that these in themselves are inadequate to account for all the observed 
facts, and that other and more fundamental factors arc involved, is shown by the 
still more mysterious recurrence of "extinct" species from time to time, with no 
apparent change in ecological conditions. 

There are now unmistakable signs that the recovery of /. obesulus in the 
Mount Lofty Range is proceeding apace. During the opossum season of 1930 it 
was constantly reported as being taken by trappers, and some dozens of pelts were 
sent into the sale rooms, and during the last few months four specimens have 
come to hand from localities within 20 miles of Adelaide. 

The characters of the local race have been fully stated by Wood Jones 
(loc. cit.) 

3. From time to time reports have been received by the writer of a small 
wallaby or "kangaroo rat," occuring sparsely in spinifex country in several 
localities in the far northern areas of the State. Descriptions of its appearance 
and habits were sufficiently precise and consistent to rule out both Bettongia 
lesiieuri and B. pemctilata from its possible identity, and it appeared certain that 
it was one of the hare wallabies, probably Lagorchestes hirsutus, which was 
obtained by the Elder Expedition towards the north-west boundary of the State. 

About a year ago an opportunity occurred of questioning a practised observer 
who had seen the living animal at close quarters and had handled specimens of it, 
dead. When confronted with a series of filled skins of L. conspicillatus leichardti, 
L. c. typicus, L. hirsutus, Bettongia lesneitri, B. penicillata, and Aepyprymnus 
rufescens, he was quite emphatic that the spinifex wallaby was not represented, 

Finality has now been reached (September 10), on receipt of a skin and 
skull of the animal, which proves to be Caloprymnus campestris, described by 
Gould in 1843, recorded again by Tate in 1878, and since then a "lost" species. 

Externally it is very distinct both from the other Potoroinae and from the 
Lagorchestines, and its skull characters are, fortunately, so peculiar and pro- 
nounced as to remove any element of doubt from the identification. 

Field work in the locality of the occurrence will at once be undertaken and, 
pending its completion, a revision of the characters of the animal is deferred. 



by A. R. Alderman, M.Sc, F. G. S. 


Basic rocks have been recorded from various localities in the Mount Lofty Ranges in South 
Australia. (1) The rocks described in this paper occur as follow:- 

I. Basic dyke, sections 5267 and 5269, Hundred of Onkaparinga; about two miles east of 

II. Basic dyke, sections 3828 and 3829, Hundred of Macclesfield; one to two miles north- 
west of Mount Barker (the hill), and not far from Mount Barker Springs. 

III. Basic dyke, sections 4213, 4214, and 4216, Hundred of Onkaparinga; near Mount 
Barker Junction railway station. 



By A. R. Alderman, M.Sc, F.G.S. 

[Read October 8, 1931.] 

Basic rocks have been recorded from various localities in the Mount Lofty 
Ranges in South Australia. (1) The rocks described in this paper occur as 
follow : — 

I. Basic dyke, sections 5267 and 5269, Hundred of Onkaparinga; about 
two miles east of Woodside. 

II. Basic dyke, sections 3828 and 3829, Hundred of Macclesfield ; one 
to two miles north-west of Mount Barker (the hill), and not far 
from Mount Barker Springs. 
III. Basic dyke, sections 4213, 4214, and 4216, Hundred of Onkaparinga; 
near Mount Barker junction railway station. 

For brevity these occurrences will be referred to as: L, Woodside; 
IL, Mount Barker Springs; and III., Mount Barker Junction. References to 
these rocks have been made by Howchin, (2 > Benson, (3) and others. 

The age of the intruded sediments is somewhat doubtful, owing to their 
metamorphosed condition, but recent work by Prof. W. Howchin (4) seems to 
indicate that at Mount Barker Springs and Mount Barker Junction they are 
Upper Pre-Cambrian (Adelaide Scries). The intruded rocks at Woodside may 
be of the same age or Lower Pre-Cambrian (Barossian). 

I. The Woodside rock occurs as a broad basic dyke striking in roughly a 
north-west direction. When examined in the hand specimen the rock appears 
dark and holocrystalline. It is of porphyritic habit, felspar crystals, up to 5 mm. 
in length, being embedded in a dark fine-grained groundmass. Some specimens 
contain far more felspar phenocrysts than others. The rock analysed, and 
described first, is of the more felspathic type. 

Microscopic Features. — The structure is essentially porphyritic, in which 
large felspar phenocrysts are embedded in a groundmass consisting mostly of 
felspar and hornblende. 

The felspar is a basic labradorite, mostly in oblong forms but occasionally 
showing square cross-sections. Both albite and pericline twinning is common, 
Carlsbad twins also being occasionally seen. The felspar crystals contain innumer- 
able inclusions of all sizes, the larger of these generally being amphibole although 
sphene sometimes occurs in this way, and, of course, the felspar alteration 

Minute inclusions are extremely numerous and are very often arranged in 
rows parallel to the sides of the felspar crystals. These inclusions consist of both 
amphibole and chlorite, the latter evidently being an alteration from the former. 
The arrangement of these parallel to the crystal faces suggests inclusion of the 
mother liquors during rapid crystallisation of the felspar. Many of these small 

C 1 ) Mawson, D., Rept. A.A.A.S., vol. xviii., 1926, pp. 251-252. 

( 2 ) Howchin, W., "Geology of South Australia" (sec. ed.), 1929, pp. 61-62. 

( 3 ) Benson, W. N., Trans. Roy. Soc, S. Aust., vol. xxxi., 1909, p. 240. 

( 4 ) Howchin, W., Trans. Roy. Soc, S. Aust., vol. liii., 1929, pp. 27-32. 


inclusions are arranged with a similar optic orientation. Some of the felspar is 
somewhat obscured by dusty kaolinitic material. 

After the felspar, green hornblende is the most important mineral. It does 
not appear to be primary, but to have recrystallized in fine-grained aggregates. 
No indication of a uralitic nature is shown. It is pleochroic from light to darker 
green. The smaller individuals, and a few of the larger, show an alteration to 

Scapolite is a notable constituent and in ordinary light it resembles the felspar, 
but is easily distinguished by its higher colours between crossed nicols. Grains 
of this mineral occur adjacent to the felspars, from which they are apparently 
derived by alteration. 

Grains of zoisite are common, and although they are sometimes found in 
separate individuals they generally occur with an aggregate of kaolinitic matter 
and felspar showing a distinct poikiloblastic structure. Some small colourless 
grains in this aggregate are probably albite, suggesting that the felspar has been 

The opaque iron ore is ilmcnite, which shows an alteration to leucoxene. 

Sphene is present in dusty grey-brown grains which are occasionally wedge- 

A narrow vein of secondary quartz is to be seen in one portion of the section 

Chemical Analysis. 
Percentage. Percentage. 

Silica (Si0 2 ) 

Alumina (Al 2 O a ) . . 

Ferric oxide (Fe 2 O s ) 

Ferrous oxide (FeO) 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Lime (CaO) 

Soda (Na o 0) 

Potash (K 2 Q) 

Water (combined) (H 2 0+) 

Water (hygroscopic) (H a O-) 


Carbon dioxide (C0 2 ) 
Titanium dioxide (Ti0 2 ) 
Phosphorus pentoxide (P a O 

Sulphur (S) 

Chromic oxide (Cr ft O g ) 
Manganous oxide (MnO) 
Barium oxide (BaO) . . 







The specific gravity is 2-95. 

The Norm. 

Orthoclase 1*67 ") c -, « 

Albite 15-20 F = 67*74 ^% G yZ P 

Anorthite 50*87 ) -67*74% 

Diopside 14*52 \ p = 24-15 

Hypersthenc 9*64 j 

Olivine 2*42 O = 2*42 

Ilmenite 1*52 ] M _ A n7 Femic Group 

Magnetite 2*55 3 M " 4 U/ ~ 31*26% 

Apatite 0*34 I . rt „- 

Pyrite 0'27 5 A = U ' 61 

Water 0*71 

In the C.I.P.W. classification the position of the rock is, therefore : — 

IL, 5, 4, 4-5. 

The magmatic name is Hessose. 


The high felspar content is indicated by the high percentages of lime and 
alumina giving over 50% of anorthite in the norm. Actually a good deal of this 
lime and alumina must enter into the modal hornblende. Apart from these points 
the analysis seems quite normal for a rock of this type, and supports the idea 
gained from the mineral content that it must be classified in the basic division of 
the calc-alkali series. 

Another specimen from the same locality differs from the rock analysed 
mainly in containing a, smaller amount of felspar. This mineral, which has the 
composition of a medium labradorite, again shows twinning on the albite, pericline 
and Carlsbad laws, and contains the numerous inclusions mentioned in the 
description of the former rock. These phenocrysts, in some cases, consist of a 
number of individual crystals which have grown together. The felspars again 
have suffered an alteration round the edges to scapolite and epidote, but not to 
the extent noted in the rock analysed. The amphibole, also, is somewhat paler. 

II. The occurrence of the Mount Barker Springs rock is described by 
Howchin. He writes that : "A basic dyke, 28 yards wide, occurs about two miles 
to the north-west of Mount Barker Hill, with a strike directed towards the mount, 
and can be traced for nearly a mile; its age is undetermined." ^ In a more recent 
paper < 6 > the same writer indicates that the intruded rocks are most probably 
Adelaide Series sediments. 

In the hand specimen colourless porphyritic felspars, many measuring up to 
5 mm. in length, are embedded in a dark, somewhat greenish groundmass. 

Microscopic Features. — The porphyritic texture is again well displayed by 
the presence of large plagioclase crystals in a groundmass consisting mainly of 
hornblende and plagioclase. 

The felspar is a medium labradorite in which albite, pericline and Carlsbad 
twinning is well developed. Inclusions in the felspar phenocrysts are less 
numerous, but of the same nature as those in the Woodside rocks. 

The hornblende also is similar to that in the more f elspathic rock at Woodside. 

Granules of scapolite are associated with some of the felspar phenocrysts. 

Both zoisite and green epidote are frequently surrounded by fine sericitic 
material, these aggregates constituting alteration products of the felspar. 

Small granules of ilnienite, changing to leucoxene are plentiful. A small 
quantity of sphene is also present. 

Chemical Analysis. 

Silica (Si0 9 ) 49-29 

Alumina (AL,O q ) 18-41 

Ferric oxide "(Fe 2 3 ) . . . . 1*00 

Ferrous oxide (FeO) . . . . 5*87 

Magnesia (MgO) 8*68 

Lime (CaO) 13*03 

Soda (Na„0) 1-18 

Potash (K q O) 0-28 

Water (combined) (H 2 0+) 067 

Water (hygroscopic) (ILO-) O04 

Carbon dioxide (CO s ) 
Titanium dioxide (Ti0 9 ) 
Phosphorus pentoxide (P,,0 

Sulphur (S) ~ 

Chromic oxide (Cr fl O a ) 
Manganous oxide (MnO) 
Barium oxide (BaO) . . 


. Nil 
. 1-01 



The specific gravity is 3*00. 

("') "Geology of South Australia" (sec. ed.), 1929, p. 62. 
C°) Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., vol. liii., 1929, pp. 27-32. 


The Norm. 

Quartz 1'20 Q - 1"20 

Orthoclase 1 "67 ) Sahc Group 

Albite 9-96 F = 55*55 =56-75% 

Anorthite 43*92 3 

Diopside }&'® 9 , I P = 38-63 

Hypersthene zz*o4 ) 

Ignite 1-98 | M _ 3.37 Femjc Group 

Magnetite 1*39 j = 42 34% 

Apatite 0*34 A - 0*34 

Water 0*71 

In the C.LP.W. classification the position of the rock is, therefore :— 

III., 5, 5, 4-5. 
approaching: III., 5, 4, 4-5. 
The magmatic name is Auvergnose-Kedabekase, 
The analysis shows lower alumina, lime and soda than the Woodside rock. 
This is reflected in the smaller amount of normative felspar. The ferromagnesian 
content is correspondingly higher. In these points the norms indicate the actual 
mineralogical differences between the two rocks. It is probable that the less 
felspathic type from Woodside would be extremely similar, chemically, to that 
occurring at Mount Barker Springs. 

III. As mentioned by Howchin/ 7 > the basic dyke at Mount Barker Junction 
is not seen in outcrop, its presence being indicated by loose stones on the surface 
of cultivated land. In the hand specimen this rock bears an extremely close 
resemblance to that from Mount Barker Springs. 

Microscopic Features. — Porphyritic felspars occur in a groundmass of horn- 
blende and felspar, this structure being similar to that of the rocks described 
above. The plagioclase phenocrysts again contain numerous inclusions which 
are mostly chlorite. Extinction angles indicate that the felspar is a medium 
labradorite. This felspar, although it is corroded, differs from that of the other 
rocks in that no scapolite has been formed, although both soisite and green epidotc 
are present in small amount. The twinning of the plagioclase is confined to the 
albite and Carlsbad types, no pericline twins being seen. 

The hornblende is similar to that of the other rocks and is somewhat 

Sphene is a notable constituent, but iron ores are practically negligible. 

Chemical Analysis. 
Percentage. Percentage. 

Silica (SiCy 49-09 Water (combined) (H 2 0+) 0"89 

Alumina (Ab>O a ) . . . . 18*03 Water (hygroscopic) (ft 2 0-) 0-05 

Ferric oxide "(Fc 2 O a ) . . - . 3*35 Carbon dioxide (CO*) . . Nil 

Ferrous oxide (Fed) . . - - 4 *56 Titanium dioxide (TiO a ) . . 1*38 

Magnesia (MgO) 7*48 Phosphorus pentoxide (R,O a ) 0*21 

Lime (CaO) 12*97 Manganous oxide (MnO) . . 0*18 

Soda (Na 9 0) 1*71 *" 

Potash (K a O) 0-42 Total . . 100*32 

The specific gravity is 3*01. 

( 7 ) Loc. cit., p. 31. 


The Norm. 

Quartz 2-58 Q = 2*58 

Orthoclase 2*22 •) Salic Group 

Albite 14-15 [ F = 56-68 =59-26% 

Anorthite 40-31 ) 

topside 18-71 \ p-_^ 910 

Hypersthene 13-41 \ ~ 6 l " 

Magnetite 4"87 1 __ Femic Group 

Ilmemte 2-74 } M — / bl __ 40 . 07 % r 

Apatite 0-34 A = 0*34 

Water 0-94 

In the C.I.P.W. classification the position of the rock is, therefore:— 

III., 5, 4, 4-5. 
The magmatic name is Auvergnosc. 

The analysis shows the extreme chemical similarity between this and the 
Mount Barker Springs rock. There are, however, minor Variations in the alkalies 
and the relative amounts of iron and magnesia. 

The mode of occurrence, mineralogical nature, and chemical composition of 
these three rock types suggest that they are closely related, and that they should 
be included in that class of rock to which the misleading name epidiorite has 
been given. 

The writer would suggest, however, that the compound name dolerite- 
amphibohte could be applied advantageously to types such as have been described 
m this paper. 



from the Year November!, 1930, to October 31, 1931 


A GENERAL DISCUSSION on "Laterite and Lateritic Soils" was introduced by Professor J. A. 
Prescott, who said that "laterite was originally defined in 1807 from certain soil formations and 
geological structures in Southern India by Buchanan. Laterites occur throughout a considerable area 
of Australia, and were first recognised as such in Western Australia by Simpson and by W. G. 
Woolnough. The essential feature of the laterite consists of a capping or conglomerate of massive or 
pisolitic iron hydroxide with certain examples of aluminium hydroxide or bauxite. Soil workers 
have assumed that the process of laterization was a distinct weathering process confined to the 
tropics, but further investigation has revealed no evidence in support of this, such tropical 
weathering processes being entirely similar to those occurring in temperate zones. It is suggested, 
therefore, that laterite, as defined by geologists, is essentially a relic of former soil-forming 
processes." Professor Prescott then read a letter dealing with the subject by Dr. L. Keith Ward. Mr. 
R. J. Best then dealt with the chemical aspect, and illustrated his remarks with diagrams. 






for the Year November 1, 1930, to October 31, 1931. 

Ordinary Meeting, November 13, 1930. 

The President (Dr. Chas. Fenner) in the chair and 28 members were 

Minutes of the Annual Meeting, held October 9, 1930, were read and 

Election of Fellow. — John Irvine Miller, C.E., Crystal Brook. A ballot 
was taken and Mr. Miller was declared elected. 

Correspondence. — A letter received from Dr. A. B. Walkom, Secretary of 
the Linnean Society of New South Wales, was read, relating to the publi- 
cation of reproductions on coloured plates of some of the Australian native flora. 

A General Discussion on "Laterite and Lateritic Soils" was introduced by 
Professor J. A. Prescott, who said that "laterite was originally defined in 1807 
from certain soil formations and geological structures in Southern India by 
Buchanan. Laterites occur throughout a considerable area of Australia, and 
were first recognised as such in Western Australia by Simpson and by W. G. 
Woolnough. The essential feature of the laterite consists of a capping or con- 
glomerate of massive or pisolitic iron hydroxide with certain examples of 
aluminium hydroxide or bauxite. Soil workers have assumed that the process 
of laterization was a distinct weathering process confined to the tropics, but 
further investigation has revealed no evidence in support of this, such tropical 
weathering processes being entirely similar to those occurring in temperate zones. 
It is suggested, therefore, that laterite, as defined by geologists, is essentially a 
relic of former soil-forming processes." Professor Prescott then read a letter deal- 
ing with the subject by Dr. L. Keith W r ard. . Mr. R. J. Best then dealt with the 
chemical aspect, and illustrated his remarks with diagrams. Mr. j. G. Wood 
described the ecology of the vegetation on tropical and Australian laterite soils. 
In Burma indexing forest, Diptirocarpus tuberculaius, with associated stunted 
shrubs was confined to the laterite. The vegetation of the sand plains under about 
20-in. rainfall was dealt with, and it was shown that it was not a variant of mallee, 
as Diels suggested. In South Australia there are three large laterite areas — at 
Mount Compass, southern Fleurieu Peninsula, and central Kangaroo Island. 
Stunted stringybark Eucalyptus Baxteri is the dominant shrub in soils containing 
laterite gravel, and the shrub-gum Eucalyptus cosmophylla, with Casuarina 
striata is dominant where the ironstone crusts are exposed. Mr. Wood discussed 
the relation of these shrubs to the climax stringybark community which repre- 
sented the highest developmental phase of the vegetation in the climate under con- 
sideration. The scrub on laterite was an edaptic sub-climax of the stringy-bark 


forest prevented from normal development to high forests by soil conditions. 
He considered that the vegetation on laterite soils was not in equilibrium with 
its present environment. Mr. C. T. Madigan said that "laterite was a product of 
rock in arid regions, not, perhaps, necessarily tropical. Laterite was found over- 
lying granites and gneisses and old igneous rocks generally, and is best known 
over this class of rock. It was a residual soil, and never transplanted. Consists 
of hydrated iron oxides, hydrated alumina (bauxite), clay, quartz grains, etc^ 
Varies from pure limonite (hydrated iron oxide) to pure bauxite (hydrated 
alumina). The sand grains and clay are variable. There are large deposits in 
Se Darling Range, near Perth (W.A.), which give about 35% soluble alumina, 
and 30% iron oxide. Some has as much as 50-60% of soluble alumina, which is 
a good aluminium ore." Mr. Madigan then discussed the conditions which deter- 
mine whether rock silicates shall decay to clay (hydrated silicate of alumina) or 
to bauxite (hydrated alumina with free silica causing silicincation so common in 
Central Australia). Specimens were exhibited of Kangaroo Island laterite 
identical in appearance to some from the Irwin River m Western Australia, 
amphibolite changing to laterite, from Magna, Western Australia; slate from 
Aramdale undergoing a similar change, and typical atentes from Canegrass 
Western Australia. Dr. R. Lockhart Jack said that 'the great development of 
laterite in Western Australia is undoubtedly a product of past activity, and similar 
old lateritic bodies occur in South Australia to the west and north-west of Tar- 
coola and south of the Musgrave Ranges, as well as in the south. Topography, 
the nature of the underlying rocks, climate, and the position of the ground-water 
table must have affected its formation. The comparison with the Desert Sand- 
stone is difficult, as the laterite is characteristic of the o der rock formations such 
as granite, gneisses, and schists, while the silicincation which constitutes the Desert 
Sandstone is confined to the Jurassic and younger series. The silicincation is 
most complete at the surface, and with increasing depth gradually merges into 
weathered material. It has affected the Eyrian beds, the Cretaceous and the 
Jurassic and the physical state of the bed that has been sihcified _is shown in the 
product, which ranges from fine-textured shale, completely sihcified to quartzitic 
conglomerate. Some of the original beds are ferruginous, and the Desert Sand- 
stone over them may be limonite cemented. From topographic considerations 
there is no doubt but that this great silicincation occurred over a widespread, ill- 
drained peneplain, and under somewhat wetter conditions than are known at 
present Like travertine, it was formed by the capillary rise of mineralized water 
With dissection and the development of drainage the process ceased save at 
favoured localities, such as in the vicinity of lakes where the water-table is within 
reach of the surface. At Lake Bring (gneiss-bottomed) and Lake Woorong 
(Jurassic sands and grits) there are obviously later crusts, probably Recent m 
are At Lake Bring both iron and silica cement a fine sand-gram aggregate, 
while at Lake Woorong the cement is siliceous with a similar aggregate, which is 
dissimilar in grain to the subjacent Jurassic grits, but may have been derived from 
them by subsequent redistribution. The Woorong crust, exposed over many acres, 
is about two feet thick. Originally flat, it has been broken and tilted in all direc- 
tions by the rise of gypseous solutions from the salme ground-water and the 
deposition of microcrystalline gypsum beneath the crust. The formation of this 
gypsum argues a change of conditions in the climate resulting in increased 
salinity There seems to be no doubt but that silicincation, though no longer 
taking place on a large scale, has persisted till very recently, and that w,ith ,the 
most recent silicincation there has occurred, where supplies of iron are available, 

recent limonitic cements." .',;„,, , it . , 

The Chairman thanked the members who had dealt with the various aspects 

of the subject. 


Ordinary Meeting, April 9, 1931. 

The President (Dr. Charles Fenner) occupied the chair and 30 members 
were present. 

Minutes of the Ordinary Meeting, held on November 13, 1930, were read and 

The President extended a welcome to Mr. J. M. Black on his return from 
abroad, and then formally handed to him the Sir Joseph Verco Medal, which 
had been awarded by the Society to Mr. Black during his absence. 

Me. Black "thanked the President and Fellows for the great honour which 
the Society had seen fit to confer on him. He also wished to express his gratitude 
to Dr. L Keith Ward, Mr. J. F. Bailey, and Dr. R. S. Rogers for their kindly 
and too flattering, references to his work at the meeting of July 10 last when it 
was decided to confer the medal upon him. The name associated with the medal 
must always awake pleasant recollections in the minds of those Fellows who in 
past years, sat under the genial presidency of Sir Joseph Verco. That presidency 
endured for no less than 18 consecutive years from 1903 to 1921— a record perhaps 
only exceeded by that of Sir Joseph Banks, who for 25 years occupied the posi- 
tion of President of the Royal Society of London." Mr. Black, who represented 
the Royal Society, as well as several other Australian institutions, at the Inter- 
national Botanical Congress held at Cambridge in August, 1930, said "he hoped 
it would not be out, of place if he gave a short account of the work accomplished 
in the bection of Taxonomy and Nomenclature, to which he was attached I-t 
was at hrst feared that an agreement might not be reached between a large section 
of the Botanists of the United States of America and the rest of the world on 
the vexed question of nomma genenca conservanda, but such a spirit of friendli- 
ness and compromise was apparent from the very beginning of the proceedings that 
there is no doubt that uniformity of nomenclature will be attained in the future 
Indeed a considerable list of additional and well-known generic names was pro- 
posed for conservation, but as it was impossible for a large assembly in one week 
to deal with such a complicated subject, its consideration was relegated to a small 
committee comprising some of the ablest and most experienced authorities on 
nomenclature. It was remarkable that three of the four members of the com- 
mittee which drew up the International rules of the Vienna Congress in 1905 
(Dr J. Briquet, of Geneva; Dr. H. Harms, of Berlin; and Dr. A. B Rendle of 
London) are taking an active part in the same work today as an aftermath of 'the 
Cambridge Congress. The Congress was composed of over 1,000 members and 
represented almost every nation, including Japanese, Chinese, and Indian botanists 
the only notable absentees were the Russians. Several Professors from Moscow' 
Leningrad and Kiev were inscribed on the official programme to read papers on 
various subjects^ but as none of them appeared, and no explanation was received 
the cause ot their non-attendance could only be surmised. From the social and 
scientific points of view, the gathering was a great success. There was a recep- 
tion by the British Government at the Imperial Institute in London, and at Cam- 
bridge there were hospitable receptions by the Masters of St. John's College and 
of Downing College. At the Royal Botanic Gardens of Kew the cosmopolitan 
guests were entertained by the popular Curator, Dr. A. W. Hill." 

Election of Fellow.— Charles Ernest Cameron Wilson, M.B B S A ballot 
was taken and Dr. Wilson declared elected. 

Nomination as Fellows.— Hugh Mclntyre Birch, MRCS MRCP 
medical practitioner, Mental Hospital, Parkside ; Joseph Ronald Andrew minister 
of rehgion, Woodside; Eric Aroha Rudd, student, 10 Church Street B$Shr 

The President drew the attention of members to invitations received to 
appoint Delegates to attend the Faraday and the Clerk Maxwell Celebrations at 


the University of Cambridge, the Centenary Meeting of the British Associa- 
tion for the Advancement of Science, and the Centenary of the College of France, 

W ^^lS£tS g S^ all members who were preparing papers 
for presentation during the year, to advise the Secretary, so that a probable cost 
of publication can be obtained for the guidance of the Council. . 

P The President expressed the sincere regret of the Society -it i the loss 
sustained by the departure from this State of Dr. R. Lockhart Jack and on 
behalf of the Council and members requested the Secretary to convey to Dr. Jack 
the very best wishes and success in his new field of labour. 

P ™Delmeation of the Pre-Cambrian Plateau in Central and North Aus- 
tralia, with Notes of the Impingent Sedimentary Forma .ons, by Chas 
Chewings, Ph.D., F.G.S., was formally communicated by Mr. W. W. ^ e ' de £ 
bach AS.A.S.M. Dr. Chewings, who was present, was then invited by the 
President to sjive a resume of- the work covered by his paper. 

Mr Mabigan, Prof. Howchin, and Dr. L. Keith Ward took part in he 
discussion' which followed. Dr. Ward drew special attention to the age of the 
sediments forming Ayers' Rock, as suggested by Dr. Chewings, and said that he 
doubted, on lithological grounds, if they were younger than Cambrian age. 

The President expressed the appreciation of the Fellows to Dr. 
Chewings for his valuable contribution to the Geology of Central Australia 

Exhibits— Mr N, B Tindale exhibited some fossils from Mount Ultun, 
and from Undala, Central Australia ; they were found in horizontally bedded 
littoral marine sandstones, and although not yet critically determined appear to 
have a facies characteristic of the Ordovician. Professor Howchin exhibited 
photographs of Cryptozoon from the type district at Saratoga Springy New York 
State taken by Mr A. R. Riddle (formerly of Adelaide, now of New York.) 
The fossils are photographed in situ, exposed on a glaciated pavement. They also 
include a photograph of a metal tablet placed on the ground containing the 
following inscription in relief :-"Cryptozo6n Ledge The fossils on the surtace 
of the rock are remains of marine plants or algae which grew over the bottom ot 
the ancient Cambrian sea. They are among the oldest plants of the earth, Ihey 
grew in cabbage-shaped heads, and deposited lime in their tissues. The ledge 
has been planed down by the action of the great glacier which cut the plants 
across showing their concentric interior structure. The scientific name of these 
plants 'is Cryptozoon proliferum Hall." Mr. A. M. Lea exhibited some stag- 
beetles (Lucanidae) from New Guinea, showing an extraordinary range of varia- 
tion in the males, and for comparison the common stag-beetle of Europe (Lucanus 
cervus) and many Australian species. Also a Katipo, the dangerous red-backed 
spider (Lactrodectus hasselltii) and some new hatched ones. Another Katipo 
laid some eggs in captivity on January 14; still held captivity and without any 
possible connections with a male, a second lot of eggs was laid on February 18 J 
these duly hatched. On March 26 a third lot was laid which were now coming 
out Mr. Madigan exhibited a map he had compiled of the region m the vicinity 
of the MacDonnell Ranges from observations made during his recent aerial recon- 
naissance, and a subsequent visit to the locality ; together with information obtained 
from other observers. The President (Dr. Chas. Fenner) exhibited specimens 
and casts of leaves of Magnolia Browni, from Baker's gully, near Clarendon. 
These are found in extensive deposits of ferruginous sands and grits, preserved 
in part on the old eastward tilted peneplain surface. This fossil was formerly 
regarded as Cretaceous, but is now known to be Miocene. The matter has a 
definite bearing on the physiographic history of the Mount Lofty Ranges, as well 
as on the interesting question of the origin of our lateritic soils. Mr. J. M. 


Black showed dried specimens of Alhagi camelorum or "Camel Thorn," which 
has appeared in cultivated ground near Jamestown. It is a spiny shrub' inhabit- 
ing desert country between Nubia and North-western India, and might become 
a pest here. ' 

Ordinary Meeting, May 14, 1931. 

The President (Dr. Charles Fenner) occupied the chair and 20 members 
were present. 

Minutes of the Ordinary Meeting, held April 9, 1931, were read and 

Apologies were received from Dr. L. Keith Ward, Mr. R S Roach and 
Mr. F. C. Martin. 

The President referred to the publication of Part III,, 'The Building of 
Australia, and the Succession of Life," by Professor Walter Howchin. It was 
agreed that a letter expressing the congratulations of the Society be sent to 
Professor Howchin. 

The President announced that an invitation had been received to send a 
Delegate to the Centenary Meeting of the Royal Society, Dublin, which will be 
celebrated in June of this year. 

Election of Fellows.— Hugh Mclntyre Birch, M.R.C.S, M.R.C.P medical 
practitioner, Parkside ; Joseph Ronald Andrew, Woodside ; arid Eric Aroha Rudd 
Highgate, were balloted for and declared elected. 

Nominations as Fellows.— Nelly Hooper Woods, M.A., school teacher 
Mount Torrens; Charles Chewings, Ph. D, F.G.S., "Alverstoke," Glen Osmond' 
were read. 

Papers — 

"A Table Showing the Class Relations of the Aranda," by H. K. 
Pry, M.B., B.S., B.Sc, who exhibited diagrams showing the family relationships 
of these natives. Mr. N. B. Tindale exhibited a diagram mounted on a cylinder 
to illustrate the four class-marriage classifications of the Iliaura tribe, MacDonnel] 
Ranges, Central Australia. This diagram was based on the one devised for the 

£ ra ^ da * n > b ^ Dn H - K - Fr > r - The President, the Rev. J. C. Jennison, and 
Dr. I. D. Campbell look part in the discussion. 

"The Anatomy of an Australian Leech, Helobdella bancrofti" bv Mrs 
Effie W. Best, M.Sc j > j • 

Exhibits.— Mr. A. M. Lea exhibited a drawer of Cuckoo-wasps. These 
remarkable insects are parasitic in the nests of mud-wasps, in which they live like 
cuckoos in the nests of other birds, and similarly destroy the young of the rightful 
inhabitants. Also a drawer of dung beetles, of which three species of Pedaria act 
as cuckoos, of the genus Onthophagus. Mr. H. H. Finlayson exhibited a 
photograph of the maxilla of Neobalaena marginata, with baleen in situ and a 
baleen plate, collected by him on the West Sister Island, Bass Strait • which is 
now deposited in the South Australian Museum. He stated that although there 
were records of three strandings of this species in South Australian waters which 
led to the acquiring of osteological material, the baleen of the adult was pre- 
viously not represented in the Museum collections. 

Ordinary Meeting, June 11, 1931. 

The President (Dr. -Chas. Fenner) occupied the chair and 44 members 
were present. 

Minutes of the Ordinary Meeting, held May 14, 1931, were read and 

Election of Fellows.-Miss Nelly Hooper Woods, M.A., and Charles 
Chewings, Ph.D., F.G.S., were balloted for and. declared elected. 


Nomination as Fellow was received from Professor Sir Charles James 
Martin, Kt., C.M.G., D.Sc, University of Adelaide. 

Papers — 

"Geological Notes of the Iliaura Country, North-east of the MacDonnell 
Ranges, Central Australia," by N. B. Tindale, was taken as read. 

A number of popular lectures on "The Status of the Native Flora of South 
Australia," introduced by Mr. J. M. Black, were then delivered. Those con- 
tributing being Dr. R. S. Rogers, Mr. J. F. Bailey, Mr. J. G. Wood, Dr. R. 
Pulleine, and Professor J. B. Cleland. 

Mr. J. M. Black introduced the subject and spoke on "The Great Changes 
taking place in our Native Flora by Introduced Plants." 

Dr. R. S. Rogers described "The Orchids of this State." 

Mr. J..F. Bailey, "Cultivated Plants." 

Mr. J. G. Wood outlined the work done at Coonamore. 

Dr. R. Pulleine, "Some Flora of the Gawler Ranges." 

Professor J. B. Cleland, "Notes on Collecting." 

Mr. J. M. Black said "our Native Flora was being replaced to a very serious 
extent by alien introductions, of which many were weeds, although some, such 
as the clovers and some foreign grasses provided useful fodder. Near towns, 
and especially on the parklands of Adelaide, native plants had almost disappeared, 
and some of those which had taken their place, such as the Onion Grass (Romulea 
rosea), the Nut Grass (Cyperus rotundas), and the Two-leaved Cape Tulip 
(Homeria miniata) were pests for 'which nothing good could be said. On the 
north parklands almost the only Australian survivals were the graceful Spear 
Grass (Stipa variabilis) and the yellow-flowered liliaceous plant, Bidbine bulbosa, 
and their extent was now closely restricted. Isolation, which had lasted for tens of 
thousands of years, and the absence of all large grazing animals and of rabbits, 
had rendered the Australian flora incapable of contending with the hardier plants 
of other continents, and especially with those coming from countries whose climate 
resembled our own. The number of alien species now growing spontaneously in 
South Australia (including several garden escapes not yet thoroughly estab- 
lished) was about 450, while the native species, now almost confined to hilly and 
rocky country and the dry north, numbered over 2,000, but it must be remembered 
that the number of individual plants in foreign species was, usually, much greater 
than in those which are indigenous." 

Dr. R. S. Rogers said that "the Orchids in the State are represented by terres- 
trial forms only, the dry climate, the absence of high mountains and deep valleys 
being unfavourable to the growth of epiphytes. A transitional, Dipodium 
punctatum, which still has its epiphytic representatives in India and the Malayan 
Archipelago, occurs in the Mount Lofty Ranges. This is a leafless species, 
deficient or destitute of chlorophyll, and in its early stages dependent, to some 
extent, for its nutrition upon the roots of other plants (e.g., Candollea), 

"The distribution of the family is probably determined by an average annual 
rainfall of 10 inches, roughly represented in this State by Goyder's Line. Beyond 
this line no orchids have been recorded. It will thus be seen that their distribution 
occupies a comparatively small portion of this large State and is chiefly coastal in 
character. As a matter of fact, of the 106 species on our census, very few are to 
be found more than 100 miles north of Adelaide. 

"Those which penetrate furthest into the interior belong to the genera 
Pterostylis, Caladenia, and Thelymitra, 

"It seems remarkable that any representative of the former genera, the species 
of which are so specially adapted for shade and moisture, should ever acquire 
the physical characters necessary for existence in these comparatively arid regions. 


They meet their xerophytic conditions by enlargement of their root-system 
thickening of their stems, withering of their leaves before flowering, and the 
development of rufous tints in otherwise green flowers. Hairs are not produced 
on the vegetative parts of the plant, and only very sparsely on the flowers them- 
selves. The Caladenias, with their somewhat woody stems and very hairy habit, 
are better equipped for the rigid conditions under which they have to live, and 
except that they are stunted in growth maintain a hardy existence in the far north 
with few modifications. 

"The few Thelymitras that occur in these districts increase their root-system 
and reduce their foliage as in the case of Pterostylis. In no case do they develop 

"There is no doubt that the tubers of some of these plants do not vegetate 
annually, but remain dormant for lengthy periods during unusually dry seasons. 

"Owing to the geographical position of South Australia as the Central State, it 
is hardly to be expected that any of its genera should be endemic. As a matter of 
fact, out of 20 indigenous genera, no less than 16 are shared in common with all 
the other States; Dipodium, Orthoceras, and Spiranthes do not extend into 
Western Australia, but are distributed over other parts of the continent, and the 
remaining one, Leptoceras, extends from the Swan River along the southern coast 
to Port Phillip, but is not recorded from Tasmania. 

"In this enumeration the Northern Territory has not been included, owing to 
the scantiness of our knowledge of the orchidaceous flora of that region. There 
is, therefore, no genus which can be said to be the exclusive property of South 

"Some of our genera have a wide climatic range and extend well into the 
Australian tropics ; rather more than half of them are represented in New Zealand ; 
about a third have been reported from the Pacific and such distant stations as the 
Malayan Archipelago and New Guinea; one (Microtis) occurs in China, and 
another (Spiranthes) which is almost cosmopolitan in many temperate and 
tropical regions of the globe. 

"Although nearly all our genera are essentially Australian types, only three 
(Glossodia, Eriochilus, and Leptoceras) are peculiar to Australia. Others, such 
as Pterostylis, Caladenia, Thelymitra, Prasophyllum, Diuris, etc., with our con- 
tinent as a centre of dispersion, have outlying representatives in neighbouring 
countries and islands ; whereas a few, including Corysanthes, Cryptostylis, 
Dipodium, and possibly Microtis, may be regarded as Asiatic in their origin. 

"Spiranthes, to which I have already referred, has probably reached us from 
the New World, where it is particularly rich in species in Central and South 

"With the exception of Dipodium, which is the sole representative of the 
tribe Vandeae, all South Australian orchids belong to the Neottieae. 

"By far the best developed genera arc: — Pterostylis, with 21 species; Cala- 
denia, with 20 species; Thelymitra, 17; Prasophyllum, 14; and Diuris, 8. 

"Pterostylis, known by the vernacular name of "Greenhoods," is of special 
interest on account of its irritable labellum and intricate mechanism for fertiliza- 
tion by insects. One of its species has reached New Guinea, and others are 
recorded from New Caledonia and New Zealand. The Caladenias, popularly 
called "Spiders," are probably the most showy of our orchids and attract much 
attention, not only on account of their beauty, but also on account of their pro- 
fusion. They have no very definite odour but are all cross-pollinated by insects. 
A small member of the genus has penetrated as far north as Java, and others are 
represented in New Zealand and New Caledonia. 

"Thelymitra contains several very showy species, some of which are delight- 
fully fragrant. About half of the species are entirely dependent upon insects for 


their fertilization, the flowers of the others only expand on hot sunny days and 
are self-fertilized. 

"It is well represented in New Zealand, has been recorded from the Pacific 
Islands, and has pushed as far north as the Philippines. Prasophyllum, which 
is usually fertilized by insects but sometimes self-pollinated, is probably the least 
conspicuous of our genera. Some members of the genera are exceptionally small 
with very minute flowers, but in Western Australia I have seen others nearly six 
feet high, which constitute a conspicuous feature of the landscape. In this State 
the latter species not infrequently attains a height of 4 feet 6 inches. As in the 
case of Thelymitra, some species are delightfully fragrant. 

"Diuris is popularly known as £ Two-tails.' The species are all dainty and 
attractive and are collected in great numbers by 'flower-gatherers/ Fortunately, 
like the Caladenias, they are very abundant, otherwise they would soon be 

"They are entirely dependent on cross-fertilization. Some are pleasantly 
perfumed but the majority are without scent. It is at first rather difficult to 
understand that a genus so admirably adapted for dispersion, should be out-rivalled 
in distribution by Thelymitra. The reason possibly is, that the latter is more 
capable of adapting itself to its environment by abandoning the habit of cross- 
pollination and in rapidly acquiring that of self-pollination which makes it indepen- 
dent of any particular insect agent. A single species of Diuris has been recorded 
from Timor; otherwise the genus would appear to be restricted to Australia. 

"The endemic species in this State appear to be limited to about a dozen. 
Their number may be still less as our knowledge increases. Species regarded as 
endemic a few years ago have since been discovered in other States." 

Mr. J. F. Bailey said that "South Australia is not so well off in decorative 
species of plants as are some of the other States, those to the East embracing in 
their floras such ornate subjects as the Waratahs, Christmas Bells ( Bland f or dia), 
Wheel of Fire (Stenocarpus) , Flame Trees (Brachy chiton), and the large- 
flowering terrestrial Orchids — Phains and Calanthe; and Western Australia the 
Christmas Tree (Nuytzia), Verticordias, Hoveas, Red and Pink Flowering Gums,. 
Kangaroo Paws, and Leschenaultias. Our flora is also short of Tree Fern and 
Palms, which are sought after by horticulturists for providing landscape effects. 
The only representatives being Todea barbara among the former and Livisiona 
Mariae among the latter. 

"Nevertheless, we have a number that could be used in the garden, where 
they would hold their own with many of the imported plants, and the following 
have been noticed in gardens in and about Adelaide, 

Iridaceae — Orthrosanthits multiflorus and Patersonia glauca. 

Amarylidaceae — Crinum pedunculaium, the Murray Lily, and Calostcmma 

Proteaceae — Hakea multilineata, Banksia ornata, Grevillea lavandulacea, 
and G. ilicifolia. 

Chenopodiaceae — Atriplex nummularia, the Old Man Saltbush for hedges. 

Capparidaceae — Capparis Mitchellii, Native Orange, and C. spinosa, the 

Pittosporaceae — Pittospornm phillyreoides, the Native Willow, and Bur- 
saria spinosa, the Native Box. 

Leguminoseae — Acacia pyenantha, the Golden Wattle; A. dodonacifolia, the 
Port Lincoln Wattle (used for hedges) ; A, decurrens, the Black Wattle; 
A. longifolia, and A. fitrnesiana. Cassia Sturtii, C. eremophila, and 
C. artemesioides. Templetonia retusa, Goodia lotifolia, Crotalaria Cun- 
ninghamii, the Bird Flower; Clianthus speciosits, the Sturt Pea; and 
Szwinsona of several species. 


Rutaceae — Boronia Edwardsii, B. pilosa, Correa rubra, and C. alba. 

Tremandraceae — Tetrathcca pilosa. 

Malvaceae — Hibiscus Huegelii, Cienfuegosia hakeifolia, and Gossypium 
Sturtii, Sturt's Rose. 

Violaceae — Viola hederaceae, the Native Violet. 

Myrtaceae — Leptospemum, of several species ; Callistemon regidosus, the 
Scarlet Bottle-brush; Melaleuca squamea, M, gibbosa, and M. acuminata, 
Eucalyptus cladocalyx, and E. leucoxylon, with rose-coloured flowers. 

Labiatae — Prostanthera lasianthos the Mintbush. 

Scrophulariaceae — Veronica Derwentia, with blue and also white blooms. 

Myoporaceae — Myoporum insulare, Native Juniper or Boobialla, used for 
hedges ; and Eremophila alternifolia. 

Goodeniaceae — Scaevola aetnula. 

Compositae — Olearia grandiflora, O. pannosa, and O. teretifolia, Heli- 
chrysum bracteatum, one of the "Everlastings," and Calocephalas 
Brownii, used for edging." 

Professor Cleland, referring to Mr. Rlack and the "Handbook of Flora of 
S.A.," said, "The preparation of this Handbook has clarified the position and put 
into the hand of all a ready means of ascertaining what species have been recorded 
in this State and the distribution of each. How important exact identification 
may be is well illustrated in the recognition, for instance, of weeds, some of which 
may be pests and other familiar ones innocuous. One saitbush may be good fodder 
and another such as Atriplex Muelleri, common as a garden weed in Adelaide 
suburbs and even growing in the University grounds, quite useless. One species 
may yield an economic product, as for instance Nicotiana excelsior, a large-leafed 
tobacco chewed by the natives in Central Australia, and another very like it, in 
this case Nicotiana suavcolens, be without narcotic effect. I consider Mr. Black's 
'Flora of South Australia' the greatest Australian botanical work for more than 
fifty years. To be a systematist requires not only basal knowledge but an 
enormous range of practical experience and countless hours of toil. No branch 
of science is harder, and in these days, I am afraid, the systematic, botanist is 
often not given his place at the top of the botanical tree — so to speak, its most 
precious and toothsome fruit — but is apt to be displaced by other aspects requiring 
a less-long apprenticeship. 

"As a result of the publication of Mr. Black's Handbook a great impetus was 
given to collecting, as the large Appendix to the work shows the extent of the 
additions. As one who is a collector and has had the privilege of helping Mr. 
Black, I would like to say a few words on the subject of collecting. Though wc 
are continually thinking that finality has been reached and that all species for a 
district have been discovered, additions even of new species continue to be made. 
During the period of the publishing of Black's Flora, Morialta yielded a new 
species of spear-grass and a new State record in Lomandra caespitosa. 

"Some species escape observation on account of their flowering at an unusual 
period of the year. About 16 years or so ago, in journeying between Sydney and 
Adelaide, I dropped off the Melbourne Express at Coonalpyn in the early hours 
of the morning and had a look round. The stay was well worth while, as it yielded 
at least one new species, a heath Leitcopogon Clelandii, as named by Mr. Cheel 
of the Botanic Gardens in Sydney. For long this remained the only record. A 
specimen not in flower but presumably this was recorded for Kangaroo Island, 
now I find it quite a widely distributed species growing in damp sandy loam with 
a clay bottom. It occurs near Encounter Bay, and I have just collected it in a 
heath near Mount Burr, and also near Bangham in the South-East, It is a May- 
flowering species, it being small is likely to be missed during the rest of the year. 
One does not look in the late Autumn as a time for flowering but several of our' 


Epacrids bloom in May. Epacris impressa is a great sight. Styphelia exarrhena 
with rather prickly leaves and white flowers is very pretty. The flowering time of 
a plant is often a very definite and limited period and in many cases occurs at the 
same time each year. This is very important as a separation by even only a few 
days will prevent the chance of cross-fertilization. Thus a slight mutation, 
causing a group of seedlings to flower a few days earlier or a few days later than 
the rest of the species, secures in some cases as complete isolation as separation 
by oceans. The new race must breed within itself, and gradually, minor variations 
build up what is a new species. We have had plants, isolated on islands, tend in the 
long run to become specifically distinct from those, on the mainland. The same 
result may follow mutational departure from the normal flowering time. The 
two little grasses, Air a caryphythus and A. ininata, seem to flower at different 

"Eucalyptus, as far as I can see, flowers at irregular times in many cases. An 
accurate record of flowering periods would be of considerable interest. What 
seems to me very extraordinary is that all the plants of a particular species that 
is in flower will be in flower together over a very wide expanse of country and 
in localities differing in surroundings and altitude. If A\ rostrata (a rather 
shy flowerer) is in bloom, every red gum tree practically that one meets with over 
a very wide range will be in flower. This may even be a guide as to the identifica- 
tion of the species at a distance. If it is in flower it must almost certainly be 
such-and-such which is in bloom. As the Eucalypts flower at irregular periods, 
from time to time flowering periods of two species will overlap and this gives a 
chance for cross-fertilization. It has recently been suggested that most, if not 
all, of our Eucalypts and Proteaceae are really hybrids, because so many pollen 
grains are abortive and so much seed is sterile. I must say that I cannot follow 
the late Professor Lawson to the extent he implies, but true crosses do unquestion- 
ably occur, and we recently had an example, found by Mr. Julius and Mr. Pinches, 
of the Forestry Department, at Mount Burr, the tree being an obvious cross 
between E. rostrata and E. ovata!' 

In the discussion which followed, Professor Richardson endorsed the view 
expressed by Mr. Black, that the native herbaceous species of Victoria and South 
Australia were being gradually replaced by alien species. Prior to the settlement 
of Australia, the edible endemic flora was in equilibrium with a light grazing, 
nomadic, marsupial population. The advent of the white man with his plough, fire- 
stick, and his herds of grazing cattle and sheep, and incidentally his drov'es of 
rabbits, upset the age-old balance between the endemic flora and native fauna. The 
floristic balance of vegetation was destroyed, and a new impetus was. given to 
competitive influences. 

The domestic animals graze with an intensity far in excess of the native 
fauna, because the animals are confined in relatively large numbers on specific 
areas, whereas prior to settlement the nomadic marsupials were free to roam 
over the entire continent. 

The most marked result of the imposition of this intensive biotic factor on 
native species was to cause the palatable, nutritious grasses, such as the JDan- 
thonias, Themelias, and Stipas to be eaten out and replaced by the more aggressive 
introduced aliens. 

In the northern parklands, except on the stony dry hillsides, the native 
vegetation had been almost entirely replaced by such unpalatable species as 
Romulea, or by plants with a rosette habit of growth, such as Erodium, largely 
as a result of continuous heavy grazing by stock taken on agistment. 

Investigations, on native pastures at the Waite Institute showed that by the 
cutting of pasture at fortnightly intervals for two years — thus simulating inten- 
sive grazing— the native species were almost entirely replaced by exotic species. 


In the arid areas the indigenous perennial species of Kochia and Atriplex 
were better able to compete with exotic species, but even at Koonamore, as was 
shown by Mr. Wood, overgrazing had led to the destruction of edible indigenous 
species, and the process of regeneration was exceedingly slow. 

Thus the introduced species were better able to withstand the effect of the 
biotic factor than the indigenous species, and it seemed inevitable that in course 
of time, especially in the settled areas of the State, the exotic species must ulti-' 
mately replace the native species. 

Looking at the matter from the economic point of view, the introduction of 
exotic species had resulted in a great increase in stock-carrying capacity of 
pasture lands. In view, however, of the objectionable characteristics of many 
introduced species, the suggestion of Professor Cleland for some system of con- 
trolled immigration of alien species should be supported. 

Ordinary Meeting, July 9, 1931. 

The President (Dr. Chas. Fenner) occupied the chair and 38 members were 

Minutes of the meeting held on June 11, 1931, were read and confirmed. 

Election of Fellow. — Professor Sir Charles James Martin, Kt, C.M.G., 
D.Sc. A ballot was taken and Sir Chas. Martin declared elected. 

The President acknowledged, with thanks, the kindness of Professor 
Walter Howchin in presenting to the Society two volumes, comprising 68 papers, 
which contained researches of the Professor in connection with the Geology of 
South Australia, and expressed the very deep appreciation of all the members. 
Sir Douglas Mawson supported the remarks of the President, and expressed his 
admiration for the manner in which Professor Howchin had carried out, and 
was still carrying out, his work. Professor Howchin thanked the President, Sir 
Douglas Mawson, and the Fellows for the expressions of appreciation. 

The President extended a welcome to Miss Nelly Woods and Dr. Chas. 
Chewings as new Fellows. 

Papers — 

"On the Class System, Kinship, Terminology, and Marriage Regulations 
of the Australian Native Tribes," by H. K. Fry, B.Sc, M.B., B.S. 

"Notes on Some Miscellaneous Coleoptera," by Arthur M. Lea, F.E.S. 

Discussion on Mr. N. B. Tindale's paper, "Geological Notes on the Iliaura 
Country, Central Australia." Mr. Tindale gave a brief geological description of 
the. country embodied in the paper, which was presented at the last Ordinary 
Meeting of the Society, and taken as read. Professor Howchin drew attention 
to the fact that the paper proved the existence of Ordovician beds a considerable 
distance farther north-easterly than previously recorded, namely, to the north 
and east of the MacDonnell Ranges. 

Sir Douglas Mawson and Mr. Madigan also took part in the discussion. 

The President then expressed the pleasure of the Fellows at the presence 
of one of the most distinguished Fellows of the Society, Sir Douglas Mawson, 
and congratulated him on the success of his two expeditions to the Antarctic. 
Sir Douglas Mawson thanked the President and Fellows for their expressions 
of goodwill. 

Exhibits. — After reading his paper, Mr, Lea exhibited some buffalo flies 
from North Australia, where they are seriously troublesome to cattle; also a 
remarkable fly from Sydney, which is parasitic upon cockchafer beetles; and some 
stag flies from Papua, with horns on the head of the males like those of stags. Sir 
Douglas Mawson made a few introductory remarks in connection with the find- 
ing of Meteoric Iron in Central Australia, the details of which were then explained 


by Mr. A, R. Alderman, who said that the specimens exhibited were some of the 
800 odd collected around the twelve or thirteen meteoric craters at Henbury 
Station, Central Australia. The largest crater is oval in shape and 200 yards 
long and 50-60 feet deep. This crater is second only in size to the great crater at 
Canyon Diablo, Arizona. After the discussion which followed, the President 
formally thanked Mr. Alderman for his exhibit. Mr. H. H. Finlayson exhibited 
and made some remarks upon parts of a steel trap which had been chewed by a 
large male Tasmanian Devil, Sarcophihts harrisi, which was taken by him in 
western Tasmania. The skull of the animal was shown, also some of the stomach 
contents which included part of a '303 bullet ingested with a wallaby carcase used 
for bait. Dr. Wm. Christie exhibited some leaves preserved in Bailey's solution 
(glycerine 1 and water 4), and a series of pictures of plants and flowers drawn 
by pupils in the State schools who were affected by colour blindness. The Presi- 
dent exhibited fossil leaves of Magnolia and Laurel obtained from Baker's Gully 
in the Mount Lofty Ranges.. Mr. C T. Madigan exhibited geological specimens 
of Archaeocyathinae limestone from the MacDonnell Ranges (River Ross), which 
was the first discovery of this Cambrian fauna in Central Australia; also some 
Cryptozoon limestone from Central Australia, and some large crystals of mica, 
tourmaline, felspar, sargenitic quartz (tourmaline needles in quartz), and garnet 
from Harts Range, Central Australia. 

Professor T. Harvey Johnston then expressed the very best wishes of the 
Fellows to the President, on a safe, happy, and successful journey to England, 
where Dr. Fenner would be attending various scientific functions as the represen- 
tative of this and other societies in Australia. The President thanked the Fellows 
for the expressions of goodwill and kind remarks. 

Ordinary Meeting, August 13, 1931. 

The Junior Vice-President (Professor J. A. Prescott) occupied the chair 
and 29 members and visitors were present. 

Minutes of the meeting held on July 9, 1931, were read and confirmed. 

The Chairman apologized for the absence of the President (Dr. Chas. 
Fenner) who was proceeding overseas to attend various scientific celebrations, 
and the senior Vice-President (Professor T. Harvey Johnston) who was in 
Central Australia with the Adelaide University Anthropological Expedition. 

The Chairman informed the members that he was very pleased to be able 
to state that the services of Mr. J. F. Bailey would still be retained by this Slate 
at the Botanic Gardens, and also as a member of Council of this Society. 

Professor Prescott then asked that consideration be given to making an 
Award of the Sir Joseph Verco Medal for 1931, and submitted the name of Sir 
Douglas Mawson as the only recommendation from the Council. Professor 
Prescott gave a brief account of the high qualifications held by Sir Douglas, his 
contributions to the knowledge of the Geology of this State, and his important 
exploration work in the Antarctic. Mr. J. M. Black formally moved, and Mr. 
B. S. Roach seconded, that the recommendation of the Council be confirmed. — 

Nominations as FELLOws.^Oscar Westcott Frewin, M.B., B.S., medical 
practitioner, Hindmarsh, and John Matthew Dwyer, M.B., B.S., medical practi- 
tioner, Adelaide Hospital, were read. 

Papers — ■ 

"A Study of the Vegetation of the Lake Torrens Plateau, South Aus- 
tralia," by (Miss) B. Jean Murray, B.Sc, communicated by J. G. Wood, M.Sc. 

Mr. J. M. Black, Mr. C. T. Madigan, Mr. W. Weidenbach, Mr. E. H. Jsing, 
and Professor J. A. Prescott took part in the discussion of the paper. 


"Atmospheric Saturation Deficit in Australia," by Professor J. A. Pres- 
cott, M.Sc., A.LC. 

Mr. Edwin Ashby and Mr. J. G. Wood took part in the discussion which 

Mr. Edwin Ashby then delivered an instructive and interesting lecture 
on "The Evolution of Chitons/' illustrated by drawings and lantern slides. At the 
conclusion the Chairman expressed the thanks of the members to the lecturer. 

Special Meeting, September 10, 1931, at 7.45 p.m. 
The Senior Vice-President (Professor T. Harvey Johnston) occupied the 
chair and 25 members were present. 

Consideration was given to the Amended Rules and By-laws of the Society 
as recommended by the Council, a copy of which had been sent to all memberjs 
resident in the State. 

Further amendments were made to : — 

Rules — Number 23 and 28. 
By-laws — V. No. 1, Library Committee. 
VI. No. 3, Meetings of Society. 
VII. Nos. 6 and 12, Papers. 
Mr. Roach then moved, and Professor Prescott seconded, that the Rules and 
By-laws be adopted. — Carried. 

Ordinary Meeting, September 10, 1931, at 8.5 p.m. 

The Senior Vice-President (Professor T. Harvey Johnston) occupied 
the chair and 51 members and visitors were present. 

Mr. B. S. Roach declared that he had read the Minutes of the Ordinary 
Meeting, held August 13, 1931, and could certify that they constituted a correct 
record, and moved that they be taken as read. Professor J. A. Prescott seconded 
the motion, which was carried. 

Election of Fellow's. — Oscar Westcott Frewin, M.B., B.S., medical prac- 
titioner, Hindmarsh, and John Matthew Dwyer, M.B., B.S., medical practitioner, 
Adelaide Hospital. A ballot was taken and Dr. Frewin and Dr. Dwyer were 
declared elected. 

At 8.15 p.m. the Patron of the Society, His Excellency the Governor, Brig.- 
Gencral the Hon. A. A, Hore-Ruthven, V.C., K.C.M.G., C.B., D.S.O., was warmly 
welcomed by the Chairman. 

Professor T. Harvey Johnston expressed the delight of the Fellows at the 
presence of Sir Wm. Mitchell and Naval Lieut. K. Oom, who was cartographer 
on the "Discovery." 

Professor Harvey Johnston extended a warm welcome to Lady Mawson, 
and then read letters of apology from Sir George Murray and Sir Joseph Verco. 

The Chairman then addressed the members as follows :— 

"Tonight the Royal Society of South Australia has met to offer one of its 
members the highest honour that it has in its power to confer, and by so doing 
feels that it is also honouring itself by adding so illustrious a name as that of 
Sir Douglas Mawson to its roll of the recipients of the Verco Medal. This award, 
which commemorates the name of Sir Joseph Verco who devoted so much of his 
time, talent, and substance to furthering the interests of our Society, has been 
bestowed twice previously, namely, to our veteran geologist, Professor W. 
Howchin, and to our distinguished botanist, Mr. J. M. Black. 

"The absence of our President who is on a visit to England to attend the 
meeting of the British Science Association, has placed on me, as Senior Vice- 


President, the duty of eulogizing Sir Douglas Mawson before I call upon His 
Excellency to make the presentation. It is perhaps appropriate that this privilege 
has fallen on me, firstly because I have known Sir Douglas for a longer period 
than most of the members, since we were fellow-students in Science in Sydney 
University twenty-seven years ago ; secondly, because we are colleagues in the 
University of Adelaide; thirdly, because it has been my privilege to accompany 
him as a member of the two recent expeditions to the Antarctic in the 'Discovery/ 
and to visit with him the scene of some of his former hardships and triumphs. 

"Mawson's fame as an explorer and geographer is so great that one is apt to 
overlook his fine record of physical, geological, and mineralogical research work. 
Our Memoirs and Transactions for the past quarter of a century contain many 
of his papers relating to the structure of Central and South Australia, while 
numerous papers have appeared in British and American Journals. His earliest 
expedition was one to study the geology of the New Hebrides, in 1903. Soon 
afterwards he was appointed to the geological staff of the Adelaide University. 
His first experience of polar conditions was obtained as a member of Shackleton's 
British Antarctic Expedition (1907-9) in which, in company with his teacher, 
Professor (now Sir Edgcworth) David (also a member of our Society), and 
Dr. Mackay, he made the first ascent of Mount Erebus (13,350 feet), and, later, 
discovered the South Magnetic Pole, the accounts of these two journeys, as given 
in The Heart of the Antarctic,' making thrilling reading. Dr. H, R. Mill, in his 
'Life of Sir Ernest Shackleton/ in referring to the work of David and Mawson 
on those occasions, said that they 'proved themselves to be worthy to rank with 
the foremost polar explorers of all time.* Professor David, in his account of the 
South Magnetic Polar journey, wrote of Mawson: — 'He had throughout the whole 
journey showed excellent capacity for leadership, fully justifying the opinion held 
of him by Lieut. Shackleton when providing in my instructions from him that, in 
the event of anything happening to myself, Mawson was to assume leadership/' 

"The experience gained in that expedition was fully utilized when Mawson 
planned the Australian Antarctic Expedition which carried out such excellent 
work during the years 1911 to 1914, contemporaneously with the last Scott 
(Terra Nova') Expedition and Amundsen's bold dash to the South Pole. 
Gordon" Hayes, in his book 'Antarctica/ makes frequent reference to the character 
and work of Mawson's Expedition, and I take the liberty of quoting his words. 
He stressed the fact that seventeen University men were included in the personnel 
of 'the finest expedition that ever sailed to either of the polar regions/ 
'. . . ^ The British were only feeling their way into Antarctica and serving 
their novitiate in its exploration until Sir Douglas Mawson's Expedition/ 
'Mawson's Expedition may be held up ... as a model for others to copy.' 
Its excellence lay in its design, its scope and its executive success; and it owes 
its exalted position amongst other expeditions mainly to the fact that it was 
originated and conducted by scientists of administrative ability/ , . . The 
results of Mawson's Expedition bear a closer resemblance to the splendid pioneer- 
ing of Admiral Ross than that of any other Antarctic Exploration/ 'Mawson's 
results far exceed all others (i.e., Amundsen's, Scott's two, Shackleton's) because 
he made the greatest inroad into the unknown with the finest scientific staff. 
No other expedition equals the Australasian one in the wealth and importance 
of the data collected and in results generally/ No less than 1,500 miles of coast 
line were discovered in the windiest country in the world, aptly termed 'The Home 
of the Blizzard/ New seas were explored and huge biological and geological 
collections made. 

"His tragic experiences in his far eastern journey, so simply told in his diary 
and recorded in his book, are known to all of us — the loss of Ninnis and most of 
the dogs and food down an enormous crevasse, and then the death of Mertz, and 


the long, dangerous, solitary journey which led Mawson back, worn and starved, 
to safety just in time to see the relief ship disappearing in the distance Hayes 
in referring to Mawson's action regarding Mertz, says, This is one of the finest 
examples of heroism that even the exploration of Antarctica has produced. ... 
The moral effect of this second fatality must have been dreadful. One Antarctic 
explorer told the author that he was doubtful whether any other man but Mawson 
would have survived the ordeal. Nearly every factor of hardship incidental to 
polar travel had to be endured. ... His only hope was that if he could get 
near enough to the Ease, his diary might be discovered with his body, '.and thus 
the discoveries made by his party would not be lost/ _ 

"During the last 'Discovery' Expedition we visited Cape Demson, and as 1 
stood at the foot of the cross and read the inscription: 'Erected to commemorate 
the supreme sacrifice made by Lieut. B. E. S. Ninnis and Dr. X. Mertz m the cause 
of Science A. A. E., 1913/ I tried to imagine what the; feelings of Sir Douglas 
must have been as past events recalled themselves to his memory during the few- 
days of our sojourn in that blizzard-swept region. 

"The call of the 'Great White South' was responded to again, and after years 
of preparatory work, the B.A.N.Z.A.R.E. (British, Australian and New Zealand 
Antarctic Research Expedition) was launched, Scott's old ship, the 'Discovery, 
being made available for extensive exploration and oceanographic work in the 
Antarctic and Subanlarctic, I believe that the results, when published, will indicate 
that the two voyages, 1929-1930 and 1930-31, have resulted m the exploration of 
a much greater length of the Antarctic coastline and a more intensive oceano- 
graphic study of the two Antarctic waters than has been accomplished by any 
other expedition to date, and the credit of this is due, primarily, to Sir Douglas 
Mawson's leadership, organising ability, wide experience, his knowledge of men, 
and his appreciation of scientific team work. He has received many well-deserved 
honours. His Majesty has conferred on him Knighthood as well as the O.B.E., 
and the Polar Medal (with two bars). He has also received the Order of the 
Crown of Italy, and the Order of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus, another Italian 
decoration. The Royal Society of London elected him a F.R.S. The Royal 
Geographic Society of London awarded him a special medal struck for the 
Shackleton Expedition, and in 1914 the Founder's Medal for his work in the 
Australian Expedition. . 

"Other medals awarded to him for his geographical and geological work, 
were the Livingstone Medal of the American Geographical Society; the Helen 
Cuver Medal of the Chicago Geographical Society; the gold medal of the. Geo- 
graphical Society of Paris; the Nachtigal Medal of the Berlin Geographical 
Society; the Bigsby Medal of the Geological Society of London (for general 
ecological research work) ; the Mueller Memorial Medal of the Australasian Asso- 
ciation for the Advancement of Science; the Founder's Medal of the Royal Geo- 
graphical Society of Australia (Queensland Branch) ; and now our Society desires 
to add the Sir Joseph Verco Medal for research to the other nine already received 
by our distinguished Past President, Professor Sir Douglas Mawson, who, we all 
hope, will live long to enjoy his well-earned distinctions and to pursue with 
unabated zeal his researches into the hidden mysteries of Nature and Science. 

"I have much pleasure in inviting our esteemed Patron, His Excellency the 
Governor, to make the presentation on behalf of the members of the Royal Society 
of South Australia." . 

His Excellency the Governor, on presenting the medal to Sir Dougla's 
Mawson, paid a glowing tribute to his qualifications as a Leader of Men, and as 
a Scientist. _ 

Sir Douglas Mawson, in acknowledging the medal, said he was deeply 
sensible, of the honour conferred on him. He stressed the importance of having 


the right men on the expeditions, and said the success o£ the expeditions was due 
to the type of men who made the voyage. 

Mr, N. B. Tindale exhibited a series of seventeen plaster casts of faces and 
busts of Central Australian aborigines. The impressions for these were made by 
Mr. H. M. Hale and himself at Cockatoo Creek, 150 miles north-west of Alice 
Springs, during the Adelaide University and Museum Anthropological Expedition, 
August, 1931. Members of both sexes of the Ilpirra, Anmatjera, Ngalia, and 
Aranda tribes, between the approximate ages of 12 and 65 years, were repre- 
sented. The bush natives proved to be excellent subjects, and displayed marked 
self-control and confidence throughout the operations. The methods employed 
are similar to those practiced by Dr. V. Suk, of Czeco-Slovakia, and others; the 
eyes remaining open during the whole proceedings. Improvements in technique 
have been devised which permit the obtaining of a complete mould of both sides 
of the face and neck in one operation. The data obtained during the anthropo- 
metric examinations enable the eyes and skin colour to be matched in the com- 
pleted casts. Professor Cleland, Dr. Campbell, and the Chairman took part in the 
discussion which followed. 
Papers — 

"The Dead Rivers of South Australia, Part L, The Western Group," by 
Professor Walter Howchin, F.G.S., who illustrated his remarks with maps and 
diagrams. Sir Douglas Mawson, Mr. Madigan, and Dr. Chewings discussed Pro- 
fessor Howchin's paper. The Chairman extended the thanks of those present to 
Professor Howchin for his interesting remarks. 

"The Mammals of the Dawson Valley, Queensland, Part I.," by H. H. 
Finlayson. It was moved by Professor J. A. Prescott, seconded by Mr. B. S. 
Roach, that the paper be taken as read. 

Annual Meeting, October 8, 1931. 

The Senior Vice-President (Professor T. Plarvey Johnston) occupied 
the Chair and 42 members and visitors were present. 

Minutes of the Special and Ordinary Meetings, held September 10, 1931, 
were read and confirmed. 

Mr. B. S. Roach referred to the loss sustained by the death of Sir John 
Monash and moved that a wreath and the following telegram be sent: "With 
the deepest sympathy and in admiration for the career of a great Australian 
citizen, renowned in war and distinguished in applied science. This wreath 
is forwarded by the Royal Society of South Australia." The motion was 
seconded by Dr. L. Keith Ward and carried by the Fellows standing in 
silence for a few minutes. 

The Chairman heartily congratulated Professor J. A. Prescott on behalf 
of the Fellows on having been awarded the Henry George Smith Medal by the 
Australian Chemical Institute for his researches in Applied Chemistry. 

The Secretary read the Annual Report of the Council for the year ended 
September 30th, 1931. It was moved by Mr. Selway, seconded by Professor 
Cleland, that the Report be received and adopted. — Carried 

The Treasurer presented the Financial Statement for the year ended 
September 30, 1931, and moved that it be received and adopted. Seconded by 
Mr. Selway and carried. 

The Chairman extended a welcome to Dr. John M. Dwyer as a new Fellow. 
^ The Chairman then drew attention to the valuable services rendered to the 
Society by the Honorary Editor, Treasurer, and Secretary. 

Professor Prescott moved, and Mr. Bailey seconded, that the appreciation 
of the Fellows for the services rendered by those Officers be recorded in the 
Minutes. — Carried. 


The following Officers and Members of Council were elected for the year 
1931-32:— President, Professor T. Harvey Johnston, M.A., D.Sc. ; Vice-Presi- 
dents, Professor J. A. Prescott, M.Sc, A.I.C., and Mr. J. M. Black; Editor, 
Professor Walter Howchin, F.G.S. ; Treasurer, B. S. Roach ; Secretary, Ralph W. 
Segnit, M.A., B.Sc. ; Members of Council, Sir Joseph C. Verco, M.D., F.R.C.S., 
T. D. Campbell, D.D.Sc, Herbert M. Hale; Auditors, W. C. Hackett and O. 

Papers — 

"Pollination of Caladenia deformis R. Br.," by R. S. Rogers, M.A., M.D. 

"Additions to the Flora of South Australia, No. 29," by J. M. Black. 

"Australian Fungi, Notes and Descriptions, No. 8," by Professor J. B. 
Cleland, M.D. 

"Notes on Some South and Central Australian Mammals, Part II.," by 
H. H. Finlayson. 

"Pelecypoda obtained from the Abattoirs Bore," by Nelly Hooper 
Woods, M.A. 

"Petrographic Notes on Some Basic Rocks from the Mount Barker and 
Woodside Districts," by A. R. Alderman, M.Sc, F.G.S. 

Exhibits. — Dr. L. Keith Ward exhibited "Widmanstatten" Figures on the 
Henbury Meteoric Iron, and said that when a polished surface of a meteoric iron 
is etched by immersion for a few minutes in dilute nitric acid, markings are pro- 
duced which are named after the German chemist who first brought them to 
notice. The markings are composed of interlocking plates of nickel-iron alloys, 
known as kamacite — and taenite, with the interstices filled by an entectic mixture 
termed plessite. The proportion of iron to nickel in kamacite ranges from 
13: 1 to 18:1, and in taenite from 1:1 to 7:1. The "Widmanstatten" figures 
are the result of the differences in the solubility of the alloys in acid. Mr. A. G. 
Edquist exhibited some wattle seedlings of the species Acacia decurrens 
grown from seeds that had been boiled for various times, extending from 25 to 
40 minutes. 


For the Year ended September 30, 1931. 

The average attendance of Fellows at the meetings held during the year has 
been 36. 

The Patron of the Society, His Excellency the Governor Brig.-General the 
Hon. A. A. Hore-Ruthven, V.C., K.C.M.G., C.B., D.S.O., paid an official visit 
to the Society at the Ordinary Meeting held in September. 

The President, Dr. Charles A. E. Fenner, left Australia for England early in 
August to attend the Centenary Meeting of the British Association for the 
Advancement of Science, and the Clerk Maxwell Celebrations at Cambridge, as 
the Representative Delegate of this Society, and the best wishes of the Fellows 
were extended to him for a happy and successful voyage. 

The Senior Vice-President, Professor T. Harvey Johnston, and on one 
occasion the Junior Vice-President, Professor J. A. Prescott, acted as Chairmen 
during the absence of the President. 

Professor Sir Douglas Mawson, a past President of the Society, was awarded 
the Sir Joseph Verco Medal for 1931, which was handed to him by the Patron. 

Professor Walter Howchin received the congratulations of the Society on 
the completion and publication of Part III., "The Building of Australia and the 
Succession of Life." 


Professor Sir Douglas Mawson and Professor T. Harvey Johnston were 
welcomed and congratulated by the Society on their safe return from the second 
phase of the Antarctic Expedition. 

Professor Kerr Grant was elected as the Representative of the Society to 
the Faraday Celebrations at Cambridge. 

Dr. A. Lewis was elected as the Representative Delegate of the Society to the 
400th Centenary Celebrations of the College of France at Paris. 

Sir William Bragg, an Honorary Fellow of the Society, received the con- 
gratulations of the Fellows on having had the distinguished honour of the Order 
of Merit conferred upon him. 

Sir Horace Lamb, a past President of the Society, was congratulated on 
having had the distinction of Knighthood conferred upon him. 

During the year two of the Ordinary Meetings of the Society were devoted 
to special subjects in the form of a series of lectures, which were largely attended. 
The first was a "General Discussion on Laterite and Lateritic Soils," introduced 
by Professor J. A. Prescott, who was assisted by Mr. R. J. Pest, Mr. J. G. Wood, 
Mr. C. T. Madigan, and Dr. R. Lockhart jack. The second consisted of a series 
of lecturettes on "The Status of the Native Flora of South Australia," at which 
the following Fellows contributed short lectures :— Mr. J. M. Black, Dr. R. S. 
Rogers, Mr. J. F. Bailey, Mr. j. G. Wood, Dr. Robert Pulleine, and Professor 
J. B. Cleland. 

At the Ordinary Meeting held in August, Mr. Edwin Ashby delivered an 
interesting lecture on "The Evolution of Chitons." 

During the year the Rules and By-laws of the Society have been revised and 

Papers : — 

Geological papers were contributed by Dr. Chas. Chewings, Mr. N. B. 
Tindale, Professor Walter Howchin, Mr. A. R. Alderman, and Miss 
N. H. Woods. 
Zoological papers were read by Mrs. Effie W. Best, Mr. Arthur M. Lea, 
and Mr. H. H. Finlayson. 

Botanical papers were presented by Miss B. Jean Murray (communicated 
by Mr. J. G. Wood), Dr. R. S. Rogers/ Mr. J. M. Black, and Prof. 
J. B. Cleland. 
Two Anthropological papers were read by Dr. H. K. Fry. 
A Meteorological paper was contributed by Professor J. A. Prescott. 
The Membership of the Society shows a slight increase, the number of 
Fellows elected during the year being 11. Seven Fellows resigned, and one died. 
The Membership roll at the close of the year is as follows: — Honorary Fellows, 
5; Fellows, 166; Associates, 1. Total, 172. 

During the year the Society has suffered loss by death of one Fellow, namely, 
Dr. Thomas James, who was elected a Fellow in 1893. 

The Council has met on 12 occasions, of which 3 were special meetings, the 
attendance being as follows : — 

Dr. Charles Fenner, 9; Professor T. Harvey Johnston, 8; Professor J. A. 
Prescott, 7; Mr. Ralph W. Segnit, 12; Mr. B. S. Roach, 12; Professor Walter 
Howchin, 12; Sir Joseph C. Verco, 0; Dr. T. D. Campbell, 7; Mr. J. M. Black, 
9; Mr. J. F. Bailey, 11 ; Mr. Arthur M. Lea, 11 ; Mr. C. T. Madigan, 7. 

The President was absent from two meetings whilst attending Science cele- 
brations in England as a Representative Delegate of this Society. Professor T. 
Harvey Johnston was away from two meetings, due to his absence from the State 
in connection with the Antarctic Expedition, and was in the interior of Australia 


during the August meeting. Professor J. A. Prescott was granted leave of absence 
from three meetings to attend Science meetings in Melbourne and Tasmania. 
Dr. T. D. Campbell was in the interior of Australia during the August meeting. 
Mr. J. M. Black was granted leave of absence from two meetings to visit EngM 
land and the Continent. Mr. J. F. Bailey was granted leave of absence in March 
■ to visit Victoria. Mr. C. T. Madigan was absent from two meetings whilst in 
Central Australia. 

Chas. A. E. Fenner, President. 

Ralph W. Segnit, Secretary. 


The Council, on August 23, 1928, having resolved to recommend to the 
Fellows of the Society that a medal should be founded to give honorary distinction 
for scientific research, and that it should be designated the Sir Joseph Verco 
Medal, was submitted to the Society at the evening meeting of October 11, 1928, 

and at a later meeting, held on November 8, 1928, when the recommendation of 
the Council was confirmed on the following terms: — 


XL — The medal shall be of bronze, and shall be known as the Sir Joseph 
Verco Medal, in recognition of the important service that gentleman has 
rendered to the Royal Society of South Australia. On the obverse side of 
the medal shall be these words: 'The Sir Joseph Verco Medal of 
the Royal Society of South Australia/ surrounding the modelled 
portrait of Sir Joseph Verco, while on the reverse side of the medal there 
shall be a surrounding wreath of eucalypt, with the words: 'Awarded 

to for Research in Science,' the 

name of the recipient, and the year of the award. The Council shall select 
the person to whom it is suggested that the medal shall be awarded, and 
that name shall be submitted to the Fellows at an Ordinary Meeting 
to confirm, or otherwise, the selection of the Council, by ballot or show 
of hands. The medal shall be awarded for distinguished scientific work 
published by a Member of the Royal Society of South Australia." 






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1902. — On the motion of the late Samuel Dixon it was resolved that steps 
be taken for the incorporation of the Society and the establishment of an 
Endowment and Scientific Research Fund. Vol. xxvi., pp. 327-8. 

1903. — The incorporation of the Society was duly effected and announced. 
Vol. xxvii. ? pp. 314-5. 

1905.— The President (Dr. j. C. Verco) offered to give £1,000 to the Fund 
on certain conditions. Vol. xxix. ? p, 339. 

1929. — The following are particulars of the contributions received and other 
sources of revenue in support of the Fund up to date : — 

(Capital £4,069 6s. lOd.) 


nations — 



cl. £ 


cl. £ 

s. d 

1908, Dr. J. C. Verco 


1908, Thomas Scarfe 


1911, Dr. Verco 


1913, Dr. Verco 


Mrs. Ellen Peterswald 


Small Sums 


9 V7fi 

"111 £> C+ 1 C_ . 

£/,*}! U 

1917, R. Earr Smith 




1920, Sir Edwin Smith 





Life Members' Subscrij 

utions . 

.... 225 

♦Interest and Discounts 

.... 156 



From Current Account 

.... 106 



6 10 

♦Interest on investments has, in the main, been transferred to general revenue 
for the publication of scientific papers. See Balance-sheets. 


1916, G. H. Hardy, "Investigations into the Flight of Birds" 

1916, Miss H. A. Rennie, "Biology of Lobelia gibbosa" 

1921, F. R. Marston, "Possibility of obtaining from Azine precipitate 
samples of pure Proteolytic Enzymes" .. . 

1921, Prof. Wood Jones, "Investigations of the Fauna and Flora of Nuyts 










List of Governments, Societies and Editors with whom 
Exchanges of Publications are made. 


Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy, Melbourne. 

Bureau of Census and Statistics, Canberra. 

Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Melbourne. 


Botanic Garden, Adelaide. 

Mines Department, Adelaide. 

Public Library, Museum, and Art Gallery of South Australia 

Royal Geographical Society of Australasia (S.A. Branch). 

South Australian Institutes Association, Adelaide. 

South Australian Museum. Adelaide. 

South Australian Naturalist, Adelaide. 

South Australian Ornithologist, Adelaide. 

South Australian Parliamentary Library. 

University of Adelaide. 

Waite Agricultural Research Institute, Glen Osmond. 


Australian Museum, Sydney. 

Botanic Gardens, Sydney. 

Department of Agriculture, Sydney. 

Linnean Society of New South Wales. 

Mines Department, Sydney. 

Public Library of New South Wales. 

Royal Society of New South Wales. 

Royal Zoological Society of New South Wales. 

School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Sydney. 

Technological Museum, Sydney. 

University of Sydney. 


Department of Agriculture, Brisbane. 
Geological Survey, Brisbane. 
Queensland Museum, Brisbane. 
Public Library of Queensland, Brisbane. 
Royal Society of Queensland, Brisbane. 
University of Queensland, Brisbane. 


Government Geologist, Mines Department, Hobart. 
Public Library of Tasmania, Hobart. 
Royal Society of Tasmania, Hobart. 
University of Tasmania, Hobart. 




Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, Melbourne. 

Government Botanist, National Herbarium, Melbourne. 

Mines Department, Melbourne. 

National Museum, Melbourne. 

Public Library of Victoria, Melbourne. 

Royal Society of Victoria, Melbourne. 

University of Melbourne. 


Geological Survey Department, Perth. 
Public Library of Western Australia, Perth. 
Royal Society of Western Australia, Perth. 
University of Western Australia, Perth. 


British Museum Library. London. 

British Museum (Natural History), South Kensington. 

Cambridge Philosophical Society. 

Cambridge University Library. 

Conchological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 

Entomological Society of London. 

Geological Society of London. 

Geologists' Association, London. 

Hill Museum, Witley, Surrey. 

Imperial Institute, South Kensington. 

Imperial Institute of Entomology, London. 

Linnean Society of London. 

Liverpool Biological Society. 

Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society. 

National Physical Laboratory, Teddington. 

Rhodes House Library, Oxford. 

Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden. 

Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 

Royal Empire Society, London. 

Royal Geographical Society, London. 

Royal Microscopical Society, London. 

Royal Society, London. 

Science Museum, South Kensington. 

Zoological Museum, Tring, Herts. 

Zoological Society of London. 


Edinburgh Geological Society. 
Geological Society of Glasgow. 
Royal Society of Edinburgh. 


Royal Dublin Society. 

Royal Irish Academy, Dublin. 



Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna. 
Geologische Bunclesanstalt, Vienna. 
Naturhistorische Museums, Vienna. 
Zoologisch-Botanische Gesellschaft, Vienna. 


Academie Royale de Belgique, Brussels. 

Instituts Solvay, Brussels. 

Musee Royale d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique, Brussels. 

Societe Entomologique de Belgique, Ghent. 

Societe Royale de Botanique de Belgique, Brussels. 

Societe Royale des Sciences de Liege. 

Societe Royale Zoologique de Belgique, Brussels. 


Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio dc Janeiro. 
Museu Paulista, Sao Paulo. 


Canadian Geological Survey, Ottawa. 
National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa. 
Nova Scotian Institute of Science, Halifax. 
Royal Canadian Institute, Toronto. 
Royal Society of Canada, Ottawa. 
University of British Columbia, Vancouver. 


Geological Survey of China, Peiping. 

Institute of Biology, National Library of Peiping. 


Ceskoslovenska Botanicka Spolecnost, Prague. 


Conseil Permanent International pour l'Exploration de la Mer. 

Danske Naturhistorisk Forening. Copenhagen. 

Kobenhavn Universitets Zoologiske Museum. 

K. Danske Videnskabernes Sclskabs. Copenhagen. 


Societas Entomologica ITelsingforsiensis. 
Societas Scientiarum Fennica, Helsingfors. 


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris. 

Societe des Sciences Naturelles de l'Ouest de la France, Nantes. 

Societe Entomologique de France, Paris. 

Societe Geologique dc France, Paris. 

Societe Linneenne de Bordeaux. 

Societe Linneenne de Normandie, Caen. 




Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Munchen. 

Berliner Gesellschaft fur Anthropologic, Ethnologic, und Urgeschichte. 

Bibliothek der Botanischen Gartens und Museums, Berlin. 

Fedde, F. : Repertorium specierum novarum regni vegetabilis, Berlin. 

Gesellschaft der Wissenschaften zu Gottingen. 

Gesellschaft fur Erdkunde zu Berlin. 

K. Leopoldinische Deutsche Akademie de Naturforscher, Halle. 

Naturforschende Gesellschaft, Freiburg. 

Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin. 

Senckenbergische Bibliothek, Frankfurt a. M. 

Zoologische Museum der Universitat, Berlin. 

Zoologische Staatsinstitut und Zoologische Museum, Hamburg. 


Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Honolulu. 
Hawaiian Entomological Society, Honolulu. 

Musee Teyler, Harlem. 
Rijks Herbarium, Leiden. 

Musee National Hongrois, Budapest. 


Colombo Museum. 

Government Museum, Madras. 

Geological Survey of India, Calcutta. 

Royal Asiatic Society, Bombay Branch and Malayan Br. 

Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta. 


Laboratoria di Entomologia, Bologna. 

Laboratoria di Zoologia Generale e Agraria, Portici. 

Societa di Scienze Naturali ed Economiche, Palermo. 

Societa Entomologica Italiana, Genova. 

Societa Italiana di Scienze Naturali, Milano. 

Societa Toscana di Scienze Naturali, Pisa. 


Hiroshima University. 
Kyoto Imperial University. 
Taihoku Imperial University. 
Tokyo Imperial University. 


Institute Geologico de Mexico. 

Sociedad Cientifica "Antonio Alzate " Mexico. 



Auckland Institute and Museum. 

Dominion Museum, Wellington. 

New Zealand Institute, Wellington. 

Otago University Museum, Dunedin. 

Philosophical Institute of Canterbury, Christchurch. 


Bergens Museum, Bergen. 

Kongelige Norske Videnskabers Selskabs, Trondheim. 

Tromso Museum. 

Philippine Journal of Science, Manila. 


Societe Botanique de Pologne, Warszawa. 

Societe Polonaise des Naturalistes "Kopernik/' Lwow. 


Academie of Sciences, Leningrad. 

Comite Geologique de Russie, Leningrade. 

Institute Nacional de Segunda Ensenanza de Valencia, 
Real Acadcmia de Ciencias y Artes, Barcelona. 


Entomologiska Foreningen i Stockholm. 
Geologiska Foreningen, Stockholm. 
Stockholm's Hogskolas Bibliotek, Stockholm. 
Regia Societas Scientiarum Upsaliensis, Upsala. 


Naturforschende Gesellschaft, Basel. 
Societe de Physique et d'Histoire Naturelle de Geneve. 
Societe Neuchateloise des Sciences Naturelles, Neuchatel. 
Societe Vaudoise des Sciences Naturellcs, Lausanne. 
Zentralbibliothek, Zurich. 


Albany Museum, Grahamstown. 

Geological Society of South Africa, Johannesburg. 

Royal Society of South Africa, Cape Town. 

South African Museum, Cape Town. 

South African Association for the Advancement of Science, Johannesburg. 



Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 

Academy of Science of St, Louis. 

American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Boston. 

American Chemical Society, Columbus, O. 

American Geographical Society, New York. 

American Microscopical Society, Manhattan, Kans. 

American Museum of Natural History, New York. 

American Philosophical Society, Philadelphia. 

Arnold Arboretum, Jamaica Plain, Mass. 

Biological Survey of the Mount Desert Region, Bar Harbour, Me, 

Boston Society of Natural History, Boston, Mass. 

Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences. 

California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco. 

Californian State Mining Bureau, San Francisco. 

California, University of, Berkeley, Cal. 

Chicago Academy of Sciences. 

Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside, Cal. 

Connecticut State Library, Hartford, Conn. 

Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 

Denison Scientific Association, Granville, O. 

Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, 111. 

Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania, Philad. 

Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass. 

Illinois State Natural History Survey, Urbana, 111. 

Illinois University Library, Urbana, 111. 

Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis. 

Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md. 

Kansas University, Lawrence, Kans. 

Marine Biological Laboratory, Wood's Hole, Mass. 

Maryland Geological Survey, Baltimore, Md. 

Michigan University, Chicago. 

Missouri Botanical Garden Library, St. Louis, Mo. 

National Academy of Science, Washington, D.C. 

National Geographic Society, Washnigton, D.C. 

New York Academy of Sciences, New York. 

New York Public Library. 

New York State Library, Albany, N.Y. 

North Carolina Geological and Economic Survey, Chapel Hill. 

Ohio State University Library, Columbus, O. 

San Diego Society of Natural History, San Diego, Cal. 

Smithsonian Institution and Bureau of Ethnology, Washington. 

United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 

United States Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

United States National Museum, Washington, D.C. 

Wagner Free Institute of Science, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Washington University, St. Louis, Mo. 

Yale University Library, New Haven, Conn. 

Museo de Historia Natural de Montevideo. 




Those marked with an asterisk (*) have contributed papers published in the Society's 

Transactions. Those marked with a dagger (f) are Life Members. 

Any change in address or any other changes should be notified to the Secretary. 

Note. — The publications of the Society will not be sent to those whose subscriptions 

are in arrear. 

Election Honorary Fellows. 

1910. *Bragg, Sir W. H., K.B.E., O.M., MA.., D.Sc, F.R.S., Director of the Royal Institution, 

Albemarle Street, London (Fellow 1886). 
1926. *Chai>man, F., A.L.S., National Museum. Melbourne. 

1897. *Davi Dj Sir T. W. Edgeworth, K.B.E., C.M.G., D.S.O., B.A., D.Sc, F.R.S., 

F.G.S., Emeritus Professor of Geology, University of Sydney, Co-ringah, Sherbroke 
Road, Hornsby, N.S.W. 

1898. *Meyrick, E. T., B.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., Thornhanger, Marlborough, Wilts, England. 

1894. *Wilson, -J. T., M.D., Ch.M., F.R.S., Professor of Anatomy, Cambridge University, 



1926. Abel, L. M. Chapman Camp, British Columbia. 

1925. Adey, W. J-, 32 High Street, Burnside, S.A. 

1927. * Alderman, A. R., M.Sc, F.G.S., West Terrace, Kensington Gardens, S.A. 
1931. Andrew, Rev. J. R., Woodsidc. 

1929. Angel Frank M., Box 1327G, G.P.O., Adelaide. 

1895. f*AsHBY, Edwin, F.L.S., M.B.O.U., Blackwood, S.A.— Council, 1900-19; Vice- 

President, 1919-21. 
1917. Bailey, J. F., Director Botanic Gardens, S.A.— Council, 1928-. 
1902. *Baker, W. H., King's Park, S.A. 

1926. Beck, B. B., 127 Fulla-rton Road, Myrtle Bank, S.A. 

1928. Best, R. J., M.Sc, A. A.C.I. , Waite Agricultural Research Institute, Glen Osmond. 

1928. *Best, Mrs. E. W., M.Sc, Clarcmont, Glen Osmond. 

1931. Birch, H. McL, M.R.C.S., M.R.C.P., Mental Hospital, Parkside. 

1930. Birks, W. R-, B.Sc, Principal, Roseworthy Agricultural College. 

1907. *Black, J. M., 82 Brougham Place, North Adelaide— Sir Joseph Verco Medal, 1930; 

Council, 1927-1931. Vice-President, 1931-. 
1924. Browne, J. W., B.Ch., 169 North Terrace, Adelaide. 
1916. *Bull, Lionel B., D.V.Sc, Laboratory, Adelaide Hospital 

1923. Burdon, Roy S., B.Sc, University of Adelaide. 

1921. Burton, R. J., Belair. 

1922. *Campbell, T. D., D.D.Sc, Dental Dept., Adelaide Hospital, Frome Road, Adelaide — 

Council, 1928-. 
1907. *Chapman, R. W., C.M.G., M.A., B.C.E., F.R.A.S., Professor of Engineering and 
Mechanics, University, Adelaide — Council, 1914-22. 

1931. *Chewincs, Chas., Ph.D., F.G.S., "Alvcrstrokc," Glen Osmond. 

1929. Christie, W., M.B., B.S., Education Department, Flinders Street, Adelaide. 

1895. *Cleland, John B., M.D., Professor of Pathology, University, Adelaide — Council, 
1921-26; President, 1927-28; Vice-President, 1926-27. 

1930. Collins, F. V., B.V.Sc, Green Road, Woodville. 
1930. Colquhoun, T. T., M.Sc, University, Adelaide. 

1907. *Cooke, W. T., D.Sc., Lecturer, University of Adelaide. 

1929. *Cotton, Bernard C, SA. Museum. Adelaide. 

1924. de Crespigny, C. T. C, D.S.O., M.D., 219 North Terrace, Adelaide. 
1916. Darling, H. G., Franklin Street, Adelaide. 

1929. Davidson, James, D.Sc., Waite Agricultural Research Institute, Glen Osmond. 
1928. Davies, J. G., B.Sc, Ph. D., Waite Agricultural Research Institute, Glen Osmond. 

1927. *Davies, Prof. E. Harold, Mus.Doc, The University, Adelaide. 

1927. Dawson, Bernard, M.D., F.R.C.S., Otago University, Dunedin, New Zealand. 

1930. Dix, E. V., Glynde Road, Firle. 

1915. *Dodd, Alan P., Prickly Pear Laboratory, Sherwood, Brisbane. 
1921. Dutton, G. H., B.Sc, Agricultural High School. Murray Bridge. 

1911. Dutton, H. H., M.A.. Anlaby, Kapunda. 

1931. Dwyer, J. M., M.B., B.S., Adelaide Hospital. 
1902. *Edquist, A. G., 19 Farrell Street, Glenelg. 


Date of 

1918. *Elston, A. H., F.E.S.. "Llandjrssil," Aldgate. 

1925. England, H. N., B.Sc, Commonwealth Research Station, Griffith, N.S.W. 

1917. *Fenner, Chas. A. E., D.Sc, 42 Alexander Avenue, Rose Park — Rep.-Governor, 

1929- ; Council, 1925-28; President, 1930-31; Vice-President, 1928-30; Secretary, 

1927. *Finlayson, H. H., The University of Adelaide. 
1929. Freney, M. Raphael, 14 Holden Street, Kensington Park. 

1929. Feeney, M. Richard, 14 Holden Street, Kensington Park. 
1931. Frewin, O. W., M.B., B.S-, Hindmarsh. 

1923. *Fry, H. K., D.S.O., M.B., B.S., B.Sc, Glen Osmond Road, Parkside. 

1930. Garrett, S. D., B.A., Waite Agricultural Research Institute, Glen Osmond. 

1919. fGLASTONKURY, O. A., Adelaide Cement Co., Brookman Buildings, Grenfell Street. 

1923. Glover, C. R. J., Stanley Street, North Adelaide. 
1927. Godfrey, F. K., Robert Street, Payneham, S.A. 
1904. Gordon, David, 72 Third Avenue, St. Peters. 
1925. fGossE, J. H., 31 Grenfell Street, Adelaide. 

1880. *Goyder, George, A.M., B.Sc, F.G.S., 232 East Terrace, Adelaide. 

1910. *Grant, Kerr, M.Sc, Professor of Physics, University, Adelaide — Council, 1912-15. 

1931. Gray, James T., Orroroo, S.A. 
1904. Griffith, H., Hove, Brighton. 

1916. Hackett, W. Champion, 3S Dequetteville Terrace, Kent Town. 

1927. *Hackett, Dr. C J., 196 Prospect Road, Prospect, S.A. 

1922. *Hale, H. M., The Director, SA. Museum, Adelaide— Council, 1931-. 
1930. Hall, F. J., Adelaide Electric Supply Coy., Ltd., Adelaide. 

1922. *Ham, William, F.R.E.S., 112 Edward Street, Norwood. 

1916. 1-Hancock, H. Llpson, A.M.I.C.E., M.I.M.M., A.Am.LM.E., Bewdley, 66 Beresford 
Road, Bellevue Hill, Rose Bay, Sydney. 

1924. Hawker, Captain C. A. S-, M.H.R., M.A., North Bungaree, via Yacka, South Australia. 

1896. Hawker, E. W., M.A., LL.B., F.C.S., East Bungaree, Clare. 

1928. Hawker. M. S., Adelaide Club, North Terrace. 

1923. Hill, Florence McCoy M., B.S., M.D., University of Adelaide. 

1927. Holden, E. W-, B.Sc, Dequetteville Terrace, Kent Town, S.A. 

1929. Hosking, John W., 77 Sydenham Road, Norwood. 

1930. Hosking, J. S., B.Sc, Waite Agricultural Research Institute, Glen Osmond. 

1924. *FIossfeld, Pall S., M.Sc, Office of Home and Territories, Canberra. 

1883. *Howchin, Professor Walter, F.G.S., "Stonycroft," Goodwood East— Sir Joseph 

Verco Medal, 1929; Rep.-Governor, 1901-22; Council, 1883-84, 1887-89, 1890-94, 
1902- ; President, 1894-96; Vice-President, 1884-87, 1889-90, 1896-1902; Editor, 
1883-88, 1893-94, 1895-96, 1901-. 

1928. Hurcombe, Miss J. C, 95 Unley Road, New Parkside. 

1928. Ifould, Percy, Kurralta, Burnside. 

1918. *Ising, Ernest H., c/o Superintendent's Office, S.A. Railways, Adelaide. 

1918. *Jennison, R-ev. J. C., 7 Frew Street, Fullarton Estate. 

1910. *Johnson, E. A., M.D., M.R.C.S., Town Flail, Adelaide. 

1921. *Johnston, Professor T. Harvey, M.A., D.Sc, University, Adelaide — Rep.-Governor, 

1927-29; Council, 1926-28; Vice-President, 1928-31; President, 1931-. 

1929. Johnston, W. C, Government Agricultural Inspector, "Rivcrton. 

1920. *Jones, Professor F. Wood, M.B., B.S., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., D.Sc, F.R.S., University, 
Melbourne— Rep.-Governor, 1922-27; Council, 1921-25; President, 1926-27; Vice- 
President, 1925-26. 

1926. Julius, Edward, Conservator of Forests, Adelaide. 

1918. Kimkkr, W. J., 28 Second Avenue, Joslin. 

1915. *Lauete, D. F., Agricultural Department, Victoria Square. 

1897. *Lea, A. M., F.E.S, S.A. Museum, Adelaide— Council, 1923-24, 1925-. 

1884. Lendon, A. A., M.D., M.R.C.S., 66 Brougham Place, North Adelaide. 

1922. Lendon, Guy A., M.B., B.S., M.R.C.P., North Terrace. 

1925. Lewis, A., M.B., B.S., The Maudsley Hospital, Denmark Hill, London, S.E. 5. 

1930. Louwyck, Rev, N. 1L, The Rectory, Yankalilla. 

1922. *Mamgan, C. T., M.A., B.Sc, F.G.S., University of Adelaide— Council, 1930 . 

1923. Marshall, J. C. Darrock, Pavneham. 

1928. Maegraith, B. J., M.B., B.S., Magdalen College, Oxford, England. 

1929. Martin, F. C, B.A., Technical High School. Thebarton. 

1931. Martin, Professor Sir Chas. J., Kt, C.M.G., D.Sc, University, Adelaide. 

1905. *Mawson, Sir Douglas, D.Sc, B.E., F.R.S., Professor of Geologv, University, Adelaide 
Sir Joseph Verco Medal, 1931; President, 1924-25; Vice-President, 1923-24, 1925-26. 

1919. Mayo, Helen M., M.D., 47 Melbourne Street, North Adelaide. 

1920. Mayo, Herbert, LL.B., K.C., 16 Pirie Street, Adelaide. 


Date ol 

1929. McLaughlin, Eugene, M.B., B.S., M.R.C.P., Adelaide Hospital. 

1929. McLaughlin, Eugene, M.B., B.S., M.R.C.P., Adelaide Hospital. 
1907. Melrose, Robert T., Mount Pleasant. 

1928. Melville, L. G., B.Ec, F.I.A., Professor of Economics, University of Adelaide, 


1924. Messent, P. S., M.B., B.S., 192 North Terrace. 

1930. Miller, J. I., C.E., 18 Ralston Street, Largs Bay. 

1925. fMiTCHELL, Professor Sir William, K.C.M.G., M.A., D.Sc, The University, Adelaide. 
1930. Mitchell, Miss U. H., B.Sc, Presbyterian Girls' College, Glen Osmond. 

1897. *Morgan, A. M., M.B., Ch.B., 215 Brougham Place, North Adelaide. 

1924. Morison, A. J., Deputy Town Clerk, Town Hall, Adelaide. 
1930. Morris, L. G., Beehive Buildings, King William Street, Adelaide. 

1921. Moulden, Owen M., M.B., B.S., Unlcy Road, Unley. 

1925. IMurray, Hon. Sir George, K.C.M.G., B.A., LL.M., Magill, S.A. 

1925. North, Rev. Wm. O., Methodist Manse, Netherby. 

1930. Ockenden, G. P., 11 Ailsa Street, Fullarton Estate. 

1913. *Osrorn, T. G. B., D.Sc, Professor of Botany, University, Svdney — Council, 1915-20, 

1922-24; President, 1925-26; Vice-President, 1924-25, 1926-27. 
1927. Palteidce, T. B., B.Sc, Koonamore, via Waukaringa, S.A 

1929. Pank, Harold G., 75 Rundle Street, Adelaide. 

1929. Paull, Alec. G., B.A., B.Sc, 10 Milton Avenue, Fullarton Estate. 
1924. Pearce, C, Llappy Valley Reservoir, O'Halloran Hill. 

1927. Pennycuick, S. W., D.Sc, The University of Adelaide. 

1924. Perkins, A. J., Di-rector of Agriculture, Victoria Square. 

1928. Phipps, Ivan F., Ph.D., Waite Agricultural Research Institute, Glen Osmond. 

1926. *Piper, C. S., M.Sc., Waite Agricultural Research Institute, Glen Osmond. 

1925. *Prkscott, Professor J. A., M.Sc, A.LC, Waite Agricultural Research Institute, Glen 

Osmond— Council, 1927-30; Vice-President, 1930-. 

1926. Price, A. Grenfell, M.A., F.R.G.S., St. Mark's College, North Adelaide. 

1907. 1**Pulleine, Robert H., M.B., Ch.M., North Terrace, Adelaide— Council, 1914-19; 
President, 1922-24; Vice-President, 1912-14, 1919-22, 1924-25; Secretary, 1909-12, 

1925. Richardson, Professor A. E. V., M.A., D.Sc, "Urrbrae," Glen Osmond, S.A. 

1926. *Rii)dell, P. D., Technical College, Newcastle, N.S.VV. 

1911. Roach, B. S., 81 Kent Terrace, Kent Town— Treasurer, 1920-. 

1924. Roeger, Miss M. T. P., c/o Central School, Goodwood. 

1925. Rogers, L. S., B.D.Sc, 192 North Terrace. 

1905. *Rogers, R. S., M.A., M.D., 52 Hurt Street, Adelaide— Council, 1907-14, 1919-21; 
President, 1921-22; Vice-President, 1914-19, 1922-24. 

1931. Rudd, E. A., 10 Church Street, Highgate. 

1922. * Samuel, Geoffrey, M.Sc, University of Adelaide. 
1928. Scott, A. E., B.Sc, 143 Rundle Street, Kent Town. 

1924. *SEGNIT, Ralph W., M.A., B.Sc, Assistant Government Geologist, Flinders Street, 

Adelaide — Secretary, 1930-. 
1891. Selway, W. H., 14 Frederick Street, Gilberton— Council, 1893-1909. 

1926. *Sheard, Harold, Nuriootpa. 

1928. S howell, IT., 27 Dutton Terrace, Medindie. 

1920. Simpson, A. A., C.M.G., C.B.E., F.R.G.S., Lockwood Road, Burnside. 

1924. Simpson, Fred. N., Dequetteville Terrace, Kent Town. 

1925. fSMiTii, T. E. Barr, B.A., 25 Currie Street, Adelaide. 

1927. Stapleton, P, S., Henley Beach, South Australia. 

1922. Sutton, J., Fullarton Road, Netherby. 
1925. Symons, Ivor G., Church Street, Highgate. 

1929. *Taylor, John K., B.A., M.Sc, Waite Agricutural Research Institute, Glen Osmond. 
1929. Tee, Sidney F., Adelaide Hospital. 

1923. *Thomas, R. G., B.Sc, 5 Trinity Street, St. Peters, S.A. 

1923. *Tindale, N. B., South Australian Museum, Adelaide. 

1894. *Turner, A. Jeeferis, M.D., F.E.S., Wickham Terrace, Brisbane, Queensland. 

1925. Turner, Dudley C, National Chambers, King William Street, Adelaide. 

1878. *Verco, Sir Joseph C, M.D., F.R.C.S., North Terrace, Adelaide— Council, 1924- ; 
President, 1903-21 ; Vice-President, 1921-23. 

1926. Wainwright, J. W„ B.A., 32 Florence Street, Fullarton Estate. 

1924. Walker, W. D., M.B., B.S., B.Sc, c/o National Bank, King William Street. 
1929. Walters. Lance S.. 157 Buxton Street, North Adelaide. 

1912. *Ward, L. Keith, B.A., B.E., D.Sc, Govt. Geologist, Flinders Street, Adelaide- 

Council, 1924-27; President, 1928-30; Vice-President, 1927-28. 
1920. Weidenbach, W. W., A.S.A.S.M., Geological Department, Adelaide. 


Date of 


Whitelaw, A. J., Norwood High School, Kensington. 

Wilkinson, Professor H. J, B.A, Ch.M., M.D, University, Adelaide. 

Wilson, Ciias. E. C, M.B, B.S, "Woodfield," Fisher Street, Fullarton. 
*Wilton, Professor J. R, D.Sc, University of Adelaide. 
♦Wood, J. G, M.Sc, University of Adelaide. 

Woodlands, PIarold, Box 989 H, G.P.O. 
*Woods, Miss N. H., M.A, Mount Torrens. 
*Woollard, Professor H. H, M.D., University of Adelaide. 

1929. Cleland, W. Paton 

31 Wattle Street, Fullarton. 





Prof. Ralph Tate, F.G.S., F.L.S. 1899-03 

Chief Justice [Sir] S. J. Way. 1903-21 

[Sir] Charles Todd, C.M.G., F.R.A.S. 1921-22 

H. T. Whittell, M.A., M.D., F.R.M.S. 1922-24 

Prof. H. Lamb, M.A., F.R.S. 1924-25 
H. E. Mais, M.I.C.F. 

Prof.E.H.Rknnie, M.A., D.Sc, F.C.S. 1925-26 

[Sir] Edward C. Stirling, C.M.G, 1926-27 
M.A., M.D. (Cantab.), F.R.C.S., 

F.R.S. 1927-28 

Rev. Thomas Blackburn, B.A. 1928-30 
Prof. Ralph Tate, F.G.S., F.L.S. 

Prof. Walter Howchin, F.G.S. 1930-31 

W. L. Cleland, M.B. 1931- 

1877 W. C. M. Finniss. 
1877-81 Walter Rutt, C.E. 
1881-92 W. L. Cleland, M.B. 
1892-93 W. C. Grasby. 
1893-94 W. B. Poole. 
1894-95 S W. L. Cleland, ALB. 
I W. B. Poole. 



Prof.E.H.Rknnie, M.A., D.Sc, F.C.S. 

Sir Joseph C. Verco, M.D, F.R.C.S. 

R. S. Rogers, M.A., M.D. 

R. H. Pulleene, M.3., Ch.M. 

Sir Douglas Mavvson, D.Sc, B.E, 

Prof. T. G. B. Osborn, D.Sc. 
Prof. F. Wood Jones, M.B, B.S., 

M.R.C.S, L.R.C.P, D.Sc, F.R.S. 
Prof. John B. Cleland, M.D. 
L. Keith Ward, B.A, B.E, D.Sc, 

C. A. E. Fenner, D.Sc. 
Prof. T. Harvey Johnston, M.A, 


W. L. Cleland, M.B. 

G. G. Mayo, C.E. 

R. H. Pulleine, M.B, Ch.M. 

Walter Rutt, C.E. 

Chas. Fenner, D.Sc. 

R. H. Pulleink, M.B, Ch.M. 

Ralph W. Segnit, M.A, B.Sc 

1877 J. S. Lloyd. 

1877-83 Thomas H. Smeaton. 

1883-92 Walter Rutt, C.E. 

1892-94 W. L. Cleland, M.B. 


1877-83 Prof. Ralph Tate, F.G.S 
1883-8S Prof. Walter LIowchin, 
1888-93 Prof. Ralph Tate, F.G.S 
1893-94 f Prof. Walter Howchin, F.G.S. 
X Prof. Ralph Tate, F.G.S, F.L.S 

, F.L.S. 1894-95 

F.G.S. 1895-96 

, F.L.S. 1896-00 


W alter Rutt, 
W. B. Poole. 
B. S. Roach. 


Prof. Ralph Tate, F.G.S, F.L.S. 
Prof. Walter Howchin, F.G.S. 
Prof. Ralph Tate, F.G.S, F.L.S. 
Prof. Walter Howchin. F.G.S. 

1877-83 [Sir] Charles Todd, C.M.G, F.R.A.S. 1922-27 Prof. F. Wood Jones, M.B, etc. 
1883-87 II. T. Whittell, M.A, M.D, F.R.M.S. 1927-29 Prof. T. H. Johnston, M.A, D.Sc. 
1887-01 Prof. Ralph Tatf, F.G.S, F.L.S. 1929- Chas. Fenner, D.Sc. 

1901-22 Prof. Walter Howchin, F.G.S. 

1929 Prof. Walter Howchin, F.G.S. 1930 John McC. Black. 

1931 Prof. Sir Douglas Mawson, B.E, D.Sc, F.R.S. 





1. The manuscript must be clearly written (especially in the case of scientific 
and technical terms), and in a form ready to be placed in the hands of the printer. 
It is a great advantage for MSS. to be typed, double spaced. If the paper be 
illustrated, the illustrations, maps, etc., must be supplied in a form ready for 
reproduction. Where reduction is required, detail and lettering must be pro- 
portionally enlarged. It may be necessary to return MSS. to authors for typing. 
In returning proofs to the Editor, the original copy should be included. 

2. Uniformity must be preserved throughout in the use of capital letters, 
italics, abbreviations, punctuation, etc. 

3. All generic and specific names must be underlined (denoting italics). 
Other scientific nomenclature must be in roman. Generic names must begin with 
a capital letter, and specific and varietal names (even where a proper name is 
used) must begin with non-capitals, as, for example, Lovenia forbesi T. Woods. 
(An exception to this rule is made in the case of botanical names, where the usage 
is to retain the capital letter in proper names.) 

4. Diphthongs are not allowed ; each vowel must be written separately, as, for 
example, Archaeocyathinae. 

5. In the case of original descriptions the following abbreviations should be 
used : n. gen., n. sp., n. var. 

6. Authors and authorities, following a name in roman, must be in italics; 
following a name in italics, to be in roman; when the species is transferred to 1 
another genus the name of the original author to be enclosed in parentheses. (No 
comma shall appear between the specific name and the name of the author.) 

7. The names of Australian States are to be written in full in the text, but in 
the footnotes and synonymy are to be abbreviated as follow :— Australia, Aust. ; 
New South Wales, N.S.W.; Victoria, Vict.; Tasmania, Tasm. ; South Australia, 
S. Aust. ; Western Australia, W. Aust. ; Queensland, Qld. ; North Australia, 
N. Aust.; Central Australia, C. Aust.; New Guinea, N. Guin. ; New Zealand, 
N.Z. ; Federal Capital Territory, F.C.T. Aust. Western Australia, not West 

8. Symbols or abbreviations used to save trouble in writing, but not intended 
to appear as such in the printed text, are not allowable. 

9. The maximum size of illustrations (maps excepted) to be 7^- inches x 
5 inches for plates, and 7\ inches x 5 inches for text figures. 

10. Papers submitted to the Society for reading must be lodged at the Society's 
rooms at least a week before the meeting of Council, which is held on the fourth 
Thursday in each month, from March to November, inclusive. 

See also By-laws, Section VII. — Papers. 

Note regarding Abstracts. — The author is requested to supply two brief 
abstracts of his paper — one for local use, and another, not exceeding 50 words, to 
be sent to publications which cannot grant more space. 







1. The Title of the Society is the "Royal Society of South Australia 
(Incorporated)," hereinafter called the Society. 


2. The objects of the Society are the promotion and diffusion of scientific 
knowledge by Meetings for the reading and discussion of Papers, and by such 
other methods as the Council may from time to time determine. 


3. The Society shall be constituted of persons of either sex who are enrolled 
as Members. They shall be classed as FelloAvs, Honorary Fellows, and Associates. 

4. Honorary Fellows shall be persons distinguished for their attainments 
in science, or who have rendered signal service to the Society. 

5. Men or women may be Associates; men Associates shall be under the 
age of 21 years. 

6. Associates shall be entitled to become Fellows upon written application 
to the Council, and payment of the prescribed Subscription payable by Fellows. 

7. Flonorary Fellows and Associates shall be entitled to all the privileges 
of Fellows, except that they shall not debate nor vote upon questions dealing with 
the management of the Society's business. 

Election of Members. 

8. Every Candidate for Membership shall be nominated on the prescribed 
Form by two Fellows, one of whom shall attest from personal knowledge of the 

9. The Nomination Form shall be lodged with the Secretary, and shall be 
submitted to the Council and the Society at their next following Meetings, and 
the election shall be held at the next Ordinary Meeting. 

10. No person shall be eligible for election as an Honorary Fellow unless 
recommended by the Council. 

11. Elections shall be by ballot, one negative in every six or part of six 

12. A Candidate who has been so excluded shall not be eligible to be again 
nominated within one year of such exclusion. 


13. Every person elected shall have immediate notice thereof transmitted 
to him by the Secretary, on the prescribed Form, stamped with the Seal of the 
Society, accompanied by a copy of the Rules and By-laws, and shall be enrolled 
as a Member, after having paid the necessary fees. 

14. Within three months of the election of a Member, the Treasurer shall 
send him a Notice for the Subscription due. 

15. At the Meeting of the Council prior to the Annual Meeting of the Society 
in each year, the Treasurer shall present a list of all Fellows whose Subscriptions 
are two years or more in arrear. 

16. The Secretary shall keep an Official Roll of the Members of the Society, 
and this, together with the Annual Report of the Council, shall be published in the 
volume of the Proceedings. 

Cessation of Membership. 

17. A Member may resign his Membership at any time by notification in 
writing to the Secretary, and shall thereupon cease to be a Member, but shall not 
thereby be released from any indebtedness to the Society. 

18. If any Fellow or Associate whose Subscriptions shall be more than twelve 
months in arrear shall fail to pay the same after notification in writing by the 
Treasurer, the Council may cancel his Membership, and he shall thereupon be 
notified by the Secretary and cease to be a Member. 


19. The Council may, upon such terms as it shall think fit, re-enrol as a 
Member any person who shall have ceased to be a Member. 


20. The management of the affairs and funds of the Society, and the custody 
of its property, shall, subject to any By-laws for the time being regulating or 
prescribing conditions as to the same, be vested in a Council, composed of a 
President and such other Officers and Members as may be prescribed, who shall 
be elected and hold office for such periods as may be prescribed. 


21. The President shall, if present, preside at all Meetings of the Council 
or Society. In the absence of the President, his duties shall be carried out by 
such other Officer or Person denoted or elected in the manner prescribed. 

Seal and Sealholder. 

22. The Common Seal shall have the name of the Society inscribed upon it, 
and shall be held by the Secretary, who shall for all legal purposes be deemed to be 
the Sealholder. 

23. The Council shall have the power .to use the Seal in the execution of any 
powers hereby invested in it or otherwise in relation to the affairs or business of 
the Society. The Seal shall not be used except by the authority of the Council. 
The Secretary and at least two other Members of the Council shall sign every 
instrument to which the Seal is affixed, except the notice sent by the Hon. Secre- 
tary to a new Member. 


Meetings of the Society. 

24. A meeting of the Society, to be called the Annual Meeting, shall be held 
in the month of October in every year, upon a clay and at a place to be appointed 
by the Council. 

25. At the Annual Meeting the Council shall submit a Report and a duly 
audited Financial Statement, and the Meeting shall fill all vacancies among the 
Officers and the Members of the Council for the ensuing year, and transact any 
other business of which due notice has been given. 

26. The Council may convene an Ordinary Meeting of the Society at any time. 

27. The Council may at any time, and shall upon the requisition in writing 
of at least seven Fellows specifying the purpose for which the Meeting is required, 
convene a Special Meeting of the Society. The special business for which the 1 
Meeting has been convened, and no other, shall be transacted at such Meeting. 

28. Seven Fellows shall form a quorum. If at any Meeting a quorum is not 
present within fifteen minutes after the hour of Meeting, the Meeting shall stand 
adjourned to a day and time to be appointed by those present not being earlier 
than seven days. At the Adjourned Meeting the Fellows then present may proceed 
to business, although fewer than the prescribed quorum may be present. 

29. At least three days' notice of every Meeting or Adjourned Meeting, and 
of the principal items of business to be transacted thereat, shall be given to the 
Members resident in South Australia by printed notice, or in such manner as may 
be prescribed. 


30. Two persons, not being Members of the Council, shall be elected at the 
Annual Meeting of the Society in each year to audit the Financial Statement for 
the following year. 


31. The Council may make, repeal, alter, or vary By-laws not inconsistent 
with these Rules for the effective carrying out of the objects and purposes of the 
Society ; but no such By-law, repeal, alteration, or variation shall be valid unless 
approved by a majority of the Fellows voting at a Meeting of the Society of which 
due notice has been given. 

Alteration of Rules. 

32. The Society may, by a majority of at least-two-thirds of the Fellows 
present at an Annual Meeting, or at a Special Meeting duly convened for the 
purpose, make any Rule, or repeal, alter, or vary any existing Rule. 

33. In the construction of the Rules of the Society, unless the subject or 
context requires a different meaning: — 

"By-law" shall include regulations under "The Public Library, Museum, 
and Art Gallery and Institute Act, 1909," or any other Act or Power 
enabling the Society to make Regulations. 

"Prescribed" means prescribed by By-law. 

Words denoting the singular number only shall be deemed to include 
the plural and vice versa. Words denoting the masculine gender 
shall be deemed to include the feminine. 

34. All Rules and By-laws of the Society heretofore in force are hereby 



I. — Nomination Paper tor Fellows. 

The Nomination Paper referred to in Rules 8 and 9 shall state the full name, 
distinctions (academic or otherwise), address and occupation of the Candidate, 
and the class of Membership for which he is nominated. When elected, the date 
of this election shall be entered upon the Nomination Paper, and signed by the 
Chairman of the Meeting. 

II. — Council. 

1. The Council shall consist of twelve (12) Fellows, vis., six Officers and 
six other Fellows. The Officers shall be a President, two Vice-Presidents, a Trea- 
surer, an Editor, and a Secretary. Any four Fellows of the Council shall form 
a quorum. 

2. At each Annual Meeting all Officers shall retire, and also two other Mem- 
bers of the Council, but all retiring Members shall be eligible for re-election. The 
Non-official Members to retire shall be those who have been longest in the Council 
since their last election, or in case of equal tenure, the retirement shall be decided 
by lot. 

3. The vacancies on the Council shall then be filled by election, which shall 
be by ballot, if so required by any Fellow. 

4. The Secretary shall keep a record of attendance of Members at all Meet- 
ings of the Council, and present it at the Annual Meeting held in the month of 
October in each year. 

5. If any Member of the Council absents himself for the period of three 
months from all the Meetings of the Council held during such period, without 
the permission of the Council, granted by resolution of the Council before the 
expiration of such period, his position as a Member of the Council shall become 

6. Every casual vacancy in the Council shall be filled at the next Meeting of 
the Society (by ballot, if demanded by any Fellow). 

7. Any matter within the powers of management of the Council may be 
submitted to the Society in the following manner : — 

(a) If referred to the Society by resolution of the Council ; or 

(b) If Notice of Motion in writing referring to such matter be given to the 

Secretary by two Fellows. 

8. In either case, at the next Meeting of the Society the Fellows who have 
given Notice, or failing them (or if the matter be referred to the Council), any 
Fellow may move. The resolution (if any) of the Meeting shall be binding on 
the Council, provided, hozvever, that such resolution shall not prejudice or affect 
anything authorised and done by or on behalf of the Council relating to such 
matter, if the same be done prior to the receipt of Notice of Motion by the 

III. — Subscriptions. 

1. The Annual Subscription of a Fellow shall be one guinea. 

2. A Fellow may at any time compound for future Annual Subscriptions by 
the payment of fifteen guineas, and shall be called a Life Fellow. 

3. Associates shall subscribe half-a-guinea per annum. 


4. All Subscriptions shall be payable in advance immediately after the Annual 
Meeting - , or on receipt of Notice of Membership, as the case may be, to the 
Treasurer, who shall give a receipt on a printed form for the sum received. 

5. The financial year shall extend from October 1 to September 30. Member- 
ship for the whole or any part of any financial year shall entail the payment of 
the Subscription for that year, and shall entitle the Member to the receipt of any 
publication issued free to Members during that year. 

IV. — Endowment Fund. 

1. The Endowment Fund, and such money as may be added to it from time 
to time, shall remain intact unless decided otherwise by a majority consisting of 
at least five-sixths of Fellows whose Subscriptions are fully paid, and who have 
met at a Special Meeting duly convened for that purpose. 

2. Securities, bonds, stocks, etc., belonging to the Society shall be deposited 
in a Bank, or other place selected by the Society, and shall be made available for 
inspection only on the written authority of the President, or, in his absence, a Vice- 
President, who shall give a written Order to the Manager of the Bank, or other 
responsible Officer who has the securities, etc., in custody. 

V. — Library Committee. 

1. The Library Committee shall consist of the President, two Vice-Presi- 
dents, Secretary, Editor, and one other Member elected by the Council, of whom 
three shall constitute a quorum. The Librarian to act as the Secretary. 

2. The Committee shall meet at such times as may be determined, and after 
due Notice shall have been given. 

VI, — Meetings of the Society. 

1. Meetings shall be held on the second Thursday in each month, from 
April to November, at 8 p.m., in the Society's Rooms, unless the Council shall 
otherwise decide. Each Meeting shall be convened by Circular posted not less 
than three days prior to the date of the Meeting to the last known address of each 
Member resident in the State. The Circular shall state the Subjects to be brought 
before the Society, the Names of Candidates for Membership, and any Notices of 

2. In the absence of the President, one of the Vice-Presidents shall take 
the chair; and in the event of their absence, the Members present shall elect one 
of their number as Chairman. 

3. The business shall be transacted in the following Order, unless it be 
specially decided otherwise by the Meeting : — 

(a) Reading and confirmation of the Minutes of last Meeting. 

(b) Correspondence. 

(c) Election of Members. 

(d) Nomination of Candidates for Membership. 

(e) Consideration of Motions of which Notice has been given. 

(f) Reading of Notices of Motions for subsequent Meetings. 

(g) Consideration of any special matters which Members may desire to bring 

forward, subject to the approval of the Chairman obtained before the 

commencement of the Meeting. 
(h) Any other business brought forward by the Council. 
(I) Papers or Discussions notified on the Circular. 
(k) Exhibits. 


VII. — Papers. 

1. No Paper which has not been previously approved by the Council shall 
be brought before the Society. 

2. Every Paper intended for presentation before the Society shall be deposited 
with the Secretary, or at the Rooms of the Society, not later than the third Thurs- 
day of any month, from March to November. 

3. The Council shall, at its next Meeting, consider whether such Paper will 
be read. 

4.. At the Council Meeting subsequent to the reading of the Paper, the ques- 
tion of publication shall be considered. 

5. If the Council decides to publish the Paper, in whole or in part, it and all 
copyrights thereof shall become the property of the Society, such copyrights to 
include all plates, maps, diagrams, and photographs reproduced in illustrating the 
Paper. All manuscripts and original illustrations must be returned to the Editor 
with the corrected proofs. 

6. All matter used in illustration of Papers (whether photographs, prints, 
negatives, or drawings) remains the property of the Authors. Blocks used for 
illustrations may be obtained on application to the Librarian. Any subsequent 
publication of such material shall be by permission of the Council in writing, and 
the source of such copyright material shall be duly acknowledged. The illustra- 
tions shall be returned to the Secretary by the Printer on publication of the volume 
and shall be kept in safe custody for one year, unless previously claimed by the 
Author. After the expiration of one year they may be disposed of as the Council 
shall direct. 

7. If the Council decides not to publish a Paper, either in whole or in part, 
it shall be returned to the Author, if he so desires. 

8. All Papers and other contributions to be published by the Society shall be 
subjected to editing by the Editor. 

9. The Author of any Paper published by the Society shall be entitled to 
receive free of cost 25 copies, and to obtain additional copies (not exceeding 75, 
unless the Council shall determine otherwise) upon paying the extra cost thereof. 
Every such copy shall include a statement that it is taken from the publications 
of the Society. 

10. All contributions and excerpts intended for publication by the Society 
shall be typed (double spaced) or clearly written on one side of the paper, and 
shall be in accordance with the "Suggestions for the Guidance of Authors" pub- 
lished in the last Volume of the Proceedings of the Society. 

11. A proof shall be submitted (if possible) to the Author, who shall be 
allowed to make any slight amendments without cost, but if the corrections are 
deemed by the Council to be excessive, they must be paid for by the Author. 

12. In order to secure correct reports in the Press and Science Abstracts, 
each Paper or other contribution laid before the Society must be accompanied by 
three short synopsis, one of which must not exceed 50 words. 

VIII. — Sections. 

1. With the consent of the Council, Sections may be formed in connection 
with the Society for the special study of particular branches of Natural or Applied 


2. Such Sections shall consist of: — 

(a) Members of the Society who join the Section and pay an Annual Sub- 

scription to the Section, 

(b) Other persons who have been duly elected to the Section and who 

pay its Annual Subscription. 

3. A Member of the Society who joins any Section shall not be required to 
pay an Entrance-fee, and the Annual Subscription paid by him shall not exceed 
one-half of that paid by Non-members of the Society. 

4. Each Section shall elect its own. Committee of Management. 

5. The President and Vice-Presidents of the Society, for the time being, 
shall be Ex-officio Members of the Committee of Management of all Sections. 

6. The Rules and Regulations for the management of Sections shall not have 
effect until they have been formally approved by the Council of the Society. 

7. Subscribers to the Sections shall have access to the Library of the Society, 
subject to such conditions as ma}' be imposed by the Council. 

8. The Committee of Management of each Section shall, on or before 
September 15 of each year, furnish to the Council of the Society an Annual 
Report of the Procedings of the Section and its Balance-sheet. 

9. Sections, and approved Societies, shall be allowed the use of the Society's 
Rooms at such times as may be approved by the Council, on payment of rental at 
the rate of thirty shillings per annum. 

10. Grants of money out of the general funds of the Society may be made 
by the Council to any Section. 

IX. — Regulations for ttie Election of a Member of the Board of 
Governors of the Pup.ljc Library, Museum, and Art Gallery of 
South Australia, pursuant to "The Public Library, Museum, 
and Art Gallery and Institute Act, 1909/' 

1. At a Meeting in October the Council shall elect one Member of the Board; 
such election shall be by ballot, if so required by a Member. 

2. No person shall be elected unless he is at the time of his election a 
Member of the Society, nor shall he continue to hold office as such Member of the 
Board if he ceased to be a Member of the Society. 

3. The elected Member shall hold office until the election of his successor, 
and shall then retire, but may be re-elected. 

4. Every casual vacancy shall be filled at the next Meeting of the Society 
(by ballot if demanded by any Fellow). 

5. The result of each election shall be certified to His Excellency the Governor 
under the hand of the President. 

6. The elected Member shall be deemed to be the representative of the Society 
upon the said Board, and shall (subject to his duties to the Board) report to the 
Council all matters concerning the Society which may be dealt with by the Board, 
and shall make such representations on behalf of the Society as the Society or 
the Council may from time to time direct. 



[Generic and specific names in italics indicate that the forms described 
are new to science.] 

Abattoirs Bore, Pelecypoda from, 147 

Achopera alba, 57; longiventris, 60; microps, 
59; niultiviaculala, 59; pictiveniris, 58; 
subalba, 58 ; subcyiindrica, 60 

Adelaide University Field Anthropology, 12, 

Acpyprymnus rufescens, SS 

Agrostis Ihnitanca, 137 

Alderman, A. R., Petrographic Notes on some 
Basic Rocks from the Mount Barker and 
Woodside Districts, 163; Exhibit of Me- 
teorites, 179 

Alhagi camelorum, 139 

Amanita conicobulbosa, 152; snbalbida, 152 

Amanitopsis sitbhttca, 153 

Annual Report, 184 

Anomiidae (Uppe-rPlio. ), 150 

Anthropology, Adelaide University Field, 12 

Antigona pcrnitida, 148 

Aollcs, 50 

Appila Creek Tributary, 123 

Aranda Tribe: Class relations of, 12 

Arcidae (Upper Plio. ), 150 

Ardrossan River, Extinct, 119 

Ashby, E., Lecturette on Chitons, 180 

Atmospheric saturation deficit in Australia, 6S 

A triplex acutibracteum, 138; crassipes, 138 

Australian Fungi, 152 

Australian native tribes, class system, kinship 
terminology and marriage regulation, 20 

Authors : Suggestions for guidance of, 200 

Balance Sheets, 187 

Best, F. W., The anatomy of an Australian 

leech, Helobdella bancrofti, 23 
Bailey, J. F., Cultivated Plants, 175 
Black, J. M, Additions to the Flora of South 

Australia, No. 29, 136; Sir Joseph Verco 

Medal, 170; Exhibit of Camel-thorn, 171; 

Status of the Native Flora, 173 
Booleroo Plain, 121 
B-roughton River, 126 
Bumbunga Plain, 127 
Bupleurum subovatum, 140 
By-laws, 204 

Caladeuia deformis, 143 
Caloprymnus campestris, 162 
Caltowie, 131 
Cardamine tenui folia, 139 
Cardiidae (Upper Plio.), 151 
Carditidae (Upper Plio.), 151 
Central Australian Mammals, 161 

the impingent 
Drawings of 

159; compkma, 159; 
vinaccoccrinna. 1 58 

Chamidae (Upper Plio.), 151 

Chewings, C, A delineation of the Prc- 

Camhrian plateau in Central and North 

Australia, with notes on 

sedimentary formations, 1 
Christie, D. N., Exhibit of 

Colour-blind Children, 179 
Chrozophora tinctoria, 140 
Cladium Gunnii. 138 
Clavaria australiana, 

coralHnorosacca, 159 

160; siuapicolor, 159: 
Clavellidae (Upper Plio.), 150 
Clitocybc australiana, 155; campestris, 155; 

cucalyptorum, 154; pascua, 155; straminca, 

Clitopilus prost rains, 158; subfrumentaccus 

Cleland, J. B., Australian Fungi: Notes and 

Descriptions, No. 8, 152; Notes on Collect- 
ing, 176 
Collybia abutyracca, 156; alutacca, 156; 

deusla, 156: eitcalyptorum, 156; subdrvojdiila 

Codakia salebrosa, 149 

Coleoptera, Notes on some Miscellaneous, 39 
Corbula cquivahis, 150 
Corbulidae (Upper Plio.), 151 
Crassitellitidae (Upper Plio.), 151 
Crystal Brook, 125 
Cryptodon siiiuatuui, 149 
Cryptodontidae (Upper Plio.), 151 
Cryptoplus, 50 ; C. orbicularis, 52 ; perdix, 

51 ; rostralis, 52 
Cuspidariidae (Upper Plio.), 150 

Dawson Valley, Mammals from, 67 
Dead Rivers of South Australia, 113 
Deschampsia cacspitosa macrantha, 138 
Drplodonta solitaria, 149 
Diplodontidatae (Upper Plio.), 151 
Dosinia qrandis, 148 

Edquist, A. (i., Exhibit of seedlings of Acacia, 

grown from boiled seeds, 184 
Ehrharta calycina, 138 
Embadium, 141 ; /•'. stagnoisc, 141 
Eragrostis Brownii, 138 ; confcrtijlora, 136 ; 

infrcunda, 137; japonica, 136; Kennedyae, 

Erica arborea, 140 
Fryugium supimon, 140 


Fellows, etc., List of, 196 

Fcnncr, Dr. C, Exhibit of Casts of Leaves, 
171, 179 

Finke: Betrunkcd River, 118 

Finlayson, H. H., On Mammals from the 
Dawson Valley, Queensland. Part T., 67; 
Notes on some South and Central Austra- 
lian Mammals. Part II., 161; Exhibit of 
Photograph of Maxilla of Whale, 172; 
Tasmanian Devil, 179 

Flinders Ranges: Ancient Northern, 120; 
Plain on the western side of the Southern, 

Flora of South Australia, Additions to, 136 

Flora : Status of the Native, 173 

F-rankenia annua orthotricha, 140 

Fry, H. K., A Table showing the Class Rela- 
tions of the Aranda, 12 ; On the Class 
System, Kinship Terminology, and Mar- 
riage Regulation of the Australian Native 
Tribes, 20 

Fungi, Australian, 152 

Gafrarium pcromatum, 148 

Galeomonidae (Upper Plio.), 151 

Geological Notes on the Iliaura Country, 32 

Georgetown, 131 

Gladstone, 123 

Gulnare and Yacka, 132 

Gymnocis, 62; G. impunctatus, 62 

Helobdella bancrofti, 23 

Howchin, Prof. W., The Dead Rivers of South 
Australia. Part I. The Western Group, 
113; Exhibit of Photographs of Cryptozoon, 
171; Congratulations of the Society to, 172; 
Presentation of his Publications to Societv, 

Hutchinsia eremaca, 139 

Idiopterocis, 63 ; I. trilinealbus, 63 

Iliaura Country, Geological Notes on, 32 

Index, 208 

Isax trieostirostris, 61 

Isoodon obesulus, 161 

James, Dr. T., Obituary, 185 

Koolunga, 126 

Lagorchestes conspicillatus, 85 

Lake Frome and Orroroo: Ancient River 

Channel by, 128 
Lake Torrens Plateau, Vegetation of, 91 
Laterite and Lateritic Soils, 168 
Laura, 123 
Lea, A. M., Notes on some Miscellaneous 

Coleoptera, with descriptions of new 

species, 39; Exhibits of Insects, 171, 172 


Lepiota albofibriUosa, 154; biilbosa, 154; cin- 
namomea, 153; discolorata, 153; fulighwsa, 
153; haemorrhagica, 154; nigrocinerea, 153; 
subcrislata, 153; umbonaia, 154 

Leptonia fusca, 158 

Leptonidac (Upper Plio.), 151 

Leucopogon collinus, 140 

Library, Exchange of Publications, 190 

Limidae (Upper Plio.), 150 

Limopsidae (Upper Plio.), 150 

Limosella Curdieana, 141 

Lucinidac (Upper Plio.), 151 

MacDonnell Ranges: Watershed, 115 

Macropus agilis, 71 ; dorsalis, 72 ; giganteus, 
68; g. melanops, 69; parry i, 75; robustus, 
69; ruficollis, 78; ualabatus ingrami, 79; 
wilcoxi, 81 

Mactridae (Upper Plio.), 151 

Madigan, C. T., Exhibit of Map of MacDon- 
nell Ranges, 171 ; Archaeocyathinae Lime- 
stone from MacDonnell Ranges, 179 

Magpie Creek and Rochester, 132 

Mammals from the Dawson Valley, 67 ; South 
and Central Australian, 161 

Mandalotus, 39; M. acanthocnemis, 48; canali- 
cornis, 44; cinereus, 46; contorius, 42; de- 
cipiens, 49 ; egenus, 48 ; excavatus, 48 ; 
f errugineus, 48 ; glabcr, 49 ; goudiei, 45 ; 
granicollis, 45; incisipes, 43; insignis, 41; 
intcrocularis, 49; irrasus, 49; medcoxalis, 
49; medianns, 44; mclancholieus, 43; meta- 
sternalis,, 49; modicus, 47; niger, 49; nodi- 
collis, 49 ; oculivorus, 47 ; parenthcticus, 40 ; 
pentagonalis, 50; rufipes, 50; tenuis, 50; 
tibialis, 50. 

Matricaria multiflora, 142 

Mawson, D., Exhibit of Meteorites, 178 ; Sir 
Joseph Verco Medal, 179 

Melrose-Willochra Plain, 120 

Menios, 52; M. alternate, 55; f errugineus, 
53; internatus, 55; nebulosus, 54; papuensis, 
54 ; poecilopterus, S3 ; spurcus, 52. 

Mctyrculus bi macula tus, 57; mediofasciatus, 
56 ; postscitlellaris, 56 ; semicircularis, 55 ; 
sordidus, 55 

Minuria rigida, 142 australiae, 64; lateralis, 64 

Mount Barker and Woodside Districts : Basic 
Rocks, 163 

Mount Remarkable, 121 

Murray, B. J., A Study of the Vegetation of 
the Lake Torrens Plateau, South Australia, 

Myccna a-ustraliana, 157; subaJbida, 157; sub- 
galericulata, 156; vinacea, 157 

Myochamidae (Upper Plio.), 150 

Myriocephalus rhizocephalus pluriflorus, 141 

Mytilidae (Upper Plio.), 150 

Narridy, 125 
Nucula venusta, 147 
Nuculanidae (Upper Plio.), 150 
Nuculidae (Upper Plio.), 150 


Obituary, Dr. T. James, 185 

Onychogale frenata, 85 

Orroroo: Ancient River Channel, 128; Bore, 

Ostreidae (Upper Plio.), 150 

Parallelodontidae (Upper Plio.), 150 

Patron (Hore-Ruthven) : Attendance of, 180 

Pectinidac (Upper Plio.), 150 

Pekkia Creek: Lower and Orroroo, 129 

Pclecypoda, from the Abattoirs Bore, 147 

Petrogale penicillata hcrbcrti, 82 

Pctrographic Notes on some Basic Rocks 
from the Mount Barker and Woodside Dis- 
tricts, 163 

Phaebalium brachyphyllum, 140 

Pine Creek Tributary, 122 

Pollination of Caladenia deformis, 143 

Port Pirie, 124 

Port Wakefield, 127 

Pre-Cambrian Plateau in Central and North 
Australia, 1 

Prescott, J. A., Atmospheric Saturation De- 
ficit in Australia, 65 ; Award of Henry 
George Smith Medal, 183 

Proceedings, 168 

Prostanthera aspalathoides, 141 

Pseudoarcopagia dctrita, 149 

Pseudometyrus antares, 57 ; bicaudatus, 57 ; 
cylindricus, 57 

Pteriidae (Upper Plio.), 150 

Puileine, R., Flora of the Gawler Ranges, 173 

Pultenaea quadricolor, 139 

Richardson, A. E. V., Herbaceous plants, 177 

Rochefortia macer, 147; tcllinoidcs, 148 

Rochester and Magpie Creek, 132 

Rocky River, 122 

Rogers, R. S-, Pollination of Caladenia de- 
formis, 143; Orchids of South Australia, 

Roemeria hybrida, 139 

Rules : As amended 1931, 201 

Salvia lanigera, 141 
Saxicavidae (Upper Plio.), 151 
Schismus barbatus, 138 
Schoenus tesquorum, 138 
Semelidae (Upper Plio.), 151 
Siccus River Plain, 129 
Sisymbrium Irio, 139 
Snowtown and Bumbunga Plain, 127 

Solecurtus sitbrcctangtdaris, 149 
Solenidae (Upper Plio.), 151 
South Australian Mammals, 161 
Sphenopus divaricatus, 138 
Spondylidae (Upper Plio.), 150 
Sympiezoscelus foveiventris, 61 

Tellinidae (Upper Plio.), 151 

Thalacomys lagotis, 161 

Thraciidae (Upper Plio.), 150 

Thylogale, 81 

Timareta infortunata, 50 

Tindale, N. B., Geological Notes on the 
Iliaura Country North-east of the MacDon- 
nell Range, Central Australia, 32; Exhibit 
of Fossils from Central Australia, 171 ; 
Casts of Faces of Central Australian Abori- 
gines, 183 

Trifolium lappaceum, 139 

Trigoniidae (Upper Plio.), 150 

Vegetation of Lake Torrens Plateau, 91 

Veneridae (Upper Plio.), 151 

Verco, Sir Joseph: Medal, 170, 179, 186 

Wallabia, 71 

Walloway Creek, 129 

Ward, L. K., Exhibit of Figures on Henbury 
Meteoric Iron, 184 

Watershed: A Senescent, 115 

Willochra Channel: The Old, 122; A North- 
westerly Tributary of the Ancient, 124 

Willochra Creek: Ancient Channel, 120 

Willochra-Mclrose Plain, 120 

Wood, J. G., Grazing at Koonamore, 178 

Woods, N. H., Pelecypoda from the Abattoirs 
Bore, including twelve new species, 147 

Woodside and Mount Barker Districts : Basic 
Rocks. 163 

Xestocis niy;er. 62 

Yacka and Gulnarc, 132 

Yackamoorundie Creek and Hundred of 

Yangya, 131 
Yangya, Yackamoorundie Creek and Hundred 

of, 131 

Zygophyllum ammophilum, 139 


Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1931, 

Vol. LV.. Plate I. 

Photos by H. H. son, 

Gillingham & Co. Ltd., Printers, Adelaide 

Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Auslr., 1931 

Vol. LV., Plate II. 

Photo, by IT. H. Finlayson. 

Gillingham & Co. Ltd., Printers, Adelaide 

Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1931, 

Vol. LV-, Plate III. 

Photo by H. H. Finlayson. 

Gillmgham & Co. Ltd., Printers, Adelaidt 

Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1931 

Vol. LV-, Plate IV, 

Gillingham &: Co. Limited, Printers. 

Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr,, 1931. 

Vol. LV., Plate V. 

Photo, by W. Ilowchin 

Fig. 1. Ancient Consolidated River Remains exposed by erosion in the Walloway Creel 

" T — ?fj 1^- 


Phots, by K. F. Stevens 

Fig. 2. Ancient Consolidated River Remains in the neighbourhood of Caltowie. 
A higher line of exposure can be seen in the background. 

Gjlljngham & Co, Limited, Printers 

Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1931. 

Vol. LV. f Plate VI. 

1, Eragrostis japonica. 2, E. confetti flora-. 3, E. Kcnnedyae. 4, E. infecunda. 

5, Agrostis limitanca. 6, Eryugium supinum. 7, Embadittm stagnense. 

8, Pultenaea quadricolor. 

Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1931, 

Vol. LV. f Plate VII 

N. H. W., del. 

Gillingham & Co. Limited, Printers 

Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1931. 

Vol. LV, Plate VIII. 

N. H. W., del. 

Gillingham & Co. Limited, Printers 


Chewings, Dr. C: Delineation of the Pre-Cambrian Plateau in Central and North 
Australia, with Notes on the Impingent Sedimentary Formations. With Map 

Adelaide University Field Anthropology, Central Australia — 

Fry, Dr. H. K. : No. 8.— A Table showing the Class Relations of the Aranda 
Fry, Dr. H. K. : No. 9.-— On the Class System, Kinship Terminology, and Marriage 
Regulations of the Australian Native Tribes 

Best, E. W. : The Anatomy of an Australian Leech, Helobdella bancrofti 

Tindale, N. B.: Geological Notes on the Iliaura Country North-east of the MacDonnell 
Range, Central Australia 

Lea, A. M. : Notes on some Miscellaneous Coleoptera, with Descriptions of New Species. 
Part viii 

Prescott, PTof. j. A. : Atmospheric Saturation Deficit in Australia 

Finlayson, H. H.: On Mammals from the Dawson Valley, Queensland. Part I. 
Plates i.-iii 

Murray, B. J-: A Study of the Vegetation of the Lake Torrens Plateau, South Aus- 
tralia. Communicated by J. G. Wood, M.Sc. Plate iv 

Howchin, Prof. W. : The Dead Rivers of South Australia. Part I. The Western 
Group. Plate v 

Black, J. M.: Additions to the Flora of South Australia. No. 29. Plate vi 

Rogers, Dr., R. S. : Pollination of Caladenia deformis, R. Br 

Woods, N. H.: Pelecypoda from the Abattoirs Bore, including twelve New .Species. 
Plates vii. and viii 

Cleland, Prof. J. B.: Australian Fungi. Notes and Descriptions. No. 8 

Finlayson, H. H. : Notes on some South and Central Australian Mammals. Part 2 . . 

Alderman, A. R. : Petrographic Notes on some Basic Rocks from the Mount Barker and 
Woodside Districts 

Abstract of Proceedings 
Annual Report . . 

Obituary Notice 

Sir Joseph Verco Medal 

Balance Sheets 

Endowment and Scientific Research Fund 

Donations to Library 

List of Fellows • 

■Past and Present Officers of the Society 
Suggestions for the Guidance of Authors 

Rules, as Amended, 1931